The Political Significance of Cessation of Hostilities Agreement

BY: DR. PETER ADWOK NYABA, RSS, JAN/25/2014;

In a matter of two weeks, South Sudan was at the edge of the apocalypse. The insanity that continues in many places to date negates completely the spirit of solidarity and unity of purpose South Sudanese demonstrated to world on January 9th 2011 and which reverberated on July 9th at independence.

This horrible development forces on each of us to lower head in shame in the same manner our fellow citizens quickly identified themselves as American, British, Canadian, German and Australians to enable them get into the planes evacuating foreigners.

No situation remains the same. The insanity was bound to end somehow. The people of South Sudan were encouraged by the news emanating from Addis Ababa that the parties to the conflict had initialled the agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities.

My first reaction is that this was a significant breakthrough and we commend the IGAD Mediators. It is a step towards unravelling the underlying political difficulties in the SPLM. However, like any other political agreements, the test lies in the implementation.

A priori, three factors work against any meaningful results.

1. President Museveni of Uganda through his numerous statements on the internal situation in South Sudan has declared his intention to defeat Dr. Riek Machar, the leader of the SPLM Opposition. This has weakened IGAD as a neutral broker in the conflict.

President Museveni has troops deployed in South Sudan especially in Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile states. He has military transport planes and helicopter gunships in South Sudan and two weeks may not be enough for him to withdraw his forces, if he obliged.

The question of who will foot the bill of Ugandan intervention may make Museveni to drag his feet or completely refuse to recognise the agreement on Cessation of Hostilities. This creates a condition for Bashir to intervene and complicate the whole process.

2. President Salva Kiir lacks political good will and may develop cold feet and delay the implementation of the agreement by insisting on his discredited story of a coup as a ploy to keep detaining the SPLM political leaders.

Salva Kiir is not that leader who swallows his pride. He knows that releasing the eleven detained political leaders would be a boast for Riek Machar and the SPLM Opposition.

President Salva Kiir may be afraid of the people around him who pushed him into this situation. He may try to twist the hands of IGAD Mediators to delay the implementation until he and Museveni complete their project of retaking all the ground from under the feet of Riek Machar.

3. The third and the most dangerous factor is the bitterness and urge of vengeance expressed by many Nuers, some of who witnessed the massacres in Juba. The danger with this stems from the likelihood of disobeying the orders of Riek Machar.

It is a fact that the rebellion of Peter Gadet (Bor) and James Koang (Bentiu) were spontaneous in response to the massacres in Juba. Dr. Riek Machar did not order them and even when he assumed the leadership, Riek Machar knew that these military officers acted on their own. Similarly, the White Army (jiech mabour) acted with their hearts rather than minds.

Assuming that the Monitoring and Verification Teams (MVT) will be set up and the implementation of the agreement precedes according to the letter and spirit then definitely the IGAD Mediation process shifts to tackling underlying political causes. This will by no means be simple.

The SPLM has always been the problem to the point I said sometimes ago that the SPLM must be saved from itself before it plunged South Sudan into the abyss.

The problem of the SPLM stems from its history of extreme militarism and lack of political ideology and organization. ‘Militarism’ is what military action degenerates into when envisaged and executed outside the context of its political purpose, to paraphrase Debray. The history of the SPLM/SPLA reveals the astounding reality of dissociating the military and political functions that has now led to the mutilation of both institutions. This led to a distortion of its development trajectory as a national liberation movement.

The lack of political ideology and organization registered in the failure to build democratic institutions in the SPLM reflected in dysfunctionality of the SPLM led government of South Sudan since 2005.

The SPLM adopted archaic ideology, which promoted Dinka ethnic dominance and hegemony in all aspects of social, economic and political life of the country. Promoting ethnic ideology in a modern state constitute a serious contradiction and this explains the SPLM failure to build accountable instruments of governance since 2005.

The tragic death of Dr. John Garang in 2005 at a time the SPLM had just thrust itself onto unfamiliar domain of governing compounded the predicament of South Sudan. What we saw on January 9th, 2011 could not, seriously speaking, be counted on the political work of the SPLM. The people demonstrated their anger with north Sudan and therefore voted to become independent.

The SPLM under the leadership of General Salva Kiir Mayardit failed in nine years to stamp its vision on the reality of South Sudan. It was a leadership style very close to his village in Akon and conditioned by the ethnic/clan politics, in which ethnic and clan leadership took centre stage in the affairs of the state.

For the first time in the SPLM, we heard of ‘Bahr el Ghazal elders’ making a ring around Salva Kiir’s leadership of South Sudan. In this respect, Dr. John Garang was an angel because he surrounded himself with South Sudanese people from all walks of life even the then Bor Mafia found it difficult to influence things in Garang’s court.

Salva Kiir’s leadership configuration was the very unmaking of South Sudan. It clipped the SPLM wings preventing its transformation from a liberation movement to a progressive political party.

The government of South Sudan operated without programme and clear objectives. The only means of institutionalization was ethnic or regional. We would hear of serious crimes committed and yet nobody brought to books especially if the culprits hailed from Dinka Rek of Gogrial and Awiel.

President Salva Kiir’s zero tolerance to corruption stopped when it came nearer home. The President surrounded himself with people from his home turf who virtually transformed South Sudan into a limited liability enterprise, which informalized the state institutions to facilitate the looting of its resources.

President Salva Kiir’s leadership of South Sudan conditioned by the menagerie politics of Dinka Rek animals of Gogrial and Awiel (Awan, Agwok, Apuk and Kuach) was bound to generate serious problems. The current civil strife is a proof that this leadership has a narrow base and therefore cannot meet the aspiration of all the people of South Sudan.

This brings me to the question of ‘what should be done’ to get the country moving again. What pops up is the intricacy of the situation, which tells us that we require multi-layered solutions, and that we should stop thinking ‘inside the box’.

First, although the underlying political contradictions were essentially internal to the SPLM only that now it acquired a national dimension, which renders it doubtful to resolve in the context of maintaining the status quo.

Perhaps had President Salva Kiir not resorted to military action on December 15th, 2013, the then political discourse within the SPLM would have resulted in a peaceful split into two factions. That stage has been overtaken by the violence and mass killings.

Secondly, any thinking along the lines of holding the election in 2015 is not realistic. It would mean restarting afresh the conflict ended by the agreement on cessation of hostilities.

South Sudan will remain in state of conflict unless something radical is constructed. This radical something must factor in the international context of South Sudan.

South Sudan became independent under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter vide UN Security Council Resolution 1966 of July 8, 2011. In a space of two years, the fragile state slided into anarchy and chaos, making its failure almost complete.

There is no national army; what we have are ethnic troops. The state institutions of governance and law and order including the Judiciary have lost their national character. The internal legitimacy of the state has been challenged and this automatically affects its sovereignty.

To salvage the country we need to think outside the box. There would be need to forgo sovereignty for a period of five years during which the sovereignty of South Sudan reverts to UN stewardship under revamped UNMISS mandate. This would require deployment of a huge multinational UN force to undertake the complete disarmament of the armies and the civil population.

In the five years period, establish government of technocrats and professional with the assistance of some African countries like Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, etc.

This government of technocrats under the stewardship of the UN to be tasked with reconstruction of South Sudanese state and to establish its institutions of governance:

• Build a new depoliticized and professional new army comprising all the ethnic communities of South Sudan and imbued with national values of patriotism;
• Build a depoliticized, professional new police force and security organs;
• Build a professional depoliticized civil service;
• Build professional and depoliticized local government very close to the people;
• Build the physical infrastructure or roads, schools, hospitals, electricity and hydroelectric power generation; undertake extensive political education and enlightenment to raise the social awareness and political consciousness that in five years the citizen in South Sudan is informed of their rights and responsibilities;
• Build a robust economy developing and exploiting the vast natural resources of South Sudan especially in agriculture, livestock, forestry, fisheries, etc;
• Build the necessary political infrastructure in terms of procedures, regulations and laws that guide the organization and action of political parties.

These are points for discussion, which require further research. Many people are very hostile to the idea of sovereignty reverting to the UN but they cannot provide answers for unlocking the situation posed by the existence of a failed state and the ongoing civil war in the country.

I believe the oil revenue could be used to fund the process, which emphasizes accountability and transparency in the use of these resources to create accountable system of government. At least it would be better than continued strife and the emerging situation of war of all against all.

Peter Adwok Nyaba
Juba, January 25th, 2014

46 Comments

  1. Riam Deng says:

    Dr. Adwok, you’ve been strong supporter and great participant of SPLM/A movement since inception. You strongly argued and fought along side people who were eliminatinting freedom fighters. I am surprised, you’re not genuine.

    • Nikalongo says:

      Nyaba,

      Since when did failures by a bunch of bloodthirsty hooligans become a failure of the people of South Sudan? South Sudan will need help from the UN, help to shipped all savages to the Hague, locked up and the keys given to Lucifer, the chiefguard in hell. Generations fought many years for the freedom of this country and we are not about to let a few gangs of idiots like u take it away from us. The Nuer and all others under arms will eventually lay down their weapons in the name of peace becasuse South Sudan will one day hunt down all the perpetrators of violence and bring them to justice. It is naive to think that those chesttrumping today will always remain in that position.

      Nyaba, if mutinies by Peter Gadet (Bor) and James Koang (Bentiu) were spontaneous in response to the massacres in Juba, why did Riak owned it. Had Riak been genuine, he would have disassociated himself from the rebellion by the two, called any media house from his hideouts and demand for a UN sanctioned investigation into the atrocities in Juba. Do u know why he did none of this? He slipped out of Juba with relative ease to organise his part of the army for full scale war. Those now languishing in jail are innocent victims by association who must be released. By keeping them jailed, Kiir is giving confirming a martyrdom status to people who are not a thread.

      Ugandans sheltered our people and helped us fight a successfull war of liberation. There is no country that sacrificed so much like Uganda for our freedom. No South Sudanese blamed Uganda when they were helping us fight Bashir. Their presence helped keep the war far away from Equatoria and Juba. Bashir can intervene to broaden the war as u seem to suggest on Riak’s side. The mobilisation called for by the governors of Equatoria was a desperate attempt to keep out a spillover. Equatoria has no tribal army to revenge against the killings of her people. The UPDF is welcome to help secure the war from spreading. I can understand why people like u who had expected the war to expand are against the presence of the UPDF.

      Nyaba, the SPLM as a party in governance is a failure. U, Kiir, Riak and all other idiots not mentioned here are all looters. There is no saint among u. U were all in government. Dictator Kiir is ur making. He could remove an elected governor because a parliament and cabinet made up of idiots gave him the power in the constitution. It is time the opposition mobilise for the next election. Those disgruntled elements within the SPLM can also take their grivanceies to the electorate. Why would u like to think that the electorate is stupid. It is the elites like u in the SPLM who are fools.

  2. Beek says:

    I don’t think Riek Machar will put his feet in Juba again.He has to wash PHD again METHINKS.

    • john says:

      Beek, government’s forces break the ceasefire deal again and again. They can not be truth since they are being guided by this mindless Kiir.

    • Loken Ring says:

      Don’t count on it. A Smart men like you would not say such a thing especially when the one you insult is still armed.
      Kiir only controls towns. I ask who controls the entire country side. What is the guarantee that these overstreched Kiir militia can hold to the places they hold? Only God knows of the fate of this nation.

  3. Elhag Paul says:

    Dear Dr Nyaba
    Thank you for your insightful piece. While I clearly see your point I am afraid I do not buy it. My reason is this: South Sudan has a lot of very competent people who can run the country smoothly with the interest of the people of South Sudan at the heart of it. The fact that SPLM/A has failed does not mean that South Sudan has failed. It is a known fact for anybody who dared to look that SPLM/A was a tribal joint and a disaster waiting to happen. Now that the awaited disaster has happened we should actually think of handing the country back to the competent leaders of South Sudan and not to UN. So, in the coming National Dialogue in Addis Ababa we must ask president Kiir to step down for a transitional government of national unity to prepare the country for the first legitimate elections of RSS. The suggested transitional government must not include president Kiir or Riek Machar. It must be led by a neutral wise and competent person who understands that South Sudan is a diverse society with multiplicities of cultures and ethnicities that must be balanced and respected to foster peace and development. Professor Laura Nyantung Beny and Dr John Mairi Blackings have provided good ideas in their recent letter to Mr Donald Booth which could be used as a template by the transitional government. Nevertheless your piece is very helpful in encouraging debate outside the box.

    • Gat says:

      Paul,
      Rest assured that majority of South Sudanese are behind President kiir and would not buy the idea of him stepping down for what ever system you preach about. He ( president Kiir) fully understands the diversity of the Republic of South Sudan and that is why he has been throughout his time in office working tirelessly to bring all components of the nation’s contradictions on board the “Murkab”. Which leader in Africa have you ever seen behaving like a religious leader who wants each and everyone, former enemies included, to have a say in the running of the affairs of the nation? Is it not for being inclusive that the SPLM in Opposition is accusing him of binging into the government former NCP members and their militias into the National Army, the SPLA? What more understanding of the diversity of the people of South Sudan than this do you have in mind? I am not an SPLM member but let me assure you that the mighty SPLM whose sons and daughters are trying to destroy, will keep on steering this nation to the heights of prosperity whether people of your kind like it or not. People of South Sudan are not short sighted to quickly forget the long struggle of mighty SPLM for the freedom some are trying to jeopardize nowadays.

      • Elhag Paul says:

        Dear Gat
        You can remain in your cocoon but the king is naked and the writing is on the wall. Kiir must go.

        • Gat says:

          Dear Paul
          I am looking at things in a wider perspective where I see kiir in glamorous power attire.writing on the wall on my side says Kiir must go through a right channel, which is elections in 2015 and may be 2020.

          • Elhag Paul says:

            Dear Gat
            Do you know that Kiir did not come to power through election? He is a fraud who assumed power and he needs to step down now. Some of us are now determined to demolish the myth that Kiir’s government is an elected government. Watch this space – Kiir will be undressed/unclothed properly. We can not have an ethnic cleanser as a president. Period

          • Naath says:

            The right channel is too late for him otherwise you are enjoying what is happening now in our country which is out of Kiir’s control.Assure you that Most nationalists in RSS just opt for Kiir stepping down for best of our young country! Those fews opting him stay are only scavengers around his backyard!

      • GatCharwearbol says:

        Gat,

        This name does not belong to you and it is does not fit you in anyway. Use you Gorial name instead of hiding behind Nuer name. When you said “Majority are behind President Kiir” I am assuming you mean majority of Ugandians being forced to be behind Kiir without their consent. As sure as night follows day, only blind supporters of Kiir like yourself are behind President Kiir. The majority of pure South Sudanese are not behind him. If they were, he won’t have brought Ugandian people to his defend. This majority you are talking about would have easily defended him.

        Thus, it is time for you to accept the truth. Let us wait and see what the end result of Addis Ababa will be.

  4. Peter Makuac Manyuat says:

    Dear Dr Peter Adwok,
    If I must ask you, why is it now that you are out of the government of president Kiir that you are complaining of its under performance and all those you are labelling against the same government you had been a minister for eight years? Such attitudes of one advocating for what serves his/her interest are what are setting our nascent country back. I do agree with you asserting that the government has not been able to perform up to our expectations. However, I don’t blame all those shortcomings on president Salva Kiir individually but rather on his cabinet members and as such you are not a pure angel because you had been part of this mess. You were a minister of Higher Education for eight years and since then you did not only fail to start a single mark of reform in the ministry policies but also you messed up the little good things that you found in place. So Dr Adwok: you and your likes should just hold your tongues instead of reminding us of your rotten legacies.

    • Lagu says:

      Dr.Adwok,
      You and Nyandeng, appear to give information that gives a lot of details and reasons for people to think. Dr. Alhag does not buy your story and he is convinced there are many people in South Sudan who can govern. Many people will agree with him, including those who are seeking political positions to earn their living. On the face of it, there are many educated people in South Sudan, including yourself. One day, I was joking with some friends who tried to ridicule South Sudanese as uneducated. I was able to point to them in 2004, that among so many rebellions in the world, there were very few or none at all, whose leadership had people with PHDs like was the case of South Sudan. That time it was Dr. Garang, Dr. Riak, Dr. Lam Akol, Dr. Justin Yak, etc, etc,. But today, we are in this situation again and the world is saying the people in South Sudan do not know how to govern themselves.

      I think, you need to look at the issue again. This conflict has exposed many assumptions. The assumptions at the national level has been completely exposed. For instance, was it necessary for leaders of the political parties to sign the document on 31.12.13? Some of us would have expected the political parties to research and find out the facts and inform the nation. That way it would provide another view besides what the government is saying so that there is a bit of check and balance. Even the so-called tribalism has been exposed. It has also exposed the regional configuration. Now you have Ugandan boots on the ground and Ethiopia and Sudan saying this is not good. Even Kenyan Parliament saying something which in effect distanced itself from the military intervention of Uganda. And yet East African Parliament meeting in Kampala, giving a go ahead to Museveni. So what is going on all around here? Where is the line of Igad? This regional block, appears to be in some kind of credibility crisis. The international community is also exposed. The language being used is almost what somebody described as moral equivocation. So a person like yourself will help this country by digging deeper to come out with some novel ideas. But what you post are useful for understanding what is going on until now.

      The last time Boutrous Boutrous Ghali talked about redefining national sovereignty appeared to be novel. South Sudan’s case means even more imagination. It appears to be the problem in the region of double co-opting of institutions that are, according to modernisation theory, opposed. On the one hand people co-opt the language or narrative of democracy to legitimise their authority. On the other hand, people also co-opt the tribe or tribal narrative to stay in power. Something fundamental needs to change.

    • Gat says:

      Dr. Nyaba,
      I can not understand why people like you talk of Dinka domination in the politics of the country while you and some of your group members, specially from Collo tribe, were busy nights and days blocking one of your own tribe man, namely Dr. Lam Ako from enjoying his civil and political rights throughout the CPA interim period and after the independent? Why have you and your group started raising dust by the time Dr. Lam put his foot on the soil of South Sudan?

  5. Ajak Deng says:

    Brother Peter Makuac Manyuat,
    the problem in South Sudan politics is that the very same folks who messed up the country are the same people who change their veils in front of the country and start accusing each other when they’re no longer loyal to their individuals interest. They have collectively failed the country. The worse about it all is that, the country lack’s a proper opposition that can be trusted by all people of South Sudan. The one which can lead the nation to unify all toward peace and development among many more expectations. The so called oppositions are just former SpLM members who fell out just like the current Riek’s group, for their selfish interest based on their tribe, clans, etc.
    What irritated me about these types of political oppositions in our country is that, their political stand is always inhabited by foreign Nations with their hidden interest and use them as puppets to destroyed us and loot our resources with the help so called UNMISS present on our soil. I wonder how does UNMISS protect civilian when they have policy, “We’re not allowed to Intervene” even if their lives and the ones of those under their mandate are the direct targets. We have witnessed failure of UMISS in Juba, Bor, Malakal, Akobo and Bentieu when their boss called them loud that they were not allowed to intervene to prevent civilians getting killed. May be they want atrocities to be committed so that they use them to intimidate and undermine RSS in the future; also their so called international journalists are the ones who have been diverting political power struggle and labelled it as a tribal war and crisis. Now will the roles played by these arrogant reporters be investigated in this or not?

  6. Dr. Peter A. Nyaba,
    You are not telling the truth there except you gave Dr. John Garang credits on how he used to ran his government. You complained that there has been Dinka dominance in the government and said, that there is no national army but ethnic Dinka army. Well, to be honest with you, Dinka dominance is definitely still going to be there even if your boss is taking over. That is because Dinka is being represented in seven states out of ten. Anyway, I know for fact during the War between the south and north Sudan Dinka was dominant although rest of the tribes were taking part in liberation. And today, I don’t know about you and your tribe, but speaking for Nuers is completely different because most of Nuers are in the national army that you are allegedly categorizing as ethnic army and Nuers were holding many posts in the South Sudan government as well. Thanks!

  7. kikisik says:

    Thank you Dr. Peter Adwok, for your well written article full of excellent ideas that could be used as a blueprint for this huge mess that Kiir got the people of South Sudan into. I gree with Mr. Alhag point that South Sudan has a competent people who can run this country 100 percent. If Somalia can put its house in order after being for two decade without a government, why not South Sudan?
    But for any positive move to take place, Kiir has to step down and a transitional unity government be formed consisting of all political parties followed by national conference involving all tribeas of South Sudan to discuss the causes of disunity in the country- and this conference should be headed by retired Bishop Faride Taban, this should also followed by political dialogue, the writing of a constitution, cencus and lastly the election.
    The above points would only happened if president Kiir have a heart in calling it a quit- but I doubt! This greedy president did not care about the suffering of the people of South Sudan because, if 200 Nuer civilian could be massacer in his watch what more do we need -what a monster!

    For those people who keeps questioning Dr. Adwok for not been part of the reform for 8 years in kiir government, why not asked Dr. Adwok as to how many times did he[ Adwok] meet Dictator Kiir to discuss reform in the educational system? Zero because dictators always don’t listen positive ideas.
    “Leaders comes Leaders goes, South Sudan will remein forever”

  8. AW joseph says:

    Dear Adok,
    I agree with you on all outstanding issues, but disagree with you on the questions of reverting our sovereignty to the UN. We have the resources, the money and enough qualified professional man power spread around the world that that could return home and help built SS. The following things need to be done if we are to wrest control of our country from the foreigners.
    1- Have skilled & qualified immigration officials who can control all entry points and determine the people that comes to South Sudan and the circumstances in which they come.
    2- Introduce working visas with conditions to be met.
    3- Cancel all the employment contracts of all the greedy and corrupt Kenyan & Ugandan civil servants (mentors) employed in all the public and private institutions throughout South Sudan. Frankly speaking this so called mentors have never made any difference or improved the governance of South Sudan in the nearly ten years of working for our country.
    4- Foreigners that are required to work in South Sudan must be on the list of occupation on demand and those with technical know how that can not be found locally.
    5- Employment of only those South Sudanese who are qualified in all the various institutions.
    6- Recruit only educated Army and security organs that is representative of all the tribes and diversity of South Sudan
    7- Recruit only educated Police force that is representative of all the tribes and diversity of South Sudan
    8-Empower the judiciary which is impartial and independent not with judges of Telar Ring Dengs type with no legal qualification.
    9- One Standard must be set to determine the terms and conditions of employment.
    10- People must not be employed on the basis of tribe or Gender where affirmative action is not required.
    11- People must be employed because they are the right people for the job and of the content of their character not because his/her relative fought in the bush, comes from particular region or because of connection and friends.
    12- Jobs must be strictly for South Sudanese citizens. No favours on the basis that countries who supported us during the liberation years can have automatic employment.

    Surely those South Sudanese who have the best interest of our country at heart will agree with me that what I raised above could help remedy the situation we are facing today.

    • Naath says:

      I definitely AGREE with you Mr Joseph,but this will take effect if the tribal king leaves the matter to South Sudanese to elect their transitional leader like it happen in CAR!! If Hundred Joseph are residing and participating in country matter this would have not happened to us!

  9. Pan says:

    Elhag Paul, I agree with this post of yours totally. It is criminal for the party to even contemplate the roll back of the citizens’ quest for self-determination after it has spent the last 8+ years exterminating any bright light the country has. It is obvious both sides know nothing about the meaning of democracy or how to go about crafting it. Even small things like investing in the universities and hospital would have gone a long way in developing a healthy, informed constituency. The real truth about our grandfathers and uncles is that they despise any and all internal and lateral competition. They get their power through the gun and through creating structures of deprivation for the common man. They prefer to give token handouts to poor people who come calling but they do not wish to foster environments and institutions where poor people would be able to stand up straight and practice their independence. Our grandfathers and uncles prefer us all to remain on our knees in supplication of them and now, apparently, some vague international community that should, perhaps magically, care more about our future than they do. Our grandfathers and uncles would wish to hand the country over to a corporate conglomeration of foreigners rather than give another South Sudanese the reins. Shame on these socalled liberators, democracy frauds and pretenders. They are burning with narcissism and spite. History has already recorded them.

  10. Lokilachong says:

    Dr. Adwok,

    I am one of your admirers and I like what you say always because of its objectivity. The December 2013 crisis in south Sudan has been catastrophic, and the dynamism of confusion it caused is huge. It is difficult to salvage the appalling situation in south Sudan as we are drifting slowly to a failed state.
    The telescopic overview of south Sudan that you have put forth is a cherished thoughts, good intellectual experience, and when put to practice south Sudan will prosper. But the question is who or which country will waste its resources to help nurse our country to prosperity from its chronic disease of ethnic and tribal competition between the Dinka and the Nuer? What the world have seen is a dangerous country that its people are not interested in development but in tribal power struggle and dominance.

    In the seven points you put for the “reconstruction of South Sudanese state and to establish its institutions of governance” you have missed out education. The disease in south Sudan is that majority of the people are uneducated. We are in the bottom of the world second only to Afghanistan and Somali. This has been a setback in development and even if we bring experts from all over the world to build our nation, we still need south Sudanese human resources, educated men and women. You have seen how foreigners in south Sudan who came to help us, for example our neighbors such as Ethiopians, Kenyans, and Ugandans but all proved later to be looters and thieves.

    The question is education, we need more educated south Sudanese not foreigners to handle our affairs. We have so many military officers in the country more than any other civilized country in the world, and because of their commitment during the war they fought, and now rewarded with big positions but no academic education. They can not move this country forward because they are very limited, and if we have “tribal troops” today is because they want to protect their inability to uplift our nation. They think that might is still right and that is why they amass themselves with warriors of every kind to scare democracy and shoot those with development minds. The stake is huge in south Sudan because tribalism, ignorance, and egocentricism will continue to draw our nation backward to war.

    • john jerry says:

      Peter Adwok was part and parcel of the the current Government of president Kiir, Where was he to give those good advice while he was still serving in Kiir,s Government? Even the education which is very vital to bring awareness to development he was the Minister,What did he do to say the least nothing and nothing and now he is talking what is he talking about now and not when he was active education minister?.

      It is better for for those who served in Kiir,s Government to keep mute than to talk nonsense again. Who do they want to please?. They are all Birds of the same feathers

      r

  11. Pan says:

    Also please tell me just how much a UN Trusteeship would cost the people of South Sudan per month in management fees.

    I finally realize what the magician meant when he said ”the last shall be first and the first shall be last.” South Sudan is the last sovereign nation as well as the first country to lose its sovereignty in the new order of nations.

  12. lomika says:

    One cannot see any logic other than what you have articulated. UN trusteeship is the way to go for South Sudan as tribal warlords have thrown this country into chaos and forever we must hold our heads in shame! the monjang are running like headless chicken to Uganda, Sudan, Kenya as if the peace in that country is not from other people’s efforts and making.

  13. Choromke Jas says:

    Dr Nyaba,

    Your idea of a UN Trusteeship is gaining currency. I read somewhere that a former US diplomat is advocating the same thing. Like El Hag, I am suspicious of the idea. Remember Namibia trusteeship? The UN handed this to South Africa which proceeded to exploit the natural resources of that country. Apartheid South Africa even carved out an enclave, Walvis Bay, from the coast of Namibia for its ownership in perpetuity. South Africa even defied the UN when it was later asked to give up the trusteeship. After it was pressurized to hand back Namibia, it defiantly continued to hang onto Walvis Bay. It was Madiba (RIP) who later relinquished the bay back to Namibia. In our case, the blue-eyed boy of the UN and the international community in the region, H.E. Yoweri K. Museveni will be our trustee! This is not an idle talk. The UN Secretary General had rushed, at the start of the current crisis, to name Museveni as someone who should mediate the conflict!! But now all of us know what that Munyarwanda is doing in our country.

    It is not true that South Sudanese are inherently and fundamentally unable to govern themselves. After the first Addis Ababa peace in the 1970′s, we were able to run this country even better than some of the countries in the region, including Uganda at the time. It was when the “born to rule ” people begun to grab the governance in this country that the difficulties started to kick in, leading to Kokora. At the moment, the same false rulers are the ones subverting the governance of this country.

    The solution of an interim government is now widely accepted. However, it is the manner in which it should be brought about which is still in dispute. I have said this before, and I repeat it here again: the democratic forces under Riek Machar should be joined by all progressive South Sudanese (I highly commend Madam Nyandeng for her clarity in condemning Kiir) to overthrow Kiir. If the Libyans, Tunisians, and Egyptians can do this to their dictators, why no us? Once Kiir is out of the way, all participants in the revolution can negotiate the next move. But if we leave Riek Machar to shoulder this responsibility alone, then we must expect another period of anguish in our country.

    In conclusion, the trusteeship proposal might be attractive but in our case it holds too much danger to be a solution.

  14. Bol Khan says:

    Dear Dr. Nyaba,
    Salva Kiir becomes a kind of President, the first stupid President in Africa Continent. Salva Kiir’s legacy has been already destroyed by the people he feeds with national monies and his own people.

  15. Kenneth says:

    Dr. Adwok
    I agree with your suggestions 100%,
    putting south sudan under UN trusteeship is the only solution for the generation of south sudanese to enjoy and witness peace in this country, you have excavated every thing we are seeing in this country.
    For those who oppose your suggestions are either not in south sudan to witness the building of hegemony or are the beneficiaries of this failed state, who don’t mind the future of generations to come, or both.

    • Elhag Paul says:

      Dear Kenneth
      Have you ever thought about the millions of lives lost to free South Sudan from the Arabs? If you have, why do you want their sacrifice to be a waste? Have you ever thought that through the UN’s trusteeship programme that South Sudan could be entrusted to the Sudan (Bashir)? Crucially then, why do you not believe in your own ability to run the country? If you suffer from an inferiority complex and want to be managed by foreigners please do not assume the entire population of South Sudan also suffer from your complex. South Sudan has competent and capable leaders who believe in themselves and who have been denied the chance to run the country by Dr Nyaba and his SPLM/A. The failure of SPLM/A and Dr Nyaba to run the country is their own failures and they need to come to terms with it. It should not be used to portray South Sudan as deficient of good leaders. All sound minded South Sudanese will not buy such a self demeaning idea that will only sooth the egos of imperialists. I thought Chromoke above has already sufficiently explained the dangers of Dr Nyaba’s idea.

      • Kidepo says:

        AdwokElhag/Jas/Keneth/Joseph:

        Your ideas are all good. To Adwok, thanks for posting this crucial topic.

        I will suggest for interim Govt that should be led by another person apart from Dr Riek and Salva Kiir to prepare the country for 2015 upcoming election. Given the on going genocide between the dinka and Nuer and of course orchestrated by the dinka president Kiir, South Sudan should look for an interim leader from other 61 ethnic community minus dinka or Nuer. I am positive that Dr Riek will agree inot this kind of ideas discussed here except the devil worshiper-Kiir and his nursery pupils he is spoon feeding in his govt.

        Secondly, if dictator Kiir refused to step down for another nuetral person to take over, then the post of interim president should be given to the UN and all the points raised by AW joseph be taken into consideration interms of runing the civil servants institutions. There is no way we continue runing the country by one ethnic dominations directly brought from luaks with 99% no qualified papers. Yes, we do have very and indeed very qualified South SUdanese and most were even thrown out from the army in the name of DDR after they fought for this country tirelessly when dinka boys from Suk alarabi were brought to harvest the ready made meal in golden plates just because they belong to the ruling ethnic community.

        Third, I will also suggest for Federalism to minimize issues of landgrabing, intimidations, hitehc corruptions and many issues committed by dinka ethnic hegemony though we would continue to have one army and police but should be equally recruited accordning to States like during the anyanya one and it worked very well indeed. In federal govt much authority will be given to our elected Governors to run State affairs without interfearance by the President. Issues like customs, immigration including job opportunities will be handle fairly

        This is a good topic.

      • GatCharwearbol says:

        Dear Elhag Paul,

        You could be right. It is a known fact that we have competent people who can run this nation. The problem is, we do not truth ourselves and identifying those competent people is proven difficult. In fact, those who want to see this nation prosper and manage rightly are always killled for the thugs in power do not want them take over the leadership.
        The other question is: Where have these competent people been when our nation was and continue to lead in the wrong direction by Kiir and his bling supporters? Why were n’t they critical of this mismanagement and nip this in the bud long before this fiasco started? I agree with you that we have competent people to run this nation, but you should know from now that the competent people you are talking about do not have balls and guts.

  16. kikisik says:

    Mr. Pan,
    I agree with you because education is a key to any development. No country can be developed by fools-uneducated!
    “Leaders comes Leaders goes, but SS will remain forever”

  17. Nyith says:

    Congratulations Dr. Nyaba on your insightful article. Yes, if Dr. Garang is still alive today, I really hope things could changed for the better.I am from Nuer Gajaak and I was in my teen age years when my people fought the SPLA. Every since, I had hard feelings with our movement at the time because I was a victim in 1984-1987. Over years, I became to learned Dr. Garang’s ideology and his leleadership. Therefore, I forgive him as a leader based on his admitted that what had happened in Gajaak was perpetrated by some individuals and it was a mistake. That’s how a leader gains the confident of his people. Given what had happened in Juba, the nation capitol, where one one ethnic group is being targeted by another ethnic group was beyond politics. I tooked all the

  18. Waidit says:

    Let us protect the name of our country .what has happened is irreversible.

  19. Tyson says:

    Dr Nyaba,
    I am appalled by your suggestions of handing our dear country to UN Trusteeship. South Sudan has competent people who can deliver.
    The fact you including some of members of the SPLM government has failed the country, it does not condemn South Sudan to be pushed to the hands of the UN. I thought you could be a wise man with your PhD but unfortunately. your performance is miserable culminating into unfortunate suggestions.
    Let us have a transitional government led by technocrats so that we can see the difference.

  20. Pan says:

    Kikisik, I am astounded by the empty headedness of our fathers and uncles. Someone floats the term ”capacity building” in one of the silly Cluster Meetings run by the NGOs and the UN, and on cue they all start barking ”capacity building!” and doing backdoor deals to import civil servants from other countries to do the jobs they wish not to allow competent South Sudanese to do. Someone floats the term ”reconciliation” in the Cluster Meetings and our uncles start barking ”reconciliation!” and scurrying around the world to partner with foreigners to miraculously reconcile a citizenry that has been deprived and abused for 8+ years. Someone floats the term ”democracy” and they all start barking ”democracy!” and loading their guns and readying their militias to make sure they get the top job in the land. Someone floats the term ”girl child” and they all start barking ”girl child!” and sign off on some cockamamie program for families to pimp out the education of their girls in exchange for donated, sterilized food. Someone floats the idea of a UN Trusteeship and they all start barking ”Trusteeship!”

    In each case, there is no doubt a huge kickback to them. Even before the country split, UNMIS was sketchy. When it became UNMISS it grew even sketchier. The decision to renew the agencies mandate a second time was, I am quite sure, a result of heavy bribes exchanged between individuals.

    Our uncles have no clue what any of the the terms of a Liberation movement mean or entail. It seems when they were fighting in the bush, they did not keep themselves educated in the manner of the Eritrean Liberation movement. I despise the weak moral fortitude of our bunch.

  21. Lupai says:

    Dr Adwok nobody would indeed need this country to be cared for by any neutral body as it has appeared in your note had it not been because of the stage we are now in. Nobody had expected that the south Sudanese that stood up solidly as one body and voted for the independence in Jan. 2011 could be used by shallow minded politicians to turn against one another in the manner seen in the last few weeks. Yes we have a lot of technocrats that are able to manage the country but why is it that they are watching as the country disintegrates in to chaos? Is it not because of the difficulties created by the greedy people that will continue giving more obstacles unless a neutral body starts now to lay the bases for the strong nationhood. we all know it is costly but less than what we shall be going through if not rescued now. A lass if the country is to move foreward then your suggestion is one of the modalities that could save it. I know that different people have already given their negativeness about the international bodies,but if it is not because of our inabilities seen by the products of our work this body would not be focusing on us all the time.Our behaviors towards our people are the ones inviting them to the country not they forcing their way through. Sorry the ground for a better south at this stage badly needs a strong neutral body until the wounds created in the hearts are healed. He who thinks that we can do it our selves now has not read properly the types of the minds of the people who at any cost will continue to be the ones queuing up for any governance which will not produce anything. Dr Adwok spoke from his heart not because he was laid out but because he wants the way forward for the country now.

  22. Kidepo says:

    KIKISIK-

    You have said it all. Those who are refusing it are the instigators tribal maniacs and mostly those with fake cerificates because South Sudan will be designing ways for tracking documents for all civil servants from the countries they pretend to have complted their studies

    “Thank you Dr. Peter Adwok, for your well written article full of excellent ideas that could be used as a blueprint for this huge mess that Kiir got the people of South Sudan into. I gree with Mr. Alhag point that South Sudan has a competent people who can run this country 100 percent. If Somalia can put its house in order after being for two decade without a government, why not South Sudan?
    But for any positive move to take place, Kiir has to step down and a transitional unity government be formed consisting of all political parties followed by national conference involving all tribeas of South Sudan to discuss the causes of disunity in the country- and this conference should be headed by retired Bishop Faride Taban, this should also followed by political dialogue, the writing of a constitution, cencus and lastly the election.
    The above points would only happened if president Kiir have a heart in calling it a quit- but I doubt! This greedy president did not care about the suffering of the people of South Sudan because, if 200 Nuer civilian could be massacer in his watch what more do we need -what a monster!

    For those people who keeps questioning Dr. Adwok for not been part of the reform for 8 years in kiir government, why not asked Dr. Adwok as to how many times did he[ Adwok] meet Dictator Kiir to discuss reform in the educational system? Zero because dictators always don’t listen positive ideas.
    “Leaders comes Leaders goes, South Sudan will remein forever””

  23. Pasquale Medi says:

    Dr. Adwok,
    It is a great gist to talk about; sometimes i wonder why there was no warrant has been issued for such unlawful on president Kirr and president Museveni. Whatsoever, president Kirr has done was treason it considers a crime and punishable by law. For ICC to remain mute will merely aggravated the situation in south Sudan. The more time we waste the more lives we lose. To salvage the lives of innocent people such as women, children and seniors: we need Icc to take the action as soon as possible.

  24. Medi says:

    To all South Sudanese; I was very impressive with Rebeca Nyadeng’s points during the conference that was held in Juba, Capital City of south sudan on January 27,2014 I was watching it through youtube. The most importantly she has asked president Kiir, “where is the money for our country? And why president Kiir does not allow the Youths to exercise their leadership skills?

    Deficit spending:
    Rebeca Nyadeng echoed the question to reproach president Kiir “where is our country money goes? no roads, schools, and hospitals?” Where the money goes? The same question everyone should ask himself/herself.

    However, my question is why president Kiir fired his thirteen cabins and asked president Museveni to deploy his troops into south sudan simultaneously? This is the main cause of the problem. Once again, if I can ask what did the cabins do to incur such wrath and indignant? Absolutely no answer for it. Yet, some of south Sudanese are bolstering president Kiir with sense of avarice.

    Avarice??? Will never takes us anywhere. If president Kiir will not step down.

    • Medi:

      I think you are watching a debate from last year,2013 because Rebecca Nyadeng was not in Juba on January 27th,2014. She left Juba shortly after the failure of their Coup in December,2013. I was surprised to hear you praising Rebecca Nyadeng for asking president Kiir for the money. What money was Nyadeng asking for? Are you aware that Rebecca Nyadeng is on the list of the 75 people who stole money from the Government of South Sudan? What Roads is Nyadeng asking? How many Roads did Nyadeng build in Juba and/or in South Sudan when she was the Minister of Roads? Schools? Rebecca Nyadeng has built a huge private school in Juba. Why did she build a private school instead of the public school so that the poor students can attend it for free? And Where did she get the money to build a private school while she was unable to build a single Road/street and/or school in Juba?

      Please check the records before you praise those thieves otherwise you will be disappointed when you know their true colours.

      “The truth hurts but it is worth telling it”
      Lukudu Gatkuoth Garang! (The living voice of South Sudan’s forgotten Martyrs)

  25. Medi says:

    Garang,
    I’m not on the ground, but I would like to ask you a question if you can remember precisely the day/date when president Kiir called the National Conference of Spla Board and accused UN of acting like a parallel Government.?” Indeed I was wrong; it was published on January 22, 2014 but not 2013. You also can check it to ensure that it was not a fabricate.

    Once again, thank you for your updating me.

  26. Mawa Clement says:

    Dear Dr. Nyaba,
    I must admit I see you as one of the intellectuals and highly placed persons in South Sudan. Had you bring these suggestions at independence and given analysis why your suggestions are valid, may be some of us will take you seriously. You are now writing like a desperate man who had failed his country and its people. The fact that you have failed does not mean that the country must not go forward as an independent state. I expected at your role as a minister of higher education, you would have been an instrument in the hand of the president and the party to which you belong to provide political guidance and ideology. This had not happened instead we found ourselves in crisis which has now become the problem of the president. It could be right that as a president he may bear part of the blame but not the whole blame as many of you seems to suggest. Our greatest problem in South Sudan is that we do not know how to give constructive criticism that provide solutions and when we mess up we want to provide solutions. I believe like you that we should “think out of the box.” However, thinking out of the box does not necessarily mean we must relinquish national independence and integrity. South Sudanese have suffered and they will raise out of the ashes and build a great nation which is only of its kind in Africa and all people will find peace in it. You may most probably ask how will that be done? Let me offer you the following:

    I believe the solution is not asking the head of the state to step-down at this stage. We instead need to help him craft a national reconciliation process after which he may chose to retire that will be determine by the South Sudanese people at the ballot. I believe the president needs new ideologues than the ones he has now.
    I also believe that none of the so called SPLM in opposition or any other opposition groups in that matter should be isolated. We need an inclusive reconciliation that should be lead by neutral South Sudanese who care for all people. We need to swallow our personal or tribal prides and think of how we can salvage our country out of this crisis with some level of credibility. Consequently we must involve the churches as well. We must not work only through the Sudan Council of Churches. We have to engage the Churches as individuals. During this national reconciliation people must be allowed to speak freely so that we know what really the South Sudanese want for their nation. We have been trumpeting Dinka and Nuer only. Let us all remember South Sudan belongs to more than 65 ethnic groups. It must be clear to us that not all these ethnic groups can have a president to rule the country at one go. There can only be one president at a given time and wherever the president comes from he/she needs to be respected. My problem Nyaba, is that some of us have very degenerating and foul languages while talking about the president as if he is not our president. Regardless, his education or lack thereof the president is the president. He deserves our respects. We are not loyal to anything nor to anyone. No, wonder the colonial masters think we are ungovernable and so said President Omar of the Sudan and we are giving him occasion to be proven right.
    I strongly urge the president to realize that as a president he bears responsibility for all his people including those who hate him. As a leader he will be criticized which is good for him. If Jesus was criticized why not him. He must never be intimidated to the extend that people suffer under his rule because of the criticisms he gets. As a leader he must go out of his way and be kind and loving. This will provide a political ground for all to speak and he learns from what people say thus he becomes a wiser leader every day.
    I believe also a party problem should remain a party problem. No national institution should serve the interest of any given party either in power or out of power but only the interest nation. The president as a national leader must provide this leadership agenda.
    Finally the South Sudanese people must decide if they need an interim government before election or whatever South Sudanese say should carry the day. Therefore, I agree with Dr. that 2015 is just too close for any meaningful election. We must immediately spend time in seeking national solution under neutral auspices. It is only few of us writing here. This is not a representative of South Sudanese. What I have suggested here is in the immediate term and something South Sudanese can achieve without needing to give their national independence. Where we need help of UN and indeed the help of the international community is to build a peace loving and peace thinking generation by building education institutions and all the infrastructures you have mentioned above. Without educating our people there will always be conflicts as people follow their tribal leaders based on tribal allegiance without rationally thinking out for themselves the consequences of the proposed actions.

  27. TITIKECI says:

    The only solution to our crisis is formation of interim government with out Kiir and other politicians then our country will prosper.

  28. Riam Deng says:

    Mr. El Hag Paul,

    For the independent of South Sudan to happen, Dr. Riek worked for it. For the stability of the GOSS, Dr. Riek has a very strong input. For that little development and those weak institutions, it was Dr. Riek.

    Now, for democracy and rule of law, Dr. Riek is yet again working so hard for it. To insinuate a transitional government without the champion of democracy and self-determination is like putting the assistant on the captain’s seat. This man devoted his entire life for South Sudan to be a robust country. So any suggestion of denying him leadership based on false alligations of Dr. Lam Akhol and few Bor Dinka will drag our country to abyss and could lead to Nuer People fighting for their own country.

    Please know the man for what he stands for, not what his adversaries are alleging.

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