The Finger Prints on Genocide in South Sudan

BY: Stephen Par Kuol, SOUTH SUDAN, JAN/01/2014, SSN;

Any body with keen interest in South Sudanese current affairs could not have missed the recent shuttle diplomacy waged by the regional leaders and diplomats to end the ongoing crisis in the country. That is very encouraging and should be supported by all people of good will.

Unfortunately, what is now diminishing through the thin air of that diplomacy is the ugly fact that weltered with decomposing corpses and their fetid smell in the air, Juba, the capital of South Sudan is a crime scene against humanity and should be treated as such at the time of this writing.

Worth noting also is the chilling truth that among those cheeky personalities rubbing shoulders with regional leaders and diplomats to bring peace to South Sudan are red-handed suspects in the ongoing genocide.

Meanwhile preventive diplomacy can surely minimize the magnitude of the crisis and save more lives; one delicate affair in the process is avoiding diplomatic niceties to overshadow the criminal responsibility of those whose finger prints are notoriously evident on those crimes against humanity.

Thus, on behalf of the murdered victims, traumatized survivors and their families, I write to recommend that the peace process goes hand in hand with a multi-national investigation of these premeditated heinous crimes against humanity.

Any thing short of that is another betrayal to humanity and South Sudanese citizens of Nuer ethnic origin who have perished in the ongoing genocide.

Experiences elsewhere have taught us that war fatigue and desperate yearning for peace can easily give way to impunity that could haunt the nation in question for an unforeseeable future.

Speaking as a practised diplomat, I mean the diplomatic tendency to avoid antagonizing the genocidaires, who might walk out of “the peace process.”

This often frightens diplomats who fear “upsetting the peace process.” For example, in Naivasha for South Sudan, or in Abuja for Darfur in 2005, the argument became: “don’t upset the fragile new order in Khartoum since signature on the agreements settling the civil war in the South serves the greater good. Let’s now concentrate on getting the Darfur ‘rebels’ to reach a similar agreement with Khartoum in Abuja, under the African Union.”

Meanwhile the ethnic cleansing of Darfur and genocidal massacres and rapes continued daily. This argument, which diplomats often naively espouse, ignores the fact that genocidaires are serial killers whose blood thirst can never be quenched by a peace meal.

Hence, policies toward them based on fear lead only to appeasement and further genocide.

In the case of the ongoing genocide in South Sudan, the prime suspect, General Salva Kiir Mayardit has already offered unconditional cease fire and peace talk but the genocide continues.

Like any genocidaires, Kiir is a serial killer, a master of genocide and ethnic cleansing.

As a career military intelligence officer, he is well trained in cold blood killing and practised that well during the liberation struggle where he executed murder of the bulk of our liberation politicians.

He is doing that now with efficiency on our unarmed civilians in Juba. Presently, the only safe heaven for South Sudanese of Nuer ethnic origin without guns is the UNMISS concentration camp near Juba International Airport where his Propaganda Chief, Justice Michael Lueth, has been calling them out to finish what they have started.

Nobody talks about that now where as Kiir is preparing for more genocide. That is why I write to strongly recommend that both the international criminal investigation and the peace talks go on simultaneously.

Criminal Investigation as an inquisitive process starts with these questions: What, Where, How and Who?

Legally speaking, the process proceeds with one fundamental question: has a crime been committed in violation of an existing law? If yes, then what is the name or definition of the crime committed?

In this case, a crime has been committed in violation of the Transitional Constitution of South Sudan, Rome Statue and the Geneva Convention.

Genocide in this case is defined as “the intentional destruction, in whole or in part, of a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such.

Was it systematically organized by General Kiir’s regime using his privately armed Dootku-Beny militia, tanks and other lethal weapons?

Were the victims chosen because of their ethnic identity? If yes again, then only South Sudanese of Nuer ethnic origin in 107, Guddele, Gurei, Eden, Manga, Jabel villages were targeted and are now the dominant IDPS in UNMISS compound and the Dinka homes nearby were left untouched?”

Is this an intentional destruction, in part, of ethnic and racial group? If yes, then, this in short, is genocide.

As for who did what, the finger prints of the following top seven names have surfaced with probable cause beyond a reasonable doubt:

1. General Salva Kiir Mayardit, the President of the Republic of South Sudan who declared the state of emergency leading to the mass killing.
2. General Malong Awan, the current Governor of Northern Bar-Elghazal State who personally recruited Dootku-Beny Militia from NBGS and Warap States and commanded Dootku-Beny during the genocidal operation.
3. General Marial Chinoum, the field General who executed General Salva Kiir’s orders to disarm Nuer soldiers within Tiger Battalion and ordered the use of tanks to kill 22 unarmed bodyguards of Dr. Riek Machar and seven bodyguards of Hon. Gier Chuang Aluong.
4. General Salva Mathuok Gengdit, the former Deputy Minister of Interior and Salva’s father-in-law who was seen in Dootku-beny uniforms commanding part of the genocidal force during the operation in Juba.
5. General Garang Mabil, a notorious general on reserve from Warap State who was reinstated to active duty during the genocidal operation to execute the genocide.
6. General Bol Akot, a general in reserve reinstated after the clashes to execute the genocide in Thuk sita and Gudele.
7. General Alew Ayieny, the Current Minister of interior who was seen in military uniform commanding a police force in collaboration with Dootku-Beny.

In conventional practice, those primitive tribal generals should be charged with the following crimes:
1. Genocide and crime against humanity
2. War crimes in violation of Geneva Convention
3. Vandalism and formation of a private tribal army for the sole purpose of committing genocide in violation of South Sudan Transitional Constitution

Those of us who speak the language of criminal law know damn well that genocide as an act of mass killing is a joint enterprise with many accomplices including the demagogues and propaganda pundits.

As for proving the Mensa Rea, Kiir is physically on record graduating his Dootku-Beny Brigade alone without involving the SPLA Chief of General Staff and the Ministry of Defence, and declaring state of emergency and quoting 1991 Bor massacres proving both motive and the criminal mind behind the act of genocide.

With these, I rest my case.

Stephen Par Kuol is a former Deputy Ambassador of the Sudan to the United Republic of Tanzania and the State Minister of Education in the recently overthrown Government of Jonglei State by Dr. Riek Machar’s forces. He is also a researcher and freelance writer on academic topics pertinent to Human Rights and Post-conflict Criminal Justice Administration. He can be reached via /


  1. upiu says:

    Impartiality is at stake here. Did the writer conveniently leave out the ongoing genocides in Bor? What about in Akobo, Bentiu, Rubokhon, Unity State oilfields and Malakal? Is it only a genocide if it goes against Nuer in Juba and reprisal attacks when Dinkas are wiped out in Jonglei and Unity States? I think Stephen’s credibility will be served better if he can produce another list of those who will be charged for genocides against Dinka in Nuerland and in Bor.
    Whereas the president indicated that 1991 Bor massacre won’t happen again, well, twice in two weeks it has.
    Leaders from both sides of this heinously vicious conflict must answer for their crimes in The Hague.

    • Junubi says:

      Hi Dear,
      Let us stop the game for blaming each other work toward on how to prevent future atrocities in our country the following mechanism:
      1. Sound the Alarm and Demand Action. Preventing mass atrocities requires political will first and foremost. We must speak up and demand that government leaders make the right choices to prevent and stop atrocities.

      2. Stop the Enablers. Perpetrators of genocide and mass atrocities cannot succeed without the support of other governments and corporations. We follow the money, garnering the strength of investors through our Conflict Risk Network and applying public pressure to shame and stop companies and governments that finance mass violence. We call to account any nation that would welcome or reward a perpetrator of mass atrocity.

    • Kidepo says:




  2. jay johnson says:

    dear Stephen par kuol,

    it is very tragic that responsible and educated people like you are practicing tribalism who have no shame putting one sided article for public consumption in the name of justice

    as some one with legal background, I guess you are aware of retrospective justice. that should be part of the equation if the real peace is to be realize in south sudan. Dinka civilians who were ethnically cleansed by Nuer white army, spla Nasir and Anya nya II deserve justice 20 years after they were mercilessly murdered.

    I mean your article is unbelievable, biased and prejudice. where is Dr. Riek, Gatdet yak and Kong chuol on the list of criminals and accountability, minister? I mean, are you kidding? who should be held accountable for those dinka who lost their lives in Bentiu, malakal and Akobo?

    Is coup and rebellion the gateway to power in south Sudan? what else should Salva could have done to appease the nuer war lords, rebels, militia and anarchist? Par Kuol, tell me how many equatorian have rebelled since 2005? and how of the marginalized dinka except George Athor have rebelled if rebellion is justified on the ground of marginalization?

    where is your colleague Gabriel Gai riam and Hussein mar Nyuot? with the rebel right? I do not support Salva mismanagement of the country, but I equally do not support the short cut to power, which is through coup and rebellion. for your article to have credibility, you should have not left the blood thirsty, blood lust, betrayer and unindicted war criminal Dr. Nyagat, Riek Machar Puot Nyuon, a fourth generation Dinka nuer from Hol Dinka of Duk county

    I condemn the merciless killing of Dinka civilians in 1991 and I equally condemn the killing of nuer civilians in juba and Dinka civilians in Bentiu, Akobo and Malakal by nuer militia. But the notion of justice is never subjective as you made it to be. you are to my surprise a tribalist who never authored a single article condemning anarchy and loss of lives cause by professional nuer militia and rebels. even the warlord from your county of pangak, Tanganyi have killed hundreds of civilians mostly for senseless rebellion motivate by thirst and hunger for military power.

    why can you write an article that would help bring peace so that the current carnage do not escalate to claim more innocent lives. is this time for international investigation?

    • GatCharwearbol says:

      Dear Jay Johnson:

      There is only one person to be held responsible for what took place in South Sudan. This individual is responsible for the whole package. I think and believe is where the Author come from. The question to be asked are: Who cause this satanic act? Where does it start? We know it all start in Juba and it just spread to the other parts of the nation. Hence those killed in Bentiu, Akobo, Bor, Malakal the same package of the whole fiasco.

      If it is the making of Dr. Machar, which the Author and I do not believe to be the case, he will have to explain himself to the competent court of Law and take full responsibility for the whole package. If it is Salva Kiir Mayardit, which the Author and I believe to be the case, he will have to explain himself to the competent court of Law and take full responsibility for the whole package. Those killed in Juba, Bor, Malakal, Bentiu, and other places are part and parcel of the same package. So please do not get emoitional, when Salva started this mess with help of Uganda President, it was good, but know I think it is not good anymore. If I were to be the Judge, Museveni would have to stand trial as far as I am concern. He is the one who misled and continue misleading Kiir to this end. Stay bless, Pal!

      • jay johnson says:


        to answer you, I will have to go back to my article published by south sudan nation in march 2013. in that article I went on record opposing dr. Riek political ambition to be the next president of the republic of south sudan. my objection was based purely on his record as the leader of the defectors, the spla-Nasir which result to death of more than 2000 of jonglei dinka, who were ethnically cleanse by the combined forces of the spla/Nasir, white army and Anya nya II, who were one hundred percent nuer

        I also talked about the shameful Khartoum peace agreement of 199,7 hastily signed by your prophet of doom and blood thirsty Riek Machar Puot Nyuon, a fourth generation Dinka nuer from Hol Dinka of Duk county, and his subsequent shameful return to the splm/a of john Garang, the very organization he helped undermine with his Arabs masters in Khartoum

        the reaction from most nuer including you was hostile and dismissive. I was call a divisive and emotional figure for highlighting the sins of your prophet. you try very hard to silence me about genocide of jonglei dinka by your people.

        I hope you have appreciate my pain, now your own kins in juba have experience the same fate suffered by jonglei dinka 20 years ago. if par kuol is to be taken seriously, he would have not intentionally left out those nuer generals and politicians responsible for ethnic cleansing of dinka civilians in malakal, Bentiu, Akobo and Bor, including the 1991 ethnic cleansing of dinka civilians by Riek Machar forces.

        If Salva can be held responsible because he is the commander in chief of arm forces, so does Riek Machar who was in charge of spla/Nasir, Anya nya II and white army. justice is an objective principle as opposed to being subjective as portrayed by par kuol

        as with regard to who cause this mess, it rest at the shoulder of Riek Machar who have been encouraging nuer warlordism in western upper since 2005. president Kiir have try his best to appease the nuer militias by giving them amnesty and promoting them to high military rank at the expenses of true spla/m officers, the real liberators of south sudan to no avail

        So Riek and Nuer coup plot and rebellion has been in the pipe for long time. Of course Machar had declare himself the leader of the rebel if there is doubt in your mind . so Machar and his supporters are responsible for the current carnage and bloodbath in the country. they can end if they stop attacking government position

        The Nuer might have put their in eggs in one basket for anointing an un-indicted war criminals who have create another ethnic war resulting to what we are witnessing today. so Riek Machar have foolishly ended his political career unknowingly by plotting another disastrous coup and rebellion similar to that of 1991, which have created a toxic and polarizing ethnic tension.

        please mark my word, Riek will never become a president of the republic of south sudan even if God intervene

        • GatCharwearbol says:

          Mr. Johnson,

          Your judgment and love for Salva Kiir is turbid and cloudy. If you blame Dr. Machar for what took place in Juba, you surely do not have an iota of common sense. Or may be you have some, but decided not to utilize it for the defend of your tribeman. South Sudan will not be viable place for us to live if we keep behaving like you do. If you are blaming Dr. Machar for 1991 incident, you could be right on that and I do not support it myself. But blaming Dr. Machar for Juba incident is just misplaced and it shows that you are indeed living in self-denial. It would be wise to condemn the wrong and who commit it regardless of where they hail from. That is the only thing that will safe us from destroying ourselves.

          If you believe that Nuer will nail down before you, you are indeed living a lie. The Nuer nation is fighting the whole East Africa and the Dinka, plus some Nuer who are siding with you. Don’t you see that bravery in them? I mentioned in one of my comment awhile back and I remember you saluting me for saying the truth. I sincerely mentioned that Nuer are not coward as some seem to think these days. But it is the change of heart that many seem to misconstrue. If something worth fighting for presented itself, they would fight a good fight. What took place in Juba is worth fighting for according to Nuer standard. And now you have witnessed that indeed. Call me whatever, but we are still the bravest tribe God ever produced. Your God father, Museveni had and continue bombing Nuer and has meant nothing to us. We actual kill many Ugandas that might out number the innocent Nuer killed in Juba excluding Dinka. Please do not get emotional. God create people to die and Nuer are not ashame of what took place in Juba. And believe you me, we have already revenged our people and it is how thing will be should anything of this thought crop up in the future. We will retaliate.

          • jay johnson says:


            you are indeed a typical nuer who have unknowingly out of frustration reveal his true color just as par kuol have done. unless nuer change their view about world, south sudan will never enjoy peace they fought for 50 years! that is a tragic reality which are witnessing today.

            I have stated clearly that I am not a supporter of Salva Kiir as a president. However, I don’t shy away supporting him when the choice is between him and Riek Machar, absent of any other alternative. further more I stand firm with him ( Kiir) when it comes to maintaining peace in south sudan.

            that is why I never criticize him when he was held hostage by nuer warlords and militias of western upper nile. he bribed a lot of nuer warlords, militias and rebels so that south sudan would enjoy peace after independent. But your people never appreciate his good will but took it as cowardice.

            As a victim of Riek 1991 genocide, there is no way I would shy and condone the killing of innocents nuer and dinka civilians in juba, Bentiu, bor, Akobo and malakal. I have condemn it since then I will continue to condemn now and in the future. Can you go on record and condemn the 1991 genocide against jonglei dinka under the order of Dr. Riek Machar?

            we have this war because the nuer as you put it believe that they are brave, warrior and fearless people in the whole country. if you have people believing in such nonsense, then it is not surprising that they would cause what are experiencing today.

            call it bravery and what have you, but that mentality produce nothing less than anarchy, lawlessness and complete breakdown of law and order. I disagree with your assertion that “god create nuer people to die” that is a dangerous belief that need to be change. what the white army is doing is suicide as opposed to bravery!!!

            Museveni do not want to host another refugees population from south sudan because of senseless war of greed for power. secondly, Uganda have an obligation to prevent another Rwanda genocide happening under their watch. thirdly they do not want violent transfer of political power. they also have security interest because a conflict in south sudan is likely to spill over to Uganda. that is why in my opinion Museveni is involved in the conflict. it is call geopolitics

            The nuer are fighting this senseless war on their own. it is 63 tribes vs. 1 tribe. will you win it even with the claim of bravery and warrior gratification. why fight the war you will never win? why is nuer blood is so cheap that it can be spill despite the fact the suppose leader is a war criminal?

            20 or 50 years from now the nuer will look back with regret for starting this senseless war.

    • Daughter of Equatoria says:

      jay johnson,
      Save your breath for goodness sake! Who started all this drama right from day 1 huh? A tribal militia to mention least,you and your kiir are using the past, 91 to divert peoples attention from your per-planned atrocity against non dinkas and the Nuer who became the perfect target because of your desire to stage revenge got in the big trapper.shameless! shameless! and stop draging Equatorians in to this bloody mess created by war-lovers dinkas,shameless you and kiir will 99.50% account for this crimes instigated by dinkas just embrace violence than peace.shameless!

    • john says:

      We all know very well why Stephen did not mention any other incidents, it was because HE was the first to commit a crime on its citizens and fail to see it as a genocide. As for What took place at other locations this foolish cowboy minus brain dragged on the edge of bloody civil war and there is nothing his other cold blooded killer who help killed many of half of east africa’ s population and talking about this useless creature, M7 of Uganda. And this president wants to bring Sudan to fight his war for him. no Mr. Shortsighted, you kill your people. Mr. Sudan, stay out of this and thanks. After this war South Sudan will never be the same again when a president encourages such atrocities on certain tribes.

      • john says:

        WW. Nuer do not like to kill people. They are just responding to try to free those in Juba. You know well enough that the killing of Nuer was encourage by the president and his guards. So as for What took place at different site. You ask the president and ask why? Nuer do not want to chase Dinka away from the land because this is not them. It is the government that divide us and let take our anger on Kiir and his forces. I suggest that let not point fingers at ourselves as citizen of this new nation let us point our fingers at the government.

  3. Anyar Deng says:

    That fingerprint will depend on who is responsible for the cause and effect of the mayhem!

  4. Mr Par,
    since we are not telling the world the truths and instead side on ethnic lines, this war will never end coz most Nuer intellectuals have not shown their intellectuality to tell the truth why this crisis occurred.
    Life is Dear to all and Bhar El-Ghazal people did not take what you are preaching as a tribal war. their thinking is a war between the government and disgruntled individuals who wanted to remain in power forever. most of the Nuer in Greater BG remained unhurt. however let me take you back a bit, on the press conference conducted by those of Riek, they revealed that in the coming week there will be a lot of activities that will take place. would you describe what it means? who is on right track now between Riek and Salva Kiir?
    I’m really sick and tired with the misleading comments produced by groups of Nuer in Diaspora. our motto was all of us to ask our leaders to dialogue for peace not war but if you think some followers of Riek will achieve victory then just go ahead, brother.

  5. Alphonse Kenyi says:

    Mr. Stephen, you got it right brother. If you do research and study all genocides committed against humanity through out human history, it always starts with incitements by bringing events that happened way back in time. Rwanda, and Bosnia, are not far. Kiir, did it intentionally, and knowingly, by bringing up1991, in order to scratch old wounds among Dinka, especially Dinka Bor, to remind them who Machar is. And now we already have seen what his naivety has brought to innocent Nuers, in Juba, and consequently what happened to Dinka, in Jongulei, Unity, and Upper Nile States respectively. Moreover, Kiir, and his careless government, never dared to condole the nation of the horrendous acts of his squad killing machine, nor he talks about the innocents killed. Kiir, deserves ICC, investigation.

    • Peter Malish says:

      Dinkas are always selfish and cowards in front lines. We Equatorians should join our brothers from the Nuers and overthrow the Government of One tribe in South Sudan example is the Presidential Guards only from Warap and Northern Bhar-el ghazal what a president is that. Dr Riak please go ahead Majority of the Equatorians will join indirectly and directly sooner than later. No need of peace talks if Salva Satanic is still alive. As for M7 we should join Riak if possible include M7s enemies like the LRA to face him .

    • Diktor Agarab says:

      Speaking of genocide, the precursor to the 1991 genocide was the Dinka extermination of Nuers in Gajack (spelling?). There was a cover-up by the Dinkas that is why the world didn’t get to know about it.

  6. Gok machar says:

    What about nuers who killed Dinkas in Bor,Malakal,Thar jath,unity state and Rokona air strip why not naming them too you are nothing

    • Kidepo says:


      Sorry man the killing in Bor, Malakal, Thar, Unity State, Rokona, etc cannot be taken because these were revenged killings that occured after your dinkas killed all the Nuer civilains residing in Juba.

      Are you still in beautiful Gok Machar or the Nuer have displaced you to Nimule. I know undesratnd why you dinka bor are run ing to settle in Nimule for fear of Nuer and Murle but behave yoursleves because fedelaism-Kokora is taking over I don’t know where Kiir will settle you

  7. Stephen,
    As a human rights’ activists you know better than some of us that the” right to live is a right to any living human being” and whoever violated that should be contemn whether the violator is Salva Kiir, Riak Machar, Garang Mabiel,Peter Gadet , Salva Mathok, James Koang,or White army.
    Moreover as a being with legal background, you might be mindful that provoking an individual or ethnic group to kill or lynched other ethnic group by spreading unfounded information is a crime by itself. So, your hasty accusation to five generals of committing genocide in Juba without putting evidences forward to the readers of this forum validated you will to posed unnecessary jeopardy to the lives of accused individuals and their families, and that is magnification of violence. Also, your articles can be interpreted by other ethnic group as a way to incite a more violence across the country.
    Additionally, you would have won the heart and mind of the majority in this forum if you would have maintains the fairness by requesting the investigation to be carry out in Juba, Bor, Bantinu, Akobo, and Malakal, and wait for final reports before rush into judgment. Your deliberate avoidance to condemn or hint the recent massacre in above mentioned towns demonstrated your prejudiced intent. And I find it hard not to censure that you were addressing your ethnics group in your latest articles. As a one of South Sudanese intellectual that always I admire, and indeed one of our potential leaders in the near future, it is saddened that you let your emotions outshine your intellectual’s proficiency. Although, I confess that I concur with your suggestion of bringing those who are responsible for these atrocities to book, but without prejudging any one of them before the final report.

    • jay johnson says:

      thank Mr. Richard for your insightful response

      I was also shock when I read Mr. par kuol article on the allege genocide. I have admired his intellectual Prowse over the years and I was thinking that he could be the next jonglei state governor

      unfortunately, he had turn tribal following the event of December 15th 2013. that is tragic indeed. if Riek Machar, the known warlord of south sudan can not be investigate for killing 2000 dinka civilians in jonglei in 1991, then the word justice have lost meaning in the dust of tribal politics.

      we the victim of Riek Machar slaughter of 1991 will not rest until he is put behind bar where he rightly belong. Mr. par is free to pursue the justice for his tribe man as he wish. But he should not try to ignored the crime committed against Dinka civilian in western upper nile, jonglei and upper nile state.

      that is call hypocrisy!!!! injustice done against someone is tribal blind. the pain and anguish suffered by the victim is the same regardless of one ethnicity

      • Daughter of Equatoria says:

        jay johnson,
        I think you are thoroughly mistaken what happened in 1991 no body especially international bodies got notice of that. What every one saw including the rat in my house was a mass rebellion against jalaba,a guerrilla war,a war in the African shrubs,forests just like the American-Vietnamese war where the defeated Ameriacans killed each other,so NO international body will look in to 1991 incident,now stop dreaming for 1991 justice because it will never happen because it happened amidst liberation of Africans from moondukuru,but the 2013 December incident in an independent Country with civilians kiir,the instigator will surely 99.50% account for this ethnic cleansing.

  8. Mohd Adam says:

    Are you still a minister or you have defected and now leading the white boys? Are you ready to stand trial after the dust settles. Cases of rape have also been recorded in Bor, so be ready for that when the ICC takes on you, brother.

    • Mike Tatu says:

      Par as the name suggests is a jumper into anything. The dull guy is never a Nuer nor a Dinka. The guy speaks fluently the two local languages. He is a true example of the saying that even if you take a donkey to town, it remains a donkey! That is what the former incompetent, corrupt minster is. He has fired himself from the Government of Jonglei state, to avoid accounting for the abuses he made in office. During the war,. the guy was on the enemy’s side and that is where serves best. The guy is looking for recognition from the rebels by turning this tragic event into an opportunity. That simply explains why the bias. Please you continue Mr. Par with your insufficient writing and you will lose your national relevance. Please feed well in peace on all the things you stole in Bor. South Sudan land will never forgive you.

    • Madhod says:

      Dear Folks,
      What happened in Juba is beyond humanity. How could Generals like these ones mentioned by Stephen Par carried out such attack on innocents civilians which are not armed. it is only the work of a cowards generals who never participated in any military operation during the struggle. These were generals that were recently recruited after the independent of south Sudan to guard the president.
      Regarding human rights abuses, surely Kiir is an ICC man already. We know all that! It is just a matter of when. Yes, maybe there were some ethnic killings in Bor by forces loyal to Riek, but they were only soldiers killed in the frontlines. Civilians were never target. And in Unity State, Dinka Civilians were all escorted to UN Camp for the safety. 20 trucks full of returnees, all Dinkas from Khartoum arrived in Bentiu on the day fighting started and they were were all escorted to Warrap. About 200 people from oild field where taken to Warrap, some to UNMISS camp and eventually taken to Juba by air. The general order their evacation safetly upto Warrap State, they were accompany by two military trucks. Isn’t that what it means to be a leader? What Kiir and his general did in Juba? just continues killing of civilians.
      UN is the Witness to this incident this time.

    • Kidepo says:

      INTA GILITEL-ADAB YA ADAM (humour). You amused me to death when you said Someone is now comanding the white amry. There is no problem in that because it is neccessary. We should support Dr Riek because Kiir and the dinkas should rest

  9. nikalongo says:

    Dinka killed Nuer. Nuer killed Dinka. All are filthy hooligans who have no respect for human values and dignity. They can take the war to their backyards – away from Equatoria. Idiots

    • Kidepo says:

      Did I read 3 month ago when someone insulted one of our communities of EES as “aimless Toposas”

      That was bad news. Kiir was about to remove our EES Governor Lobong in the same ways he removed the other Governors. So better start rethinking who is Kiir.

      As there is no Equatorian interesting to take lead for Presidency due to mess caused by dinkas to other South Sudanese. We would still choose the lesser evil than Kiir

  10. Tyson says:

    Those who have committed crimes should be Persecuted but above all Kiir should face the international law. His failure, lack of vision and careless murdering of innocent people in Juba should be investigated.

  11. I just cannot understand the way our brothers Nuer understand things .Even somebody you thought to be intellectual or civilized person is worst then uneducated person . you see the whole of greater Upper Nile that is MalaKal , Bentiu and Jogelei are under Nuer administration only including all the division of army . And still they rebel against the country and government who appointed them . Machar mislead them that he want to form Nuer nation without others tribe which is nonsense.Hundreds of Dinka who were slaughter in different part in greater Upper are responsibility of Riek, Taban, Gatdet and John Koang and they must be account for lives lost of innocence people.

  12. Mohd Adam says:

    No Nuer were killed in Dinka Land, say Warrap, Lakes, NBG, and even in Western BG. But the Nuer killed people, not only Dinka, but other Southern Sudan got killed in the areas manned by Nuer militia. In Bentiu, passengers of a plane, were forced/ taken out and driven out of the airport where they were killed in cold blood. These passengers were not only Dinka, but South Sudanese.

    Though no one condones what happened to our Nuer brothers in Juba on the days following the abortive coup, but Riek Machar capitalises on the incident for which he in fact was the cause and ran away, leaving innocent people to face the wrath from the Government armed forces.

    • Diktor Agarab says:

      Mohad Adam,
      Don’t be a tool. State the truth. The coup allegations are nothing but fabrications that is why the whole world isn’t buying it. It’s the regime of Salva Kiir that is trying to push that narrative to cover up its genocide against the Nuers. However, the Kiir kleptocracy has failed miserably because ICC is awaiting him with open arms to join those of Charles Taylor.

    • Kidepo says:

      Mohd Adam, what you reported about Bentiu incident are all opposite. No Equatorian killed in Bentiu, please ask or do more research

    • Kidepo says:

      No Equatorian was killed in any Nuer land or dinka land captured by white army except those very few killed by cross fire like in Juba when Kiir was killing the Nuer from door to door. Some Equatorians leaving in 107 were victimised too by Kiir cross fires meant for haunting the Nuer from Juba

      Again stop propogating Equatorians who were with the dinkas right from the movement to date are fed up may be those who were in Khartoum and Soudi Arabia they might have not seen what the dinkas did to their fellow Equats

  13. Chot Tut Puk says:

    Truth will set us free. Lies are always dead ends and deadly ideas to govern a country such as South Sudan. Our government is deceitful, ignorant and arrogant. I believe this violence marks the end of Kiir presidency in South Sudan. A president killing his own people during peace time!!! That is ridiculous. I believe Kiir Mayardit tried copy Museveni’s tyranny. That failed his government. I don’t wanna go tribal that’s a reality which is wrong. I wanna go national that unites us which is truth but hurts. I believe there gonna be an end to this violence because violence is not a solution.

  14. Dr JAC Ramba says:

    Fellow South Sudanese
    Let us not pretend to be what we are not. South Sudan has always been a tribal society and that’s how it is going to be for more decades to come. Our people have since long taken a liking for tribal politics and it’s no coincidence that whenever a new cabinet is announced most people are only keen to find out who among their tribesmen are in that cabinet before they pass their judgments on whether to approve of it or not.
    Some have further gone to become self-appointed permanent organizers of such events as tradition tribal celebration that all our tribes without exceptions have taken pride in whenever someone from the tribe is appointment to a ministerial position.
    Ideally all appointed cabinet ministers are meant to serve all communities in an equal manner or at least that is what is expected of them. But whether this is what we have in South Sudan, is for us to tell.
    Today our people are paying the price of ethnically driven politics gone totally wrong. The same president Salva Kiir who a few years ago made it impossible for Dr. Lam Akol of SPLM DC to practice politics in South Sudan, accusing him of leading a Shilluk tribal militia. It all turned out to be an anti-Chollo and anti-Lam propaganda. Today Dr. Lam is the good boy as far Kiir’s ambitions are concerned. But for how long!
    Funny enough today it’s the same Salva Kiir who now leads a special force of the so-called presidential guards recruited predominantly from his Dinka tribesmen of Bahr Ghazel region (Warrap and Northern Bahr Ghazel states). These unconstitutional tribal warriors are now central in the genesis of the Juba Massacre of 16th December 2013, as documented by the UNIMISS. Any other killings that are reported to have been committed after that date are all retaliatory, also documented by UNIMISS.
    My fellow compatriots as I write many Congolese are already behind the bars in The Hague, but yet the D.R. Congo remains a country in turmoil. This time All the SPLM/A , big shots right from president Salva Kiir Mayardit are with few exceptions complacent in the ongoing carnage and must appear before the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague.
    Only a proper Rwanda style courts and healing processes can n put south Sudan back on the right tract, However this can only happen under a new leadership, not Kiir, not Riek and not any filthy SPLM/A blood stained murderers.

  15. Lokilachong says:

    Dear Stephen,

    You are right, any mass killing is is called a genocide. It is absurd if we still want evidence of such henious crime and who committed it. What you put forth is clearly the evidence that we need to know, the people of south Sudan need to know, and the world need also to know. Thre is no need to seek new evidence, otherwise, it will be a process of hiding the evidence already known. The truth of the matter is that there was no coup, it was just a fabricated coup made to turnish Dr. Riack Machar name but unfortunately, it went awry rwong because of illiterate republican guards and inexpereince.

    On the other hand, we must look at the crime commited by the Nuer soldiers too, particularly the white armies in Bor. The leaders of those militia must be charge with crime against humanity too, with a genocide committed against innocent Dinka. Scenario everywhere in south Sudan is the scene of a genocide. All the leaders of various armies must face the court because they have comiited crimes and they are criminals. As you noted the “chilling truth that among those cheeky personalities rubbing shoulders with regional leaders and diplomats to bring peace to South Sudan are red-handed suspects in the ongoing genocide.” Again, no one should be spared. Hence, we need no evidence on this matter we have enought evidence to presecute those leaders. Unless those in charge are punished, tomorrow when Nuer will be in power, who knows they might also committe sililar crimes agiants the dinka or other tribes. We should not trust any of those two tribe with power.

    South Sudan is a nation that needs he healing from the trauma of the past. Many people have died during the liberation ar from the Arabs. It is wrong for the president to remind the Dinka only of the massacre of 1991 in Bor. Similarly, the Dinka comitted a lot of henious atrocities againts other tribesin the past. They killed thousand of Nuer after the break away of William Nyun, they massacred the Acholi in Obbo, Toposha, Zande, and many other tribes, the list is long. And all these are human beings, why only remind people of the incident of Bor? Our president is a war monger he should be condem.

    Again in this particulary incident, and from many reports from the eye withnesses, Dr. Machar is innocent. Machar ran to the bush only because his live was in danger, his house in Juba moured down for the crime he did not commit. We southern Sudanese should be worried about the “action” of the Dinka. We do not hate the Dinka as such, but their action in the country and against smaller tribes especially in Equatoria is barbaric. It is only when we do thing objectively, then the country we intent to build will be fushhionable. That is why there has been cry from many southerns to tranfer the capital to Ramchiel. The proof is clear, see how the Dinka are killing innocent civilians in Juba, they pick whom they want and shoot on the spot. Perharp that is what the Nuer “white amrnies” did in Akobo, Bor, Bentiu, and Malakal. Do we still need evidence for the war crime committed against humanity?

    I must apologise if I have written this emotionally, but I think south Sudan needs guidance from the international communities because sliding into another war will so soon will be a gross mistake. The Nuer and the Dinka must know that south Sudan is bgger than the two tribes, we are a nation of tribes. Unfortunately, those crimes will soon go unnotice and forgotten, and no body will prosecute Kiir, Riack nor the commandants of the atrocities, all those who die, died in vain. That is the way in South Sudan because those who hold on power they can not let it go because they think that “aci ba gam.” May god bless south Sudan.

    • Kidepo says:

      Did I read 3 month ago when someone insulted one of our communities of EES as “aimless Toposas”

      That was bad news. Kiir was about to remove our EES Governor Lobong in the same ways he removed the other Governors. So better start rethinking who is Kiir.

      As there is no Equatorian interesting to take lead for Presidency due to mess caused by dinkas to other South Sudanese. We would still choose the lesser evil than Kiir

  16. kajokeji says:

    Hi Stephen P. Kuol,
    Thank you for educating us about the recent genocide in Juba. Surely somebody has to be held responsible for the genocide that took place following alleged foiled coup on December 15, 2013; and that somebody is the president Kirr Mayardit of the Republic of South Sudan. What transpired on the night of December 15, 2013 was started publically during the Liberation Council meeting at Nyokuron when Kirr was making a hate speech; essentially revealing his evil plan against Dr. Riak and his political supporters. In that meeting which I had watched the video, Kirr acting as the New IDI AMIN of Africa dictating his children and subjects and giving the clue that he was going to get them.

    Mr. Kuol, a lot of Dinkas who responded to your article are defenders of President Kirr because they are ignorant and masters of liars. However this time their lies have backfired on them. For us South Sudanese, we know that most Dinkas are liars, but atleast this time they have exposed themselves to the wider world community.

  17. Chol Dau says:

    Atrocities have certainly taken place since the start of this conflict a few weeks ago. Crimes have been committed against civilians and captured soldiers in Juba, Bor, Akobo, Bentiu, Malakal, Panriang, Kokpiot, and other places where fighting have occurred. Crimes remain a crime irrespective of whether it was offensive or reprisal.

    Mr. Par is writing from the United States where he want for family visit before the current crisis.His article is fed by hearsay. He is not on the ground to call the current war a genocide. What constitute a genocide Mr. Par?

    However, the priority now is to bring to an end this conflict through dialogue and peace. The Government or the rebel should not be duped into wishful thinking that the gun will triumph. Even if the Government win through overwhelming firepower or a stalemate is reached, it is ordinary civil population who will suffer.Continued fighting will deepen social wounds and unravel the budding sense of nationhood.

    The Government and the rebels must heed the call by the UN, AU, IGAD , Church, and all people of goodwill to stop fighting and address this conflict by peaceful means.

    And to arrive at lasting peace, the root cause of the conflict must be properly addressed.

    Then, investigation into committed crimes should follow a peace deal to bring those responsible to account.

  18. Bentiu today says:

    the cause root of conflict who is salva kirr himself is primary responsible as stated by US former Envoy to two Sudans and UN that president kiir mayaydit is responsible for the mess in the country because he was the one who started killing civilians in Juba and later on people become anger and make revenge killing.
    refusal of democracy within the SPLM, up to now no international community condemned the coup, why? because everybody knows the root of the conflict, he was trying to mislead the world that there was a coup, but the world is watching.

  19. malith Alier says:

    Your other or first article has been scrapped on sudantribune because of apparent bias. There is so much love for what is Nuer even by those of you who are supposed to be nationalist. You have been rebuked by many respondents and i have no many words left to put you back to your senses Professor of ignorance. Add more to your list of segregation so that you’re believed by even a monkey dear professor.

  20. RBR says:

    Hon. Minister,

    My eyes caught me by surprise when Nuer Civilians in Juba were sentenced on gun-shots as criminal by their own President, Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit whom they have voted for Office during April 2010 election. As a true supporter of General Kiir’s rule all this time just before the Nuer Genocide in Juba on December 15th on …….. until I write this comment.
    I did not know that:

    1. General Kiir was only a Military Commander, who had only reduced himself to a WETKA MILITIA UNIFORM when declared what he called “Bloody Curfew in Juba” to finish the Nuer Innocent Civilians. I have never seen a President in the world addressing the Nation in a militia Military Uniform in the name of Presidential Guard contradicting his National Title as the President of the Republic and the Commander In Chief of the Army, he lost his Legitimacy to later to Lead his own tribe men on this ” Ethnic Cleansing Project”.

    2. Gen. Kiir Mayardit could have taken Laws into his hands and orders his Dinka militia not to arrest but to shoot and Nuer civilians found in Juba.

    3. A State Governor like General paul Malong Awan could have left his own State put on Military Uniform trained and commanded the Militia Troops of Doot Ku Bany Brigade and “Thiang Heir Battallion”, am not good in Dinka to cleanse innocent Nuer Tribe in Juba.

    4. The so called Militia Commander in no time request the neighboring Country to reinforce his killing agenda and be equipped with Air Defense and Sofiticated Weapons to execute his plan in no time.

    5. The same general commander of Militia Doot Ku Bany and Thiang Heir has extended massacre plan to two States of Unity and Jonglei which am quite sure will soon cover Upper Nile State.

    Let keep advocating for peaceful settlement of this political ranged dispute


  21. Mohd Adam says:

    Can some one help Governor, John Koang Nyuon, to know that Stephen Par Kuol, has joined Riek Machar. All the rebels in Jonglei, government have been dismissed yesterday. Par name is not in the list of those fired. So please help the Governor!

  22. Bol Dual says:

    Dear Mr. Kuol
    Form of government in which one person or an oligarchy possesses absolute power without effective constitutional checks is now what happened in South Sudan. With unconstitutional democracy, it is one of the much chief forms of government in use today. Dinka tribe wish to be modern dictators usually use force or fraud to gain power and then keep it through intimidation to any citizens in South Sudan not only Nuer, and they’re terror, suppression of civil liberties, and control of the mass media. In 1991 they did the same and after Nuer does revenge they became fully of appeared and calls for genocides. Nationalist leaders often achieved power through the military and attempted either to maintain the privileged elite or to institute far-reaching social reform, depending on their class sympathies. In South Sudan’s communist and fascist dictatorships, a charismatic leader of a mass party used an official ideology to maintain his regime, and terror and propaganda to suppress opposition.
    No, Thanks
    Diang Bol

    • J. Nguen says:

      Stephen Par is writing as a victim for the crime committed against the Nuer ethnic group in Juba for which he narrowly escaped death. Blaming Stephen is nothing short of mimicking the crime by those who committed them. The genesis of the crime started in Juba and therefore, anything that happened thereafter is self defense from aggressors. The truth is, there was no door to door search execution of one ethnic group anywhere in South Sudan than that of the Nuer in Juba by Kiir’ s militias. No one can mask the truth and Stephen is telling the truth. If anyone know of any similar incidence, please kindly share it with us and we will be happy to correct you where you digressed.

  23. K.Kong says:

    Brothers-every leader involved should be given a Dictionary so they can look up and understand the true meaning of the following words

  24. Bentiu today says:

    Tony Toney
    if it was government issue, than why killing Nuer Civilians in Juba?
    Dear Bol Dual,
    take notice that Nuer knew how to control Dinka, we know theirs formula very well.
    just wait you will see them running to Uganda AND Kenya seek for refugee camp in the next few day.
    we in the White Armies, we are now in 15kms away from Juba Capital City.

  25. I don’t see the reason why our people are fighting. I have recalled the proverb i got in secondary school which uttered that politics is said to be dirty game.that is why Dr. Riek is playing with civilians of his own tribe nuer against Dinka civilians. There is no joke this time with Riek machar. It is time for tit and tat to free our brothers and sisters who are in hands of rebels in jonglei, unity, malakal. The death of dinka civilians exceed upto 1,000 and displaced ninety thousand people from Dinka ethnic.

  26. alex says:

    I hope the managment will publish this article.
    Dear southern Sudanese, at moment all of as are jubelleting with the bloodshed taking place back home. I tried to write articles about peace but the managment for reasons best know to them refuse to put it to this net. They are interested in the articles of hatered and the one that encourages tribelism. I hope the managment is not bias because by refusing to put the helpful article on this net it means they are not interested in the unity of Southern sudanase people.

    So if they agree to put this article to the net, what I can say is if we want to live on this earth lets leave hatered and start to preach peace but if we do not want because you and I have nice houses in the West, we will regret the day when Khartoum start to redraw the contested borders. Some of us will find ourselves either being part of Khartoum and we will find the person to blame. The day you and I or my relative or your relative will be subjected to sharia laws that will be the time we will come back to our own sense that we made one of the greatest misteak in life. For now we are all blind and rejoicing but the time to swallow the bitter pill will come. Reik Macher will run to west and Salver Kiir will also find a safe place to hide. So the question is you and I where will we go and where will your relatives and my relatives go? The best thing for me and you is to pray for peace and reconcilation if we want to live like other people in this world. Is it difficult to forgive each other? Especially we in the diaspora who are encourging the fight to go ahead. Lets sit down and think brothers. soon the oil in Unity state will go to Khartoum if it is a lie we will see. Now the question is will we afford to fight ourselves and at the same time Khartoum? I never knew we South Sudanese are so foolish and idots. We need to read international politics brothers. Where is checkney in the former soviet union. They were given opportunity but they misuse it and now they are back under Russian rule. Dr John Garang said they have brought food to us in GOLDEN PLATE so if we are not careful Khartoum will take this plate and we will remain with nothing. I believe we will be able to live together despite what happened. What happened in South Africa and Rwanda is similar to our own issue but because of the spirit of nationhood they were able to sit down and forgive each other and now they are rebuilding they torn communities back including their countries. So if other people are able to do that how comes that we are not able to forgive each other and start rebulding our young nation. Peace is not far from us but it is because we are still blinded by satan that is why we are still interested in killing each other and we rejoice about what is happening. We all need each other so there is no point for us to preach hatered and war.

    To the managment I advice you not to be bias my article did not contain anything bad why did you refuse to put it on the net? I was writing about nationalism and brotherhood could one of get back to me and explain why you refuse to put my article to the net on the same email adress above.


    • info@southsudannation says:

      Sometimes your comments or so-called articles are just too long to inserted in the comments, so please either write shorter comments or post it as an article.

  27. Wad Jube says:

    Well said Mr. Koul, with backing evidence, your case can hold water.

  28. Mohd Adam says:

    Riek Machar and fugitive Joseph Kong are needed by the ICC. It was Riek, who helped, Kony to relocate to WE state in 2006, where lots of crimes against humanity were committed.

    • Kidepo says:

      Before Dr Riek Machar the only SS masiahe at the moment is crusified. Salvar Kiir and al dinkas should be charged first for the following human right abuses, land grabing, corruption, etc:-

      -Killing of Equatorians in Yei, Nimule, Toposa land during defection, etc.
      -Land grabing and forfeull settlement by dinka IDPS in Nimule, yei and Juba
      -Corruption and institutionalising of dinka corruption in the RSS public instutions
      -The Massacre of Nuer of Gajak, Nasser, etc
      -The erect killing of Nuer from door to door and up to now in Juba

      The big devil who started the evil is the one to fall into the pit before others

  29. Beek says:

    Best friend Chol Tong Career had being destroyed by those of Riek Machar,John Garang and likes.John Garang and Riek Machar thought they were Miracles.
    Riek Machar still got free dangerous Hacking Network.

  30. alex says:

    Dear brothers
    Lets us embark on preaching peace and reconciliation. It is useless when we kill ourselves for no genuine reasons. We are the same people of our beloved country South Sudan. To loose one person whether from which tribe affects us all as South Sudanese. Hatred will lead us to destruction and lets us learn to forgive each other brothers. I appeal to you brothers who are using this net to act responsibly. We should avoid preaching about tribe and let us put our nation first. Why do we feel proud and happy with the current situation. I see no point for people like us writing inflammatory articles while our children, mothers and old people are crying and yarning for peace……………….
    So brothers, the ball is in our hands and the choice is ours whether to continue to preach hatred or peace to our people. We should also choose whether to destroy that young nation or hold it intact with its people. It is we in the diaspora who have that ability to play a positive role in bringing peace among our people by transferring the same spirit we have here back home. Building a nation is not easy some of us think South Sudan should be like Britain or USA in just this two years. We are deceiving ourselves. It is not easy like the way we think brothers. It will take years and years and things will not be rosy as we think.


  31. ww says:

    I see another killer in the making to take Riek’s place. How come that most nuer don’t love peace? is it genetic? Or a ccultural mindset? If your choice is not to have ss than say it.

  32. Gatliah Dieu says:

    for those who claimed others sides list let them produce what they know inorder to go ahead with the search for justice in S.Sudan. and if no details deny or comparision Phar Kuol’s list, my fellow citizens peace in S.Sudan and that will lead to dinkas leave S.Sudan and live in foreign counry forever.

    mark my words

  33. Gatliah Dieu says:

    for those who claimed for others sides list, let them produce what they know inorder to go ahead with the search for justice in S.Sudan. and if no details to deny or comparision to Phar Kuol’s list, my fellow citizens there will be no peace in S.Sudan and that will lead to dinkas to leave S.Sudan and live in a foreign counry forever.

    mark my words

    • Kidepo says:

      Equatoria was the most peaceful land after kokora when the dinkas were chased away. Go away and leave us alone. You can go and butcher the Nuer in your backyards not in our lands if you can handle them without the Ugandans.

      You are already in non dinka lands by being in Equatoria, and other people’s lands. All the genocidal pictures have reached hague if you are still sleeping in luaks get ready to face ICC

  34. ww says:


    Dinka will never leave ss because of nuer. You assumed to be fighting Dinka but that is not true. It’s stupidity at the highest level for you to think that nuer can chase Dinka as a whole away. If your people keep killing Dinka like this that war is on the way coming and mark my word there will never be the Nuer left ss. Right now you pump your chest for only destroying Bor but still for the love of peace Dinka is not killing nuer in all their states. Nuer killed all non nuer in bentiu and Akobo. Why do you people love war? Is it a curse? There’s a thin line between bravery and cheer stupidity. You Have to know what you’re dying for as a man.

  35. ww says:


    Dinka will never leave ss because of nuer. You assumed to be fighting Dinka but that is not true. It’s stupidity at the highest level for you to think that nuer can chase Dinka as a whole away. If your people keep killing Dinka like this that war is on the way coming and mark my word there will never be the Nuer left ss. Right now you pump your chest for only destroying Bor but still for the love of peace Dinka is not killing nuer in all their states. Nuer killed all non nuer in bentiu and Akobo. Why do you people love war? Is it a curse? There’s a thin line between bravery and cheer stupidity. You Have to know what you’re dying for as a man.

    • Kidepo says:


      dinka idps are evrywhere in EES looking for ressetlement, some are going to kenya and uganda camps right away as well those flying out Juba daily thorugh the airport. 99% are dinka why are they runing out of south sudan leaving dinka lands and who chased them????

  36. joshua says:

    Some of you talks through internet, they don’t know what is going on on the front line.

  37. Luinj says:

    Very surprising to see someone who has been within the government, overthrown and driven away from his house and office talking like this. I totally agree with your views that the atrocities committed in Juba and are not to be left unnoticed and talked about.
    I agree to disagree with you in your claims that such atrocities were committed only in Juba by the Dinka. This gives your views bias interpretations and conclusions hence losing credibility. If you and the readers take time to look at the research done by CEPO in central Equatoria, you will learn that those who were responsible were individuals within the army and the police. In my view, those who moved it on a tribal line leaving the power struggle among the top SPLM leadership and the use of violence to solve such differences are to blame. The mention of a tribal and the mobilization of tribes by both parties to take offensive and defensive positions increased the vulnerability of our citizens especially those who were in the Juba.
    If we really want to be fair and harsh, there is a need to point the main facts out from both sides and clearly spell where they have gone wrong and try to give possible solutions to the conflict. By putting this in mind, I am sure we the writers and the citizens will be on a safer side.

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