The ‘Federal System’ in South Sudan is not the solution

BY: Kuir ë Garang, CANADA, JUN/05/2014, SSN;

Since SPLM-in-Opposition declared their preference for constitutional Federal System in South Sudan, there’s been a lot of heated debate by South Sudanese in the government, in the opposition, in the media and on the street. Understandably, the discussion pits those who support it against those who don’t support it.

While I don’t have any problem with the Federal System per se, I don’t believe it’s going to solve any of our problems now and in the future.

It’s true that we need a complete overhaul of our political governance and social systems in South Sudan; however, we need to understand that for any systemic transparency to work, the leadership’s attitude, the citizen-citizen relations and the general understanding of power structure, have to change.

As long as the leadership’s attitude and its perception of power and the country remain the same, it doesn’t matter what system we institute in South Sudan, we’ll always remain in a mess.

Unless we have both a good system and good people in leadership, things will remain the same: bad. A good system and a bad leadership or a good leadership and a bad system are all the same: bad!

We need to understand also that a Federal System will not auto-create. The constitutional provisions that will create and inform it will still need the cooperation of all the stakeholders in the country.

It wouldn’t be a mere importation of foreign Federal Systems such as the one in Nigeria, Ethiopia, Canada, USA or any other federated governance system in the world.

There has to be internal, idiosyncratic realities to be put into account.

Since power in South Sudan is concentrated in the hand of one man, the opposition see the Federal System as another way to clip the presidential powers.

However, I personally don’t think a Federal System is what we need now. All we need is a well-informed, broad-based and structured decentralization of power.

What we have now is actually a form of a Federal System (even if it’s not constitutionally stated as such) as we have state parliaments and governments. It’s therefore important that state governments be given greater and functional autonomy.

This means that ministries such as Education, Agriculture, and law enforcement sectors should be given to the states.

Besides, there should be no presidential and national government’s interference in running the affairs of the states; such as the removal of the governors by the president or the president being consulted by the governor on the appointment of state ministers.

State constitutions should have constitutional clauses or provisions on how to remove or replace the governors. Since governors are elected officials, they need to be removed in the same democratic manner by the state parliament as stipulated in the state constitution.

And more importantly, there has to be a very well-regulated economic leeway for the states to create their own functional economic systems, internally and externally; nationally and internationally.

And as always in South Sudan, there are those who oppose the Federal System (taken at face value) because they assume the three southern states of South Sudan would use it as an excuse to bully residents of war-ravaged states just like what happened with the ‘Kokora’ in the 1980s.

Given the attitude of the citizens in these three states towards citizens of other states resident there, the concern is not an empty claim.

The three southern (Central, Western and Eastern Equatoria) states are relatively stable and have been less affected by war.

Given the way the eastern (Jonglei, Upper Nile and Unity) states have been affected, some people see the Federal System as an unfair condemnation of the citizens of these states given the fact that the mess we are in wasn’t created by the citizens but by the same politicians who think they have a solution to the country’s problems.

It’s therefore conceivable that citizens in the three southern states, who complain a lot about ‘occupation of their ancestral lands,’ would use the Federal System to get rid of residents of other states in their states.

But let’s not forget, as I mentioned earlier, that the kind of the Federal System to be instituted in South Sudan, should it become possible, will be informed by a new constitution.

State-to-state relations, citizens’ travels and place of residence and the control over national resources will all be dictated by what is included in the constitution.

Let’s not just assume that because Canada has a Federal System and each province (state) has absolute control over its resources to the exclusion of other provinces then such a thing is going to be the case in South Sudan.

Competing interests will be there at the constitutional drafting time. The technical aspects would not be as easy as we romanticize them.

Each and every state will have to protect its interest by bringing to the fore social, economic and political generalities that favor them.

In no way will the Federal System decent on us in exactly the way we want it.

We’ve already seen Vice President, Wani Igga, backtracking on the Federal System, which he favored in 2011 (and oppose now) just because Dr. Riek Machar favors it.

And both President Kiir and VP Igga are saying that Riek isn’t the originator of the idea of the Federal System in South Sudan.

Wani claims Riek ‘stole’ the idea from ‘Equatorians’ while President Kiir says the Federal System has always been the demand of South Sudanese even before independence.

True partly, because the idea was first proposed by the ‘Southern Liberal Party’ with Buth Diu and Stanislaus Paysama in 1953 and later emphasized by the ‘Federal Party’ under Ezboni Mondiri and Father Saturnino Lohure in 1958.

So technically, everyone talking about the ‘Federal System’ now is ‘stealing’ and a ‘liar’ as per the VP reasoning.

These leaders need to know that it’s irrelevant when it was proposed and who proposed it first. The most important question is: IS IT GOOD FOR SOUTH SUDAN NOW? IF SO, THEN HOW? IF NOT, THEN WHY?

Watch a video commentary on
Kuir ë Garang is the author of ‘South Sudan Ideologically.’ For contact, visit or follow him on twitter @kuirthiy


  1. kikisik says:

    Mr. : Kuir ë Garang,
    It is not a surprise to me, because I know, most if not all Jenge do not like federal system. They thought that federal system will deprive them from staying in Equatoria. Because the fact remains, if Equatorian were to leave Juba and head to Hell or the home of devil all Dinka/Jenge would follow suit. They have a believe that by staying with Equatorian in Equatoria, they are in paradise. This is why even president “Innu”(Salvatore) don’t have even a tukul in his home town
    “Leaders comes Leaders goes, but South Sudan will remain forever”

    • Bill Kuch says:

      You have misunderstood the federal system of government! It doesn’t separate people by states as you mentioned. Please, come up with other form of government which can give us segregation according to our states, but it could not be federal system. Thanks!

    • Majier Alier says:

      Then you don’t have any clue if you think federalism mean segregation; federalism already exists that’s why a governor governed his or her own state in South Sudan. Where did you come with the notion that somehow federalism would mean Dinka would leave Equatoria?
      Here is news flash for you; Dinka/Jieng will be anywhere in South Sudan until the end of creation and there is nothing anyone can do about it; either diplomatically or militarily! If you can’t compete in the present of Dinka anywhere in the country; then your mediocrity is not an excuse for segregation!
      If you can’t challenge the system militarily, economically, rationally or by any other means necessary; do you believe telling Dinka to leave online is the only option? Remember; you have to have those means mentioned above to dictate segregation or not in the country.

    • Kijana says:


      You allude that you ´ve no problem with federalism and suggest that it will bring no solutions to the problems now and in the future. You however fail do understand the very problems federalsim wants to address: namely power sharing, abuility of each political entitiy to thrive to its fullest potential., accountability and transparency. Most people opposed to federalism want to hide their incompenetencies/inabilities and thrive at the expense of others. Federalism would devolve powers making you accountable to your constituencies. We want to know whether Greater BEG, UN or Eq can make on their own. We can´t afford having evrybody in Juba while those in Bor or Kwajok live in destitution and anarchy. Please go home and do something for the people.

  2. Joana Adams says:

    A choice of what political system should be adopted cannot be based on political paranoia. The political leadership of South Sudan had since 1947, chosen federalism as the best system that could guarantee our political rights in the face of the then Arab colonialism and imperialism. In 2005 , the CPA was crafted to ensure political aspirations and rights of other political forces other than the SPLM/NCP were taken into account and guaranteed through a federalised national political order. The implementation of the federal system in the South, was opposed and frustrated by GOSS(Government of South Sudan in Juba 2005-2011) Governor Wani Clement among others were singled out and rebuked for preferring to deal directly with Khartoum!
    The dinkocrats who were to destroy the nascent country and land us into a fresh civil strife had some axe to grind over the issue of Kokora. They had to come back to Juba in full force, to humiliate Equatorians and to grab their lands and women. In their insatiable quest for power and wealth, the dinkocrats did a lot more. They sought to liquidate potential leaders first from the Equatoria region, then their old enemy now turned friend-Dr. Lam Akol and finally the drive to exterminate Dr. Riek Machar and the entire Nuer community to guarantee the hegemony of the dinkocrats.
    It is to be remembered that the call for federalism was made again without success during the re-writing of the current constitution in 2011 backed by the then Vice President now rebell leader Riek Machar and former Speaker of the Nationl Assembly, now Vice President Wani Igga. The people of Equatoria came out clearly in preference of a federal system since they were the most marginalised in the then system and continue to be until today. They have spoken. If they are South Sudanese then their voices must count.
    As to what the lunny president Kiir says, it is irrelevant. He has failed tha country and has committed genocide and should have the decency to shut up while the people debate the political future and system the country seeks to adopt. A rejuvenated federal system will accommodate the political aspirations of the different ethnic groups or regions and ensure equitable distribution of power and resources. A federal system will ensure that there is division of power between national government and state governments and that elected governors are not removed by presidential decrees. A federal system will ensure that state governments are responsible for running their service ministries like education, health,police, prisons and wildlife forces and that the security organs are not again monopolised by any ethnic groups. A federal system will ensure that state governments in collaboration with the national government develop economic resources of state entities and that states would retain the right to use some of the revenues for development of these states.
    Above all a federal system will hopefully motivate citizen of variuos states to love and develop their states so that these states can be habitable by them and their children. The idea of politicians, commanders and high civil servants keeping their families in more developed nations of East Africa or in deed Europe, USA or Australia is a disgrace to the people of South Sudan. The developed facilities in these countries did not drop down from heaven but were developed by successive generations. If these people were lazzy consummers like most of our leaders, where would they go to squander our looted funds.
    Someone has to start development for the future generation to build on and to cherish.
    Federalism should not be confused with kokora. It is at the moment the only system that can deliver fairness in multi cultural, and multi ethnic societies with competing political realities. A centralised system under Kiir has failed the nation, it is time to try federalism. There is absolutely nothing wrong with Dr. Riek propagating and pro,oting federalism. Conscientious leaders are responsive to the aspirations and needs of their people. Dr. Riek has said loud and clear that he is willing to step aside during the interim government to be formed. How does Salva Kiir reciprocate this noble stand? By massacaring and beheading yet 20 more Nuer youth in Juba! What a grotesquely barbaric act by a man who has lost all sense of human decency. I do not know what people are waiting for other than mass resignations from such an abhorrent government. Salva Kiir must be brought to justice for defiling our land and turning our beloved Juba into a grave yard. the blood of all these innocent people are crying out from the ground and will never relent until these wicked dinkocrats join them.
    Congratulations to Richard Mulla, Peter Adwok Nyaba, Nazario and others who have already chosen not to be associated with this evil regime.
    Aluta continua!

    Joana Adams

    • Nikalongo says:


      The 10 states solution is the best we have. It ensures the participation of all groups; small and large. Advocates of federalism are not telling us how it will solve the current predicaments. Theirs is politics of survival. They want to be recycled and federalism is the hot cake. Will federalism stop the Nuer and Dinka from butchering each other? Upper Nile with three states is a disaster. How will it survive as a single unit? We should not buy into an idea just because Clement Wani, Nikalongo or Riak for that matter said it. Empowering the states is all that is needed.

      • Joana Adams says:

        Mr. Nikalongo,
        If you are asking my opinion, you and I know that the Interim Constitution 2005, gave us a federal constition which was watered down and subsequently derogated to the present Transitional Constitution 2011 by Salva Kiir. The leadership of the SPLM/SPLA including the incumbent president suscribed to the virtues of federalism in the CPA political package. Unless ofcourse you are saying that federalism was alright as long as it protected the wealth and powers of the South from the Jallaba but is a no go area where internal southern political order is concerned. This would be nothing new for the disgraced SPLM since their history is riddled with contradictions and hypocracy.
        The specific problems in Upper Nile which you have mentioned is ofcourse a huge national problem, but I do not believe that Nuer and Dinka’s are born to be eternal enemies to butcher each other at the slightest opportunity. The history of South Sudan as a self governing entity since 1972, testifies against this predicament. Even from 2005 to 2013 Dec, the Nuer and Dinka did not slaughter each other at sight. Again you and I know that the blood letting that occurred in Juba after the incident of Dec15th 2013, was predictable result of bad governance led by Salva Kiir. It could have been avoided.
        If you or anyone else is asking whether federalism is a perfect panacea for our troubled country, the answer is no, but it is the best political system the world can offer us at this moment in time. Like democracy, it is not perfect system but it is the best option to date. Obviously there are other factors that will impact on the success or failure of federalism in South Sudan including the cultural inclinations of the communities concerned. I believe some of these dynamics can be contained through good leadership, and sensible political education of our people.
        The fear of federalism by some sector of our society is partly due to the experience of kokora, but much more importantly those individuals or communities who oppose federalism do so because of fear of loss of privileges they are unfairly enjoying under the present centralised dinkocratic system. Through federalism, those who have been marginalised by the dinkocratic regime will recover the political dispensation of fairness and equity they are entitled to.
        As for joining x or y, if you may recall, soon after the Dec15th turmoil, I was one of the first on this website to call for fundamental political restructuring of our country including the call for federalism. So I am not jumping into anyone ‘s bandwagon. As a social democrat, I believe federalism will give people the right to exercise their democratic rights as well as encourage social economic development of our diverse communities in politically sensitive manner, thus taking towns to the people instead of bringing people to crowd in the capital city.
        Now regarding whether we need a 3 states or 10 states solution, I believe we need a 9 states solution. Warrap state should be scrapped and joined to its mother state of Northern Bahar el Ghazal. Warrap State was created just to gain political advantage and to siphon our national resources. It’s creation has not and cannot be justified.
        We in Equatoria believe that far from dividing people, federalism is the only political solution that can save this country from possible disintegration.

        Sorry if I have failed to address your concerns.

        Joana Adams.

        • Nikalongo says:


          Yes Joana you did fail to address my concerns. The country can actually be saved by devolving more power to the states. In a federal system, smaller tribes will become less visible. As Equatorian, you must be aware that there are more smaller groups here than anywhere else in South Sudan. Baka from Maridi and Lango from Tseretenya, for example, will become invisible in federal Equatoria than in current Western and Eastern Equatoria respectively. The State is more representative of is groupings than the federation is.

          Joana, this is politics. Your ideas against mine. The best seller wins. Instead of running riots, let us give chance for the electorate to decide how they want to be governed. This is an election issue that should not be negotiated by a clique out to maintain some status quo. Remember it is not the system that is faulty but the management.

          • Joana Adams says:

            I do not know what you are talking about. Please read my response again. Outsiders who have consistently marginalised Equatorians from 2005 -2013 cannot be the same abusers who can suddenly protect Equatorian interest. If u are an Equatorian which is unlikely you would know that Governor Clement Wani has been chosen to speak on behalf of Equatorians. And he has openly spoken. Unlike yourselves, Equatorians are not tribal politicians. They can manage their own internal affairs without resorting to violence.
            Is there visibility of other tribes in your dinkocratic centralised government apart from nominal representation? Contrary to what you think, the choice of what political system should be adopted is not an election issue. Unless you mean referrundum. This issue will be settled in Adis Ababa as part of the political settlement between the government and all the other political stakeholders lead by the SPLM-O. Already your miserable government is isolated in the symposium and it is getting frustrated over diplomatic offensive by the SPLM-O. If your government is so confident it will win the political argument
            against a popular people’s demand for federalism, lets put it to a referendum during the proposed neutral interim government, instead of the disgraced president Kiir trying to preempt and obstruct its implementation through scare mongering. Like Kiir, those who are opposed to federalism are afraid of the exercise of fairness in the political game. Centralised dinkocratic system has served the tribal chauvinists well and now they are paranoid that federalism will pull the carpet off their feet. You will need a miracle to stop the political tsunami that is fast approaching!

    • wekty says:

      I like your article brother, you do have the right message to the people of South Sudan, the reality is there, there is miss trust in all corners of our nation, you don’t impose unity, when it had fail. People who aren’t from equatorial region, are skeptical, and is logic to be, because they perceive the idea as a treat to their stay and power.

    • Elijah Samuel says:

      Well articulated Joana. If they like it or not they can not silence the people! Indeed I agree with you, they have failed the people thus they have lost the right to opine or even to include them in this discussions! Our tomorrow does not include Kiir and his killers! So we have no choice but to ignore them!

  3. maker mashood says:

    I wonder if those politicians who are calling for Federalism in the Republic of South Sudan really understand what Federalism is. When you have states and state governments such as we currently have in the Republic of South Sudan, you have a federal system.
    The current structure of government in South Sudan is Federal and we should only be speaking about strengthening it by delegating more powers to the states. Federalism works when states governments work closely with federal government. My fear is that those politicians who are calling for Federalism are working for breaking up the country into small helpless entities so that they can become eternal leaders there after realizing that they have lost public trust on the national level.
    There is nothing exciting about the Federal system which some politicians are currently calling for that is good for the people of South Sudan. If anything at all, it might only serve the interests of those selfish politicians who want to clink to power for life. These rampant calls for federalism are merely calls for regionalism which is another face of “cokcora”.
    We have politicians who only like South Sudan when they have jobs but would not hesitate to destroy it when they are not holding ministerial positions. They are like that woman in the story of the holy Bible who wanted a child she stole from its original mother be cut in halves. As majority of us know the story, the woman whose biological child died, knew very well that a half child was as good as her dead child but yet excitingly agreed to a Judge order to split the living child between her and the true mother.
    Therefore, those South Sudanese who love South Sudan and the unity of its people should resist regionalism as proposed by the power hungry politicians and to also resist rewarding those who resort to violence in quest for power.

    • wekty says:

      That your opinion brother, why worry about Kokora, don’t you have your own place? go and rule yourself as a Dinka in your own state and stop bothering other people. I do believe in federalism base on tribe and region, it works in Ethiopia, why
      not in here, if current set of system, is only empowering on tribe at expense of 63 others.

  4. Silvar Kir the Uneducated. says:

    The best solution for South Sudan is Federalism and good governance. Show me a country where a president can sack his or her vice president at nay time without trouble? Perhaps, this can only happen under a military regime. The president and his vice are married for a specific term, and until that term can come to an end, they have to work together.
    It did happen in Malawi, and why should it happen to a country like South Sudan that fought for so long for lack of reforms from the North?
    This act of dismissing elected officials in South Sudan by president Silvar Kir is a recipe for trouble. It seems he has a problem.
    And the only solution is to give way for someone who is willing to listen, and introduce reforms.

  5. Taban Hakim says:

    Maker, there’s something wrong with you Dinkas; if the people of South Sudan demanded federal system since 1947, 1955,1963, and 2005- what’s makes you Dinkas altered your minds? I think there’s nothing that would halt Federalism from occurring. Whether you guys like it or not, we the people of Equatoria have opted it. Unless you folks don’t want peace to exist.

  6. Defender says:

    The fear of Federalism is just because, those who are holding public purse are afraid of losing their grip. The question remains to be answered it this: given the varied topography of our ethnic divide and the monopoly created by the current system, how will the rest of society protect themselves? We cannot fear from the system that has the most potential for creating social harmony? Kohora should not be used as a tool of creating fear. Those who continue to incite the past are the ones whom we should fear. Their aim is not discount the merits of federalism, but their own fear of losing control over the incentives that comes with centralised system of power that is breading unconscionable leaders that favor, only their kin and kith.

  7. A conscientious leader always heed to the outcry of the people and work hard to meet those needs. Peace is paramount. Unity is a priority, nationalism and love is also the number one aspiration of the people of South Sudan. If @Maker Mshood and @Kuer Garang want the unity, love and nationalism, the current political leaders should rally behind people’s aspirations. The people want a federal system of government since 1947 in Juba conference.

    If Maker, as he claims, loves the country and the people, why do you fear federalism. Love is does not envy. Love does not control, nor keeps the record of wrong. Love gives. Love never enjoys in subjugation. Unless @Maker supports dinka domination he would be right to stand against federalism.

    Kuer Garang, when Wani Igga made a U-turn on supporting federalism, he did so because of fear of his position and personal hatred of Dr Riek Machar. You can see his hatred clearly when he said “No, don’t follow Dr Riek Machar. He is a liar. He stole federalism from Equatorians. I (Wani Igga) also is for federalism.” What is wrong Wani Igga if you support this noble call for federalism which Equatorians called for since 1947 and again reiterated by Dr Riek Machar in 2014. This position of Wani Igga implies political immaturity, and naive personality which follows personal interest rather than national interest.

    Proposing an idea is different from implementing it. A doer of the word is more respectable than a mere mouthpiece. South Sudan needs politicians who are good at walking the walk and talking the talk simultaneously.

    South Sudanese believe in unity because it is strength. Federal system is the only vehicle that would carry us to unity, our desired home. Unless dinka change their minds South Sudanese less dinka will rally behind Dr Riek Machar for federalism. It is not the matter of politicians anymore. The public need freedom and this liberty is only found within a federal constitution of South Sudan. You indulge in KOKORA but we are going a head with Dr Riek Machar for a genuine freedom and liberty.

  8. Chul Mi Bor says:

    I could not disagree with you more Mr. Garang. The “Federal System” in S. Sudan is one of many solutions because people of our country will be able to elect their representatives in their respective states without Kiir’s intervention. Also, dictator Kiir won’t be able to sack elected governors and appoint his own governors. We will not need 100 constitutional posts in Juba like what we have right now (ministers + deputy ministers + undersecretaries) + the so called National Legislative Assembly ( Council of States + Parliament). By the way, half of National Legislative Assembly, were appointed by our beloved King Salva Kiir. To me, Federal System will work. Gracious!

  9. Itiqwili says:

    Federalism here means the dinka who have floaded Juba street straight from cattle camps to senior positions in the government and a danger and real source of insecurity go home and tender their cattle, build at least nice tukuls and have homes. we are tired of people who have no sense of ORDER, how else could a country move forward!

  10. Makoi Mayen says:

    No federalism, no riek machar, no anything, only Salva Kiir.

  11. Kuanyin says:

    Dear brothers, the author have really explain in detail meaning of federalism and it’s implications
    Let us see the level of our country ,all the youth are divided by politicians , everything is on tribal line ,when do you think unity will come in ? All these heats messages are means by some leaders to get ride of all youth in the country.
    For example I will be ready to fight colleague within other tribe vise versa and then old politicians will remain to enjoy our time . Please stop all these let us united as youth of south Sudan to defend your selves and let politicians fight alone with their wives

    • Mr Kuanyin how would unity be achieved in South Sudan in the light of this oppressive government? It is true that South Sudanese want unity but the problem is how to achieve this unity. To me, relinquishing powers to give South Sudanese people THE RIGHT to decide whatever they want is a way for a genuine unity. People MUST be free if you preach unity. Preaching unity without paying the price for it is just like chasing wind. Dinka must stand up and face the truth and accept the fact that they have failed the country. Centralism is dysfunctional because it breeds disunity, hatred and lack of sense of nationalism.

      South Sudanese, and dinka in particular don’t learn from history. Sudan disintegrated because Khartoum government ignored the advice of South Sudanese chiefs ie implementing a federal constitution in Sudan after independence in 1956.

      Salva Kiir and his dinka advisers are responsible and accountable before the law for all crimes against humanity they committed. To save peace and South Sudanese unity, Salva and his government including dinka advisers are required to accept the request of the people: federal constitution and interim government without Salva Kiir.

  12. Yanga says:

    A federal system of government has many advantages for all the people of South Sudan. However, if we allow ourselves to be blinded by emotions of land, the fear of being evicted from other peoples’ lands, then we will not see the merit, and definitely we will remain behind as we are despite lots of resources. To allay the fears of those who oppose federalism on the narrow ground of land, rest assured that in a federal system all citizens have the right to reside wherever they choose.

    Now as for Wani Igga opposing the popular demand of the people without convincing justification, doesn’t mean he is right. He has now put himself in one camp and the people in another camp. Sooner or later he will come to the people asking for votes and that will be the time the people will pay back unless he sees reason and side with the people.

  13. wekty says:

    You are right brother, one thing that you have to know, that Federal system is best for South Sudan, the level that we reach is beyond repair, let everyone goes to his/her place, so that we do not engage in power struggle and suspicious
    of miss treating others. Brother new arrangement is needed for South Sudan as whole, new states and counties need
    to be establish, because the existent one is a mess, the fear for Federalism is a creation of our own.

  14. Eli says:

    Wani igga bought into the lies of jenge hence he is an outcast Equatorian and those who are still following him like Nikalongo, we look for leaders like governor Clement and those who still stand with the people not for their stomachs.
    Dinkas are liars but it’s catching up to them. I once met a western diplomat in an office and during our introduction I introduce myself as a South Sudanese, but this wasn’t enough for this fellow instead he ask me if I was a dinka? In the first place there isn’t anything on me that indicate I look like a dinka, instead many people think I am a Nigerian or from west Africa or others say are you an African American or Jamaican? But to mistake me a proud Ma’di man for a dinka was purely either an ignorance or utter insult, however I found out later many South Sudanese of non-Dinka origins have similar experiences. Dinkas wherever they go are telling people that South Sudan belongs to Dinkas alone, this is a very serious offence and utterly lying about our identity or call “IDENTITY THEFT”. Out of 64 tribes it should be shame on you dinkas to ignore the truth, we will prove to the World that you are the most dangerous people and no one should trust you. I hate tribalism but when you attack my identity I will not relent to prove you wrong. Since you dinkas call us Ugandans we also call you Bushmen of Kalahari desert, afterall you all walk naked, except Bushmen are lighter skin and they done follow cows.

    • Nikalongo says:

      Amba Eli,
      What is all this about looks? We are all blacks regardless of where we come from. One time, we were all going around naked. That aside, let us learn to play politics. Your ideals against mine. Politics is being played well in Equatoria. I am a supporter of the 10 states system because it ensures the participation of both smaller and larger groups. In this system, Easterners are able to elect Lobong (Toposa: large tribe)) and appoint Jerome (Madi: one of the smallest). Having said that Amba Eli, I am not going to run riots in Nimule, Pageri, Arapi, Loa, Eyibi, Okodu Maria, Kerepi, Moli Tukoro, Mugali, etc against supporters of federalism.

      Eli, instead of calling Igga and Nikalongo names, convince them why federalism is better than the system we have now. How will federalism help us stop corruption, build roads, school, hospital, etc. Above all, how will federalism stop the war mongering Dinka and Nuer from killing each other? Politicians want to recycle themselves and are out deceiving the masses. Our silver bullet lies in strengthening the states. If you are unhappy with Igga’s leadership, present yourself as an alternative to the people of Lobonok. Igga’s future will not be decided by opinions on SSN.

  15. Maker Mashoot says:

    Dear Mr Hakim
    Sorry, I do not engage in tribal talk; all I wanted to say was to clarify to people like yourself that federalism exists in South Sudan and we may only need to make it stronger. So you and I Mr Hakim are basically saying the same thing and I do not understand how did tribalism come into this conversation?
    I am also wondering how you knew my tribe. The name Maker is not exclusively a Dinka name. Dear Hakim, I am a South Sudanese who love all South Sudanese people regardless of their tribal affiliation. Please keep your threats of no peace if you do not get federalism to yourself because they do neither scare me nor any one like me. We all need peace yourself included. Violence is not a good thing so be careful what you wish for. I beg you to read my article again and please allow yourself some time to understand it because I do really want you to understand that you and I are for Federalism. Again I would like to emphasize that, South Sudan is already a federal country and we should not be quarreling over federalism because we already have it.

  16. Daniel Akau says:

    Dear Kuir Garang,
    I always like and love reading your writings. In this article it also sounds interesting to read. But when you said people who talk about Federal system of government in South Sudan have stolen this idea from those who originated it from day one you actually went wrong here. I know your a scholar but not all all you write in any essay must entirely come from your original brain in order to be a good and convincing research. We all build our good ideas on others; we cannot avoid it my brother. Federalism in itself is seen here a worth trying system to resolve our huge problems created not only because of power struggle but most particularly because of diversity. It has been proven that this system works well in a diverse society like ours in South sudan. Unless, you are saying that South Sudan is not diverse enough. There is a reason why I would go for federalism because it has never been tried before and it is the very reason why people you have mentioned so far lik Buth, Paysama, Fr. Saturlino Ohure, Ezboni Mondiri they have come with it and have died because of this very system which was not implemented the Arab and Islamic leaders who have oppressed South Sudanese including other northern Sudanese because of wanting to entrench their own ideology of domination, oppression and discrimination based on Islamism and Arabism in the name of Centralist system of Government which unfortunately you seem to incline to perpetuate it because you think still benefits you and your cronies.This is unfortunate because you want to remain old and archaic in belief system. Why not try something that has never been tried in this country like Federal system of governance? Why do you think Dr. John Garang suggested Federal System of Governance if the Old Sudan remain united but under Federal States? Was he not thinking? Why did Garang think of having Ramciel as a new Capital that bring people together? I think this man was thinking hard and wanted to resolve peoples’ problems. Please, do not understand Federalism as Kokora. I know many Dinkas in particular fear even to hear the word Kokora because it is their own product of defaefactions in the Region of Equatoria which actually brought about the need for Kokora. This time however, Federalism is not Kokora politics; it is a regional political solution to problems of diversity and co-existence of all south Sudanese in a federal styem type of governance. My conclusion is just like yours that it is irrelevant who proposed this system but it needs to be debated whether it works or not. But for me it is worth trying something that has never been tried. Centralism has not worked under the Arab and Islamic governance and why do you think it will work under Salva Kiir? Centralism appeared to have worked well in excluding other South Sudanese and northern Sudanese from sharing the national Cake during the old Sudan. Do you think it will work now? It is clear it is not working now under Salva Kiir. Decentralization is nothing but simply cosmatic for Centralism and autocracy in South Sudan. It is like Kokora system which did not really work properly. Let us go for Federalism please. It is something that has never been tried and it is worth trying!!

  17. kong puok tongluot - In Finland says:

    Dear, Kuir e Grang

    The federalism and it’s new costitution are essentially based for South Sudanese paternity development growth, which sustains and maintains the rurals competing work hard among our people in agriclture, fishery insfrastructure, education, to aboid nepotization, corruption rampants, tribalism, and dictatorial tendencies.
    Kuir, I think it is first time that you misunderstood this thematic demand by South Sudanese vast majority due to federalism implementation system, that’s only way for well expectation to restore peace, reconciliation healing, and confidence.
    Mr, Kuir
    I would like to solicit you that, those who have declined th feteralism are the partial corrupts people,those who relying on oil revenues. Soo, those people they don’t want even to work hards, they are selfish people, they seeking power in to conrol our asert and recruit their own army to protect the rongdoing, and these attitution as results of conflict erupted on december, 15. 2013 eventually, in Juba, Which is result political struggle and selfishness not between Dinkas and Nuers. The Nuers and Dinkas, most populous ordinary people are victims in recent war.. Thanks.

  18. John Amar Mading says:

    This message goes strictly to pro federal government in South Sudan. This is not why we Dinka fought, this is not why we sacrifice and it will not be how we will rule. In 1983 the Bari tribe, Mudari and other Equatoria killed us in Juba and some of us were expelled due to the idealism of Kokora. Kokora by definition means nothing but federal government. I would like to assure the government of central Equatoria State and all the Equatorians that this system will never work in the Republic of South Sudan. We will not allow to be killed again in Juba. We will not allow the beating by clubs and expelling again. In 1983 while addressing the crowds in Upper Nile, late Dr. John Garang cited Kokora as number one cause of his defections and formation of SPLA/M. When Dr. Riek Machar joined SPLA/M after completing his PhD in UK, he officially knew it was Kokora and it was fighting to resettle the Upper Nilers and the Bhar al Ghazalians in Equatoria for what they did, “forced Federal System in the Country”, a move which is evil by then and evil today and will be evil in future.
    The governor of Central Equatoria State and his people the Bari and Mundari are having the same thing in minds. If federal system or Kokora you can call it is enforced today in the Republic of South Sudan, I would like to assure my fellow Dinka that our colonies in Equatoria and western Bhar al Ghazal will be confiscated and that is what Dr. Riek is having in his mind to punish us Dinka after his failed coup attempt. Dr. Riek Machar must know that “he who succeeded is never at wrong. Late Dr. John Garang was not at wrong for creating colonies for us. Its our duty to maintain those colonies and protect it from those who wants to confiscate it from us. Dr. Riek Machar and the governor of central Equatoria State are having the same mind set. They must know that any attempt to destabilise our colonies will amount to full resistance and we are ready. Our colonies in Equatoria, Western Bhar al Ghazal and among other tribes in Upper Nile are permanent not matter ann interim government or whatever Dr. Riek may come with.
    For Dinka who are running to Dr. Rieks’ camp in pretext of not supporting Salva Kirr our dear president, you are not a true Dinka. A Dinka never give-up, that is why we have colonies all over South Sudan and own the government. If you are a Dinka, return to the government before its late. Thousands our descendants born by Equatorians and Western Bhar al Ghazal ladies are there to help in making our colonies more permanent. After all these successes, what Dr. Riek Machar is dreaming is to target our long term goal and turn it into ashes.
    For those who are not supporting our colonies any more, specially some Dinka elders, you are mistaken. You supported Dr. John Garang in his dreams to establish our colonies which are done. Now will you sit and watch Dr. Riek Machar and some Equatorian like Clement Wani Konga taking them away? I believe it’s not a crime to talk about these now than you keeping quiet. Our great politicians like Abel Aliar and others who strongly talked about these are silent today. But we the current generation will continue with these dreams, we will not sit and watch Dr. Riek Machar taking our colonies away. We will not sit and watch our colonies in Equatoria flipping back to the hands of Equatorians. We will not sit and watch our colonies anywhere else falling apart. South Sudan is a Dinka land, an interim government targeting our colonies will face full resistance. For those tribes which are loyal to Dinka rules and loyal to accept of duty to colonise them, if they need certain rights in their ancestral land, it will be negotiated and treaty will be sign. If not, they must forget about Dr. Riek Macahr evil promises. You will never get it that way. We have well established policy to govern our colony and no question about it. The Republic of South Sudan will remain Unitary. The virus of federal system will be treated the same way we treated Dr. Riek Machar in his Coup attemp last December.
    John Amar Mading
    Juba-Republic of South Sudan
    June 7, 2014

    • Eli says:

      John Amar Mading
      Your dreams will soon come to a failure. It is easy to say you colonised but not easy to keep your so-called colonies, the Europeans who are more intelligent thousand times than dinkas couldn’t do it, the Turks couldn’t, the Arabs couldn’t, how could you? Yours was a temporary victory and now watch how it will fail. You ran away from Murles and Nuers white army like dogs to take refuge in Equatoria and Uganda, we sympathize with you but now you are our targets, all that we wanted was to get our South Sudan from the common enemy jalaba, now dinkas are the enemy.
      john, Your mistake number one was starting a war with the Nuers, you could have stayed in Equatoria and torment the peace loving Equatorians for many years, because we are patient and tolerant, although we knew we will get you out of our lands one day but it was going to take long, but thanks be to God for sending the Nuers are our best allies, you are now history, even your ally Museveni told Kirr that he has lost popularity among the South Sudanese and he is now mocking your murderous Kirr.
      Mr Mading, Kenyans are now on our side let alone Ethiopians who gave us all their support, Sudan is on our side, Eritrea, Djibouti, Etc. Yes you are right your own Dinkas are now feeling the heat and they are switching side quickly. Your kingdom is crumbling before your face.

      People like you, the diehard dinkas are the causes for hatred for dinkas, all the world hate you when you started war with UN, USA, Norway, West African Peace Keepers. Etc.

      • Majier Alier says:

        Please stop the dishonesty and use facts on the ground; tell us more about your allied Nuer’s empty victories online and zero facts on the ground! Tell us the regions you have in control against the government with your Nuer allied! If you have any in South Sudan; then why is Riek commuting between Nairobi and Addis Ababa and not in any region in South Sudan?
        Now; what are your imaginary allied Kenya, Ethiopia, Eretria and Djibouti going to do against South Sudan? Invade Dinka for you? Before you celebrate your victory against the JIENG; you have to have the evidence of it on the ground! It’s just a common sense 101!

  19. Simon Luk says:


    It would be wise to chose and watch our words very carefully!

    Second, it would also be wise to STOP generalizing people on tribal/thnic line!

    We are in a very difficult time and fueling it with tribal hatred will only let the hell be poured down on us from heaven.

    Federal system is fine. However, we have to study very carefully other factors that would make it more effective or ineffective in our context.

    We, as a nation needs to craft a federal constitution/suprem law of the land that would define powers of the central government and other layers of the fefderal adminstration such as states, counties, payams, and bumas.

    Second, equitable allocation of resources will be discussed and stipulated in the constitution.

    Third, the most controversial issue (i.e. the composition of adminstrative units/constituents) will be holistically addressed in the constitution. For example, Magwi county in Eastern Equatoria is a federal land (public domain) and it also belongs to Madi and Acholi people. In a federal system, other South Sudanese would live in Magwi county, pay taxes, and abide by the rule of law. unless a federal system is misunderstood, this is how it should be applied.

    Last but not the least, we need to have effective leadership that would implement the system, not to keep on the book as it becomes a crazy tradition across Africa, where leaders would cite artcles in the constitution and do different things in real the world.

    In order to live in wholesome peace, build and and sustain the country, we need to EMBRACE each other and THINK BIG.

  20. All you internet politicians proposing federal system(s), can anyone of you define and differentiate what we have now as state governments(10) and your so-called federal system? What are the bases of your argument? Can you guys find something better than this to debate about?

    • Omang Rollo says:

      We have federal system already in place, what these people are asking for is cake, so they can have it and eat it too. in other word, the drive toward regionalism is solely for greed. {monopoly of states’ resources}

  21. Eli says:

    It looks like you know a lot about my own home town, unless if you are a Ma’di or else you are one of those land grabers IDPs, yes you people have done all the evils we have ever seen in our land. However you need to hurry up and enjoy the short victory you have been claiming, politics is like wind if you are new to it. Ma’di as you asserted is one of the few in numbers and we blamed the European colonialist for splitting us up on both Uganda and S Sudan, but I live that to be judged by history.
    Although our number is small I would like to reassure you that size is not everything, it is what comes out of the size that matters. You can try and continue to be a puppet of this criminals in Juba but rest assure that your days are numbered.
    With federal system we who are progressive minded can develop our lands, as always since 1955 there are areas in South Sudan who never benefited the nationa, federal or so-called ten states those who hate peace and development will always continue their barbarism.
    Nikalongo, your blind support to killers will end you on a noose, don’t be fooled by liars.
    You mentioned about blacks, sure we are but that doesn’t mean we all think alike, just like you and l don’t share political views, you are supporting murderers and working for your stomach, I am working for justice, peace, equality and prosperity for the deprived.

  22. Eli says:

    I do chose my words carefully, as mentioned previously if you attack my identity I will attack yours, you hope that you dinkas should be allowed to say anything about others but we remain silent, that can only happen if you annihilate all your opponents, and we all know that won’t happen. You can issue threats however you want we are used to that from our former foes the Jallabas since before even you and I were born.

    Federal system works like it or not, both President Kirr and his ignorant puppet Vice Igga publicly acknowledged that since 1947 South Sudanese have asked for federal governance, and Igga is playing double cards by criticizing Riek Marchers on this topic while he said he is for federalism, trying to appease his boss while even that same boss was in Juba when the three Equatorian states attended the convention chaired by Machar in the presence of Wani Igga when we demanded federal system just few years ago. What a joke.

    I don’t hate any tribe and not even dinkas, some of my friends are dinkas and they are nice people, what I hate is when people go around in the name of dinka tribe and arrogantly lie that they own South Sudan just for them alone.

    Equatorian region challenges:
    What need to happen is that let’s begin a genuine dialogue as a nation and not live in fear mongering mentality that Equatorians are repeating Kokora, the word kokora according to some Bari writers only imply to equity sharing. It was Abel Alier who implanted hatred and fear in the minds of dinkas so that when SPLA was formed it was with the intentions to retaliate against the Equatorians. What is happening in Equatoria today was planned more than thirty years ago and executed by the subsequent Dinka warlords in particular Dr John Garang who championed it.

    Upper Nile region challenges:
    The other fear coming from dinka is their coexistence with Nuers and Murles, in particular the Bor dinkas. First of all we are all humans and we can solve our problems if we only listen to all sides and come up with a mutually satisfying solutions give or take.

    Bahr El Ghazal region challenges:
    The people of Bahr El Ghazal has always been loyalists to their cousins from Bor due to the fact that they share same ethnicity, but in reality these two don’t see eye to eye, now that the leader is from Bahr el Ghazal the distinction is apparent. However they are opposed to federal system the reason is unknown to me, some analyst said due to scarcity of resources which does not really make sense given the immensity of untapped virginity of our nation, or else their other reason is to congregate themselves in the land of others such as Equatorians soil to loot us of everything as they are doing now.

    In conclusion, I would like to suggest that we should not put fear ahead of the unknown future, progress and being opened minded should guide us to explore and venture into a prosperous future. WE MUST TRY FEDERALISM.

  23. Daniel.A..O. Ayong says:

    John Amar,

    Thanks very much for showing your typical color that ”you were borne to rule” and South Sudan is Jienge territory. Please done blame the Southerners if they reacted sharply against the Jienge ego-centric because of your backward ideology.
    Now, it has become very clear that Dinkas want to establish their Empire in South Sudan, BUT for sure this ambition will not materialize, and you will regret if 63 tribes unite against you.
    Yes, you praise your king Kiir for starting implementing your selfish agenda wrongly such as creating County within other people land, good example is Pigio in Upper Nile State and issuing decree for establishment of County with population less than 2500 inhabitants in Akoka, also he encourages land grabbing in whole Equatoria region.
    Please taking it from me you Dinkas were unable to crush Murle militarily as you aimed to do, will you be able to crush 63 tribes militarily? In case those dormant tribes take your imagination seriously, you will not be in South Sudan for good.
    John, the Master propagator of Dinkas colony, please go ahead with your devilish plans. But be assured that God who created those communities will not permit you to accomplish your Satanic aspiration. I thought you are born against Christian who believes in Christ but you turnout to be devil agent to disintegrate South Sudanese citizens by your behaviour.
    If you fear a federal system of government in South Sudan because you want to maintain dominion, it is too late for you my friend, for nobody will wishes to remain under the york of unethical community known as Dinkas.
    By your attitude and sick mentality you made people to dislike you, Southerners wake up and deal with Dinkas as they deal with you and let see who will loss the ground not in war but debating your case objectively.
    Majority of people from Bahre Elgazal region do not want federal system to be initiated in South Sudan thinking that wealthy federal states will go away with their resources and Central government dominated by Bahre Elgazal will not have full control on resources like now.
    To me federal system will let us go home and help in development of local resources such cattle which is source of tribal conflict and to intensify in agriculture schemes rather than populated Capital city Juba and to live unproductive and idle dependence life.

  24. Makoi Mayen says:

    Who are those that I usually see on SSTV dancing and singing songs of praise to Salva Kiir and pledging their allegiance to him? Chief after has done that in the whole of Equatoria. Tell me which chief has not pledged to kiir including Elhag Paul and Choromke Jas fathers. Your fathers are dancing and singing for him and here you say he has lost popularity in Equatoria. What are fathers and mothers in their late eighties dancing for? No any Dinka chief has done that to him because we do not pledge allegiance to people. We respect kiir because he is president. We would do the same to Wani or Riek if they come thru democracy. We don’t dance for money. We are not beggars

    • Makoi Mayen says:

      Do you equatorians think that you will get this federalism on a golden plate? We will not give it to you free of charge. You will have to pay a price and that price is very expensive. Take up arms and fight for it. We will leave equatoria the way it was before. That equatoria you are proud of will be worst than a kalahari desert if we leave. You will return to wearing barks and leaves of trees. Monkey eaters and cowards

      • Eli says:

        You are a rotten apple in the basket. And yes we will do what you have never seen before. We are here, run or die.

  25. Isaac Deng says:

    Kuir Garang,
    Federalism debate should be healthy, not about Dinka versus Equatoria or Nuer. Dinka as a tribe should not be misconstrued to be against Federalism. Educated Dinka sons and daughters have to come out and defend democracy, too. We must not let fear consume our positive thinking. Millions of people have died because they wanted freedom, development and democracy to be instituted in South Sudan. You cannot live in peace when your immediate neighbor identifies you as his or her enemy or oppressor. No human being small or weak will allow another human being to sit on his head forever. European colonial powers were defeated by poor African. This is why a need for us to develop a culture of love for one another as a country.
    Federalism is not bad if properly implemented. It will allow more powers to the states and channels resources from the center for states development projects. Sluggish power elites in Juba who want to get a firm grip on nation’s resources are the only ones terrified to loss their huge privileges and status. If Federalism is a popular demand from the people, a good leadership must listen and respect people’s choices and voices.
    Centralization has been discredited all over the world and the decentralization has been tried unsuccessfully in South Sudan, it is time we should go for Federalism and see if it will serves us better.
    Finally, Federalism is not about dividing people along tribal lines, it is all about improved governance and economic performances. South Sudanese must return to reasoning out their political differences without fears. I am certain that Federalism will reduce tribalism and preventable tension in the country if there is a political will. We can learn from other countries’ experiences to avoid meaningless tribal conflict.
    John Amar Mading, you are a trouble maker who wishes trouble in Dinka land. Late Dr. John Garang never cited kokora as a reason to lead a liberation struggle in 1983. Do you know that your stupidity only invite more anxiety and divide us more? If you war, go fight in Abyei but if you love South Sudan, please stop adding fuel to the burning fire and be rational human being. We had enough of bloodshed and it is time to give our children and women peace of mind.

    • Eli says:

      Isaac Deng
      Thank you, let’s not allow radicalism ruin our nation, just as Islamist radicals have been denounced we must also denounced diehard tribalistic mindset, starting with our leaders to our youth who uses their tribesmen to cause chaos.

  26. survivor says:

    federalism, centralized governance or any other forms of government aren’t the solution or panacea to our current problems. we all know what ails us, but non of us is willing to admit. we are all stuck on Kiir as if he is the only one who is running everything in south Sudan. we are so narrow in our views that we neglect to see other main actors or agitator. Kiir is the problem along with Riek, the group of 9 or whatever number they are now. all of these guys are proven failures and they are now jockeying for power. irregardless of whatever terminology they are throwing as us. it simply aint gonna work.
    to me, the problem all along is the fact that the main stack holders in our society have been marginalized, namely the local chiefs and the parliamentarians. these people are the true leaders, not the one’s trying to impose themselves on us.
    to me the solution is parliamentarian system, with two houses, the house of elected representative/parliamentarians (with limited terms not exceeding 10 years) and the house of chiefs. and instead of having a popularly elected president; this system would be headed by a prime minister who is elected by their peers in the parliament.
    since the man cause of our issue is the presence of ever powerful individuals without basis who are always holding peace hostage. in this system, if they fail to secure a seat, they they would be blaming the central government for their failure, but rather would work with those in their local areas to secure elections next time. this would of course mean fresh elections and i believe all the crooks and thieve would all loose out; thus, it would also be a house cleaning move s well.
    if we want to move forward, we really need to sit back and his issue rather then individuals and tribe. we as southerners are suffering from the same ailments irregardless of tribe or region. we need services, schools, hospitals, roads security etc.we continue to misdiagnose our issue; we look at it as if its one individual who is responsible for our current mess, when in reality, it was a collective work of several people.

  27. Isaac Deng says:

    You have injected excellent perspective to the debate. South Sudan is facing many challenges that required complex solution. We are diverse country and president Kiir should not dictates what type of governance best suits our diverse cultures, the political decision should be made by the people of south Sudan through dialogue and inclusive political process.
    Retaining the current centralized system with powerful presidency is a recipe for chaos. I agree with you in that parliamentary system may work but only in a country where political parties are politically matured based on ideology and implementable manifesto. Political parties in South Sudan are tribal and regional based which is a problem and hurdle for proportional representation. Although parliamentary system is the appropriate system in our situation, we do have parliamentarians in Juba who are corrupt to the core and cannot be trusted by the people. They never condemn openly corruption in Juba and look for better solution since the eruption of this political crisis because they are fear losing their positions.
    In parliamentary system a member of parliament can also serves as member of executive and this is encouraging more corruption and gives a little room for services delivery. With weak parliamentarians, president can have a platform to manipulate power to his advantage unless there is a provision in the constitution that spells out checks and balances between these two branches of government it will failed miserably.
    What South Sudan needs is a federal constitution under presidential system of government with added bicameral system to check on presidential powers and held the executive accountable when he or she violates the constitution of the land. In this system of governance, a president can be easily impeached with simple majority but it is hard to impeach corrupt Primer Minister who has majority in the parliament. Do see my point of argument.

  28. Martin Mayang says:

    Our enemy number one are The Equatorians. That is why we fought, used their intellectuals for our benefits, turned their ladies into machineries for procreation, colonised them and used their resources to settle in our colonies. Those who are dreaming about federal government, you must know that our colony is the first priority. We will not live our colony and Equatorians will never go free. Practically, as of today, our number in some Equatorian villages or towns is about 3 times more than the number of the native people. By fight or whatever, our based in Equatorian will never come to an end. Its permanent. Where were the so call Equatorians when we are taking those places? Their men escaped to exile and their women took refuge to us, because they know they have classless men in Equatorian and three quarters asked our people to marry them. As a result, we have thousands of mixed race. Its your false Equatorians that you are colonised. After ruling you for over 30 years now you think you can talk…where are you since 1983-2005???. Those of you who ran hurriedly are the one barking from out of the country. The day you get in, our feet will be on your heads. You better enquire from other relatives fast to know treatment they are getting since Equatoria became our colony. You cannot develop, that is why you need to be taught. Most of you claimed Dinka are illiterate, how comes you are colonised by us. Just ask your selves, how can an illiterate person colonise the educated? You are all classless human beings, its not crime to take your land away. White did the same thing and they call the classless human beings aboriginal, the some word is applied to you because of your classlessness. Keep barking, its over 30 years now, 50 years is close,and hundred is not far.
    Martin Mayang
    Bor-Republic of South Sudan

    • Eli says:

      Mr Mayang
      Yours is a cry of desperation, that is the last kick of a dying zebra when the lion clamps its jaws on the throat. No real men use women to lounge an attack, indeed only cowards like dinkas do that, as you pointed out violence against women constitutes as crimes against humanity, we also do have many Bor dinka women in our control but did not force them unlike you people, your women liked us. However, you have confessed all your wicked plans for the whole world to read, be reminded that anything you said shall be used against you in the court of judgment.
      Mayang; You have not colonized anybody, you are and will always remain IDPs and period. This is our time, we Equatorians alone will send you back to your swamps and cow dungs kingdom once again for the last time. Why don’t you admit to the truth that you ran away from Murles and now from the Nuers white army, we tried to rescue you from annihilation by your neighboring tribes but now you screwed it up and so you will go back peacefully or by force.

    • Gordon says:

      You are fighting a losing war Mr. Manyang. Of course it has not done on you as yet. People like are blind up to the grave. You have lost it already. If you are still in Bor, be informed most of your people are in Kakuma and Uganda in refugee camps. There is no reverse but that is now the trend for the next ten to twenty years.

    • Kijana says:

      Martin Manyang´s rudeness and impundence is characteristic of jenge little-mindedness. Such uncouth arrogance as if they owned the South is the very reason why South has got to this shit. Since when did jenges have colonies if they have no values, ethics and sense for ownership? Indeed, if the colonialists were such like the jenges, then it is no surprise why the colonised picked up arms to fight their liberation wars. That is the path all other 63 tribes will have to do. Martin, the jenges have no added value to Equatoria: not intellectually, morally or otherwise. Equatoria is best without these scoundrels. Afterall, was it not the Equatorians who taught you to dress up, when you ran naked in Juba in the early 70s with our children singing Aryan jenge kudwal kudwal?

  29. Eli says:

    You have chosen a good name, indeed we are all survivors. However your best survival will be accomplished when we have a federal system. You who are lacking development and the skills need to ask for help and we are ready to help you develop your own land. Running to Equatoria region is not the answer, at one point Equatoria was all bush but that was long time ago now we worked hard to develop it, so you do not need to be afraid that you will be left alone. “Ask and it shall be given unto you”
    Abel Alair and John Garang lied to you, where are they now? You dinkas need to go home face you fears without blaming it on Kokora, or Nuers or Jalaba or the Murles. No more excuses long live federalism.

  30. Alier Kon Alier says:

    Alier Kon Alier.
    to me federalism is not a solution to our problem, because for those who supported. it is seem federal does not eliminate poverty and promote regionalism which is wrong. it can lead corruption because it is very expensive as more people more elected to office, both at the state and center, than necessary.
    sharing of the powers between the center and the states includes both advantages and disadvantages of a federal organization it will create the conflicts of Authority.
    it will create the localized governance, local representation,freedom to form policies and optimum utilization of resources. but to me it is not right time for us south Sudanese to says that federalism is the best system to be uses in our country, because our people are lazy to worked for themselves and taxes will be apply on them while there is nothings in their hands.

  31. JK Lupai says:


    There are now two distinct camps, Centralists and Federalists. The Centralists are people who will always get strategic and powerful positions in government in South Sudan through tribalism and this has happened since the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1972. They will not under any circumatances give up that dominant position whatsoever the case. Like the imperialists of the colonial era the Centralists can only be pushed.

    In contrast the Federalists are nationalists whose principle is equitable sharing of power and resources in promoting national cohesion and unity.

    In summary the Centralists are the Dinka and the Federalists are the non Dinka.

    Jacob K. Lupai

  32. Gordon says:

    A very academic, but focused mostly on technical issues of Federalism, is what the Sudd Institute has posted on the 4th of June. It is based on the constitution and pointed to some of the loop holes and gaps in governance in South Sudan today. The article also gave some in length analysis, not in depth, of the advocates of federalism showing they have not proved they have the understanding of the current constitution of South Sudan. It is correct, South Sudan has a federal constitution in all but name. So the line of thought taken in the article is that the people who are calling for a federal system have not understood the constitution of today. Or they have not implemented it because of lack of human resource. So that may call for more training or support from the central government to see that the constitution is implemented to the spirit and letter. Another argument is that the advocates of Federal System today, have a nostalgia for ‘kokora’, which was a kind of federal system, but resulted in uprooting of people of Bahr- El -Ghazal and Upper Nile from Equatoria. This caused disunity among South Sudanese.

    Whatever merit the article has, it is worth reading and analysing. My own analysis is that it did not give enough attention to the people opposing the federal system today. In passing it pointed out that those who opposed are people of Bahr – El Ghazal and their reason is the lack of adequate resources in their land. That is a bit generic and the Bahr -El – Ghazal people are mixed and therefore politically they do not subscribe to the same political views. At least their is no evidence that a research done proved they all have this view. So there is an omission on the critical interest for those who opposed the federal system in the current debate. The article should have given a little time on interest of the people opposing federal system.

    It does not take long to know that those who advocate for the federal system, despite the constitution, most of the time end their conclusion on the perceived ethnic supremacy that is currently felt in most of Equatoria and part of Western Bahr -El- Ghazal. Comparatively, even the Arabs did not do that much. Now this is about the perception of the people. It needs to be argued whether this perception is valid or not? Correct or false? It goes beyond the technical issue of reformation of the government. Then the interest of the people who argue against federalism. Most South Sudanese and non South Sudanese who have been to Juba would say there is more to current government than meets the eyes. And this was the problem of Equatorians during the civil war. Many opinion leaders and shapers in Equatoria found the SPLA not fighting for national liberation, but based on their practice they rather behaved like an occupying force. Historically when the SPLA reached Lafon in 1985, they erased to the ground all thelittle development in that area. That was not considered a liberation force. In history, it is known how Hitler used the people the German occupied to be soldiers and fight for German cause.

    This general feeling is has been supported by some of the writings on the SPLA. One argument to support this view was presented by Douglas Johnson in his book the Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil War. He argued that the mobilisation in Bahr -El-Ghazal and Upper Nile were done differently. But in Equatoria, it was more like occupation force as people were beaten, tortured and experienced a kind of violence that was not expected with a liberation struggle. There should have been no reason to do that, having known the position of Equatorians on the status of South Sudan and their military prowess, based on the Anya Nya One. Across the border in Uganda, Museeni was also establishing a guerrilla force based on persuasion to convince the local people to join. Dr. Peter Adwok also mentioned it in his book, The Politics of Liberation. He noted that the Dinka youth were mobilised for a different motivation which has a connection with the Kokora. Here I have not given the exact quotation, but I am confident they can be found in the two authors. Recent articles in South Sudan Nation, like the one of James Amer Mading purported to speak for the Dinkas. Is this the kind of attitude some of those in leadership have? The same opinion was echoed in Nimule back in 2008, when the Dinkas were to be repatriated after the war. Everything was prepared by the IMO but they refused to leave and the government did do anything to see them move and make way for the Ma’dis coming back. They clearly said , their leaders told them to stay. Those who demand for federalism did not go to those ideas of Dinka colonial mentality. It the current globalised world, it is a kind of backward idea. So it can be argued that those who project this view of Dinka colonialism are a few deviants causing conflicts and they do not know what they are doing. But do not take it away from them the power of mobilisation, either negative meaning the people demanding federalism will be more entrenched or positive meaning those others who subscribed to this view will have the intellectual ground to continue behaving as they do. After all every revolution needs those who can articulate the cause and convince the others to follow them.

    So there is this a long standing issue which was not dealt with during the liberation struggle, which for a significant number of people in Equatoria is not really liberation, but occupation. In fact it is becoming more occupation after the war because during the war, the contribution of Equatoria was indispensable to achieve the military objective. If it is down played, the country is gradually going to slip into a protracted civil war. Many people in Equatoria are getting more politicised on this matter because of what they see on day to day basis. So it does not matter what the constitution actually says, the issue of ethnic supremacy needs to be tackled head on. The current behaviour and attitude on the ground says it all. What the disgruntled people will now get is more support to their views not the opposite. The government needs to be seen as working to build confidence and actually doing it.

    So federalism debate needs to be seen on the interest of the people on both sides and the current experience of governance in South Sudan. The issue of the police force was not mentioned in the article of Sudd Institute. As Federal system, a large police force are to be federated. For instance communities who do not have cattle rustling will not need to pay their taxes for stopping it. Because that will be irrelevant to their policing needs. At this time, it is arguable that the constitution is almost no use for solving the problems of South Sudan.


    • Eli says:

      Superb, you did excellent job in explaining, this is our time. Federalism is a MUST, no going around it. Or more civil unrest will continue. “IT’S BETTER TO DIE THAN LIVE WITH DINKAS”

  33. GatCharwearbol says:

    This is what Kiir’s supporters want.

    1.They want Kiir to continue intimidating South Sudanese by using his decree manner of ruling. Cow dung ruling as opposes to civilize path of ruling.

    2.They want Kiir to elect Governors of each state and even commissioners, or the tribal chief. What kind of government is that? This constitution is only suitable for animals; not for human being in which Nuer are part of.

    3.They want Kiir to be consulted when a man is ready to marriage his bride. This is in Article of Whatever in Kiir’s constitution…

    4. They want Kiir to promote Jieng’s Cannibalism, which they just did in Juba when many of them ate Nuer flesh and even force some Nuer to be like them. This proves that they aren’t human being but animals who see human as their prey.

    What they do not know is that, the Nuer will not let it happens even if they go to Jupiter or Pluto to get mercenaries.

    We South Sudanese want federalism in which we will elect our own governors and remove them when we feel they are not doing their jobs and down to the last post. We want to elect our president and remove him when he is not fit any longer. No President is to remove a elected governor. That is not his job. This only exists in government of Cannibalism where president is allow to feed on innocent flesh and remove elected officials wily nilly.

  34. Taban Mawa says:

    Fellow Citizens’,

    In the light of this debate on Federalism, most if not all have failed to put evidence based argument but rather tribal line political argument.

    The author is far from the truth, simply because he sided one-way in his argument which is againts Federalism. History teaches us that, a society cohesion cannot be built based on views of politicians but rather mass mobilisation of the citizens of that society. So is the case with ours.

    Our politicians have no interest of their electorates ate hear except for their own survival. We tend to follow them because they came from the same clan or tribe we’re from. Until such thinking stops, South Sudan as a country won’t developed.

    As a matter of facts, Federal System of government is out only HOPE, not because Equatorians or Riek is asking for it, but because it has the ingredient to build a more Service focus government both at State and Central government.

    You may call the current system Federal but its NOT because the Transitional Constitiion does not creat share of powers between the States and Central Authority. The current system enables the head of the State (President) to dictate affairs including removing an elected Governor. This sort of power shoudl only exist in the hands of the various States Legislative Houses.

    Many of you have concerns with revenue allocation. In a federal system, an Independent Grant Commission will be responsible for the allocation of revenue to states based on needs but fairly. States governments will be entrust with powrs to raise their own revenue by means deemed legal. Such as: Motor Vehicle Rego, Fines, Stamp duty on Land and Property, Lincense fees and etc. While Central government will generates revenues from sources such as: Resources (oil, uranium, gold, copper etc), Personal income tax, company tax, Custom Duty, Goods & Service Tax.

    We should not be afriad of Federalism because a society like ours need a close government that understands local issues and law makers to engage with their electorates so closely for better service delivery.

    Those who questions the agenda of pro-federalist should educate themselves on the subject matter more.

    We all want a better contry where every citizen will live in peace, security and have freedom to pursue opportunities not based on tribal line but rather in the spirit of Nationhood. Our brothers from other regions should not fear federalism, its a good form of system that will create competion among States to develop their areas and deliver real services.

  35. Paul Deng Ajak says:

    Those of you who want to forced federalism in south Sudan should understand that is not what SPLA/M was formed for. The tribes which know much about the formation of SPLA/M are quickly switching sides, why do you support it overwhelmingly anyway? You are blaming Dinka today for colonising Equatoria, Western Bhar al Ghazal and some tribes in Upper Nile. Is it not true that some tribes in Equatoria were planning to colonise each other long before SPLA/M was born. Let be refresh your memory about the Acholi tribe, this tribe wanted to annex parts of Madi land long before the brith of SPLA/M. In the Documents they elders signed with Dr. John Garang, it was clear that they supported SPLA/M to annex Madi land of Opari to be Part of Acholi land, and this was and still is practically seen practically how Madi were oppressed by Acholi tribe. Even today as some Acholi are turning against SPLA/M they forgot that this document is between SPLA/M and Acholi tribe, once SPLA/M fall, your plan to annex Opari will surely perish. Those chiefs and elders mobilising youth among to join the rebel must know that such activities will jeopardise Acholi long term plan, and all what they did to Madi people since 1983 to 2014 will be brought to light. If Dinka are to be expel from Equatoria again, some tribes have all of things to lose too. Today our people are in Nimule because we have full support from Acholi people in exchange for the land of Opari which is Madiland too. Think twice before you act.
    Paul Deng
    Torit-South Sudan

  36. survivor says:

    while federalism seems to be the song everyone is singing nowadays; non has been said about the big elephant in the room, that is KIIR and RIEK. where are these two co-thieves now turned foes going to stand? while the system or lack there of seems to be the problem. the key actors, KIIR, RIEK, and the G11 are also the problem. irregardless of the system of governance, if any of these actors are placed in charged, nothing is going to change. its simply going to be business as usual. LOOT, LOOT< and LOOT.
    the only way south Sudan moves forward from this is a new system and fresh faces implementing it.

  37. Diktor Agarab says:

    Bogus argument against federalism. It’s only the Dinka tribe out of 63 tribes that is against it. Continue fighting the losing battle, Jenge!

  38. Peter Marial says:

    Its disgrace to know that some people from Acholi tribe are recruiting in support of the rebel after all this long political cooperation with SPLA/M. For your information, you are cutting the very branch of a tree you are sitting on. Our relationship was well established by the 1985 treaty when your people met DR. John Garang in Ethiopia and agreed to support SPLA/M on condition that you people (the Acholi) are having an arch enemy the Madi tribe. This was a long term relationship which your chiefs and elders decided to turn up and down. Do you know the consequences of such political mistrust? You gained our support and went far and beyond to achieve what you had in mind when you joint SPLA/M, what if the atrocities you people committed against the Madi people can be exposed now? If such behaviour continues, remember you are going to tell to all South Sudanese a lot about serious crimes committed against Madi people before and after SPLA/M captured Madiland. You will tell about the plot to demarcate Nimule, the killing of Nimule head chief, the arrest of Madi elders, their imprisonment, and illegal blood collection and the kind of drug they were injected with when they were in Coba State Prison in Torit. You will tell which tribe blocked the Madi from getting a county? There are a lot of crimes committed in Madiland for which we as Dinka were blamed and generalised. But most of the things are done by you people. If legal way is to take its course, it’s the Acholi people and the Louis Lubang governor of Eastern Equatoria is the one responsible for suffering of Madi tribe, not Dinka. From CPA to independent to these days, hundreds of articles and letters were written about problems facing Madi tribes, if that information can be complied for analysis, it is the Acholi people and their governor that committed serious crimes in Madiland. If you can tell me, is it not your plan to squeezed Madi people by taking their land of Opari, Amee, Moli and Owyikibul? Is it not your plan to finally extinct them by forcing them to join their tribe mates in Uganda? Who fired the gun that killed their chief John, who ordered the arrest of their elders and youth for the fear of retaliation from the Madi community? Who is that Brigadier behind the stay of Dinka in Nimule, is he not an Acholi? If you want to be childish in politics, we can all be childish in politics. The crimes you people committed against the Madi people are crimes against humanity. You want to be a child after such hidden phenomena, be ready for what it will take. If you think the government had already granted to you the freedom to rule the Madi people and have those places you asked for to be your own, you lied.
    Peter Marial
    Republic of South Sudan

    • Bismark says:

      Mr Peter, yours seems to be a propaganda wedge you intend to drive deep between Acholi and Ma’di peoples. You should stop that. People should not be made to dwell in history. In any case Acholis are not better than their neighbours the Ma’dis. They have lived alongside for generations therefore any outside influence should not be allowed to divide the people.

  39. False Millionaire says:

    To the attention of dearest,chere madam Joana Adams:

    With high appreciation to ur contributions to the debate of federalism in our country,I find it difficult to distiquish between the terms dinkocrat and SPLM.In my judgement,I am obliged to think that,when u use them,dinkocrat could mean a party that is made up of dinka tribe members.That is to say:the present government of south Sudan is a dinka’s government.But that SPLM could mean the party that fought the war of our liberation commanded by colonel dr John Garang de Mabior and that which was taken over by the current president Salva Kiir Mayardit.That in this context,it’s members are composed from 64 tribes.Is it this party that has become dinkocrat?But since when?after or before the events of 15 December 2013?If this is the case,has the SPLM ceased to exist inside south Sudan therefore existing only in opposition(either in clandistine in the country or outside the country all togather)?

    I will be very thankful if u could be so kind to help me with clarifications.False Millionaire

  40. Joana Adams says:

    In my view, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army(SPLM/A) is the movement / army founded as the name suggests to liberate old Sudan. I have never understood what Dr. Garang wanted to liberate in old Sudan. Dr. Riek was right to say the SPLM party under the leadership of Salva Kiir, had lost vision. But what vision because, SPLM had no credible vision for good governance of South Sudan in the first place other than settling old political scores, deemed to have been metted on some sectors of the population. Let everybody believe what they want to believe. SPLM is a redundant party in South Sudan and its being operated on the wrong territory. This has left a political vacuum in the quest to provide vision, appropriate policies and programmes to suit the conditions of the new state of South Sudan. I did not coin the terminology dinkocrat or dinkocracy but I believe dinkocrats refer to the key political and military leadership that is and has been running the government of South Sudan since 2005. These individuals led by Salva Kiir, Telar Ring, Michael Makuei, Koul Manyang, Paul Malong, Barnaba Marial, Wani Igga, Ann Itto. Martin Lomoro, Ateny Wek Ateny etc. are the chief dinkocrats who are creators and defenders of Jieng hegemony. The system they have established to propagate and sustain the Jieng hegemony is what is refered to as dinkocracy. This includes tribalisation of most of our national political, military,security, legislative, judicial and financial institutions. Federalism will correct all these nonsense.

  41. False Millionaire says:

    Is there any difference between ordinary dinka citizens and the dinkocrats with regards to responsability of bad order of things in South Sudan,my chere Honorable JOANA ADAMS?!!!

    Apologizing for compelling u to waste ur time,False Millionaire.

    • Joana Adams says:

      Yes ofcourse! The vast majority of ordinary Dinka people are victims of the dinkocrats just as the marginalised non-Dinka majority. A lot of ordinary Dinka have been exploited, manipulated and are at risk of loosing their lives either as a result of intra-tribal politically motivated conflicts or inter-tribal strives. If your question is genuine you’ll realise that most critics of the Juba regime are strictly criticing the bad leadership of Kiir supported by his opportunistic power hungry cabinet and the failed SPLM party. This has nothing to do with the majority of Dinkas.
      The difference gets blurred when some good -for-nothing political opportunists mislead their people that criticism of the Dinka- led government is tantamount to hating the entire Jieng community which is a load of politically motivated rubbish. So the main responsibility for the political calamity that has befallen our country must rest with the political and military leadership of the country.
      But I must add that people need to watch out on being guilty by association. In other words, do not support a government or a leader just because they are from your tribe. Support them because they are doing the right things the country and all the citizens.

  42. False Millionaire says:

    Thank u very much ma chére JOAN ADAMS!!!

    U must be assured that I totally agree with you that the mother of the political calamity befalling our country and the society is the SPLM/SPLA leadership.The events of 15 December 2013 have split them now into two:one being the government and other opposition in the jungle.If the peace in Addis Ababa succeeds,it will divide the power among them along with wealth.Strong international pressure may force them to accept this arrangment as such.But useless to suppose that this will change the bad order of things in South Sudan becouse what is intersting for the two groups is power and wealth but never the love of South Sudan and the South Sudanese.Their game cards:tribalism,nepoticism,corruption,incompetance and the rest of irrational behaviours u can name.This trend can even stay forever why not becouse any possible genuine opposing front will be divided and too weak to challange them.

    We have the debate on federalism in our country and me and my friends compaign to have it debated for understanding so that there should be consensus by the members of our 64 tribes.But there is a problem becouse our compaign does not bear national outlooks.We hope to say that our South Sudan of tomorrow will be one country,indivisible,pure of tribalism,nepoticism,corruption,incompetance and all irrational behaviours.That as our editor once pointed out on iternet stone throwing fight:our independance came as a result of collective sacrifices of millions of lives of our fellow countrymen of our 64 tribes.In this context our country is the mother that belongs to all of us.We will be equal therefore under the law and so no tribe will be viewed as superior than another nor the other as inferior than the one.

    When we compaign this way,we are wrong footed becouse we are viewed to be either naive,crazy or extrimely stupid all togather.Why?They say:look in JOANA ADAMS’ writing:dinka and dinkocrats and it is tribalism.Jacop Lupai:dinka and jeing.Brief:kokora.We are ridiculous in the face of this opposition.But in so far as such issues as federalism are national causes,we must manage vocabularies that will unite all our fellow countrymen.Not the ones that will give the enemies of our country and the society the chance to exploit for divisions.Would it be too big a sacrifice if u abandon such terms as dinka and dinkocrats in ur writing,particularly in the articles distened for national consumption?That is all me and my friends are asking and u will have facilitated our homework greatly.

    Thanking u so greatly,False millionaire

  43. ronald says:

    I have read many intelligent discussions on this forum. I thought i may be able to shed some light on giving power to the states from an American perspective. In the U.S. our life is almost entirely controlled by state power not federal. Each state is like its own little country each with varying laws, values, etc. The federal government has little real effect on our life aside from taxes. The feds run the military and give out disability benefits and sets a set of universal laws. This is over simplified for ease of understanding.

    States and local governments control the lions share of public support. They hand out food stamps and run other social networks such as public health insurance for the poor and disabled called medicaid. The townships control the execution and judgement of crimes based on state and local laws. There is so much decentralized power that one judge may give you a couple months for a crime while a judge in the next county may give you a year in jail for the same crime. You may see there are pros and cons of decentralized government but it allows justice to be applied liberally effectively detering crime. The fairness of the judicial branch is important to keep people from grabbing machine guns and making their own laws. A third world country has a harder time of administering justice because corruption is more appealling in poor countries. What is important about getting people to follow the rules comes down to stiff punishment and assurance of punishment eg. prison. We have a lot of prisons but at the same time we have no civil unrest. This only works if you have a strong and fair constitution such as we have.

    If Sudan is further divided up it will further decentralize the government and put governance in the hands of people that you live and work with. I think this is the best idea. Let the people vote for their state laws or they can move to another more socioeconomically accommodating state.

    We also have fire arms in most households and even on our person. This implementation may reduce crime and violence if everyone has a gun. Something to think about. Best wishes and God bless


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