South Sudan’s resumed civil war: Why the world must look beyond Kiir and Machar!

By: Biel Boutros Biel, SEPT/09/2016, SSN;

South Sudan, the world’s youngest nation has been going through a brutal civil war waged by former ‘liberation-comrades-turned-enemies.’ Former Vice-president Riek Machar, narrowly fled capital Juba on 16 December 2013. President Salva Kiir accused him of a ‘coup.’ Machar denied, terming it a ‘plot’ to eliminate him within the ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement(SPLM).

Machar then formed an armed faction; the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement or Army-In Opposition(SPLM/A-IO) to fight what he called ‘Kiir’s dictatorship’. A peace deal signed in 2015 by the two leaders, gave a break to violence. The deal also stipulates a power-sharing. The SPLM/A-IO takes the post of the First Vice-President for Machar.

After more than two years in the Jungles, Machar returned to Juba on 26 April 2016 to form with Kiir the Transitional Government of National Unity(TGoNU). On 8 July 2016, a deadly fight flared up at Presidential Palace in Juba between the guards of Kiir and Machar. In a respite of about three months after Machar’s return, South Sudan is docked in a theatre of flames.

Who pulled the trigger? Indiana University’s Professor Clemence Pinaud reveals that the one returning South Sudan to violence is Kiir’s Chief of Staff, General Paul Malong (

Prof. Pinaud’s argument is right. Malong instigated the violence in alliance with South Sudan’s Minister of Defence General Kuol Manyang and other key leaders of the Jieng Council of Elders (JCE), a Dinka tribal think-tank that advises, initiates and influences Kiir’s public decisions.

The violence is further incited by hate speech propagated on South Sudan Broadcasting Corporation (SSBC) by Brigadier-General Malaak Ayuen, an ally to Malong. Part of the song is tuned by Minister of Information, Michael Makuei Lueth, through his hate and violent outbursts.

Why Malong instigated the violence again?

The first reason is Malong’s hatred of Machar as of Nuer ethnicity. Machar’s ambition for South Sudan’s Presidency, to Malong, is equivalent to robbing Dinka elites of power by a Nuer. Malong once stated; ‘I will wait to see how Riek Machar would be the president in this country in our presence. He would be a president in my absence.’ (

Failure to kill Machar in July violence must have deeply wounded Malong’s conscience.

The second reason is Malong’s dislike of the Peace deal provision of a hybrid court to try perpetrators of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and sexually related crimes.

Malong’s calculated violence is to, first, ensure the demise of the Agreement to save themselves from criminal trials. With absence of Machar in TGoNU, Malong is comfortable with Machar’s former Chief Negotiator General Taban Deng Gai whom they used to replace Machar as the First Vice-President. Malong knows that Taban is vulnerable for his own safety in Juba.

To end the deal, Malong’s security agents initiated provocations to the SPLM/A-IO forces in Juba including the killing of their security officers; Lieutenant Colonel George Gismala and Sergeant Domach Koat Pinyien at start of July 2016 as to set ground for war.

Secondly, is Malong’s assumed military defeat of the SPLM/A-IO which he believes as possible with military assistance from Uganda, Russia and China. Malong and JCE will remain a brain behind Kiir’s weakling leadership.

The third reason is impunity. In 1980’s, the SPLM/A under John Garang, killed Gajaak Nuer civilians. In 1991, Machar and Lam Akol’s SPLM/A Nasir Faction killed civilians in Garang’s Dinka Bor. The SPLM/A in retaliation killed civilians of Lou, Gawaar and Dok Nuer among others.

The army has been killing civilians; Lou-Nuer in 2006, Bul Nuer in 2011, Murle in 2011-2012, people of Wau(Fertit) in 2012, Nuer in Juba in 2013, Moro and Madi in 2014 to date. No one was held accountable. Absence of criminal justice warrants the generals a free ticket to constantly kill.

Is it Malong and JCE leaders alone causing Juba violence without SPLM/A-IO’s contribution? Taban Deng Gai’s hidden rivalry with Machar made him associate with Malong to ensure elimination of Machar in order to replace him. Apart from Taban’s alleged role, it seems the SPLM/A-IO forces never contributed to the July violence.

In March 2016, they were persuaded by President Festus Mogae and the world to come to Juba with a force of about 1500. Aware of the SPLA forces heavily deployed in Juba, the SPLM/A-IO forces would have been on suicidal mission if they were to cause violence in Juba.

The way forward for South Sudan:

A well equipped protection force should be deployed immediately in Juba under the United Nations to protect civilians, the Presidency alongside a limited and equal number of bodyguards of the two leaders. The same force should be deployed to any other conflict areas in South Sudan. The rest of SPLA and SPLA-IO forces must be deployed outside Juba in cantonment sites.

The Hybrid Court has to be set up to try all suspects of human rights abuses. The world should ensure that the TGoNU is reinstalled with Machar resuming as the First Vice-President. The protection force should ensure that the Peace deal is fully implemented.

Men like General Malaak Ayuen and Makuei Lueth of hate speech on SSBC must be stopped. Arms embargo be imposed on South Sudan. Countries providing arms to warring parties must be stopped as members of United Nations that promotes peace and security.

Finally, the world has to face Malong and JCE if South Sudan is to hold.

The author BB Biel is the Executive Director of the South Sudan Human Rights Society for Advocacy(SSHURSA); a nonpolitical and nonprofit-making national human rights organisation founded in 2007. He is 2013 Human Rights Advocate at the Institute for Study of Human Rights, Columbia University’s School of Law, New York City, USA. Biel is also a former co-chair of the National Human Rights Forum with the Chair of South Sudan Human Rights Commission and too recently served as a Technical Member of the South Sudan’s National Constitutional Amendment Committee. The views expressed here are his own and NOT attributed to any of the institutions he is associated with.



  1. Eastern says:

    Dear Boutros, my learned friend,

    War has indeed started but it was started by Kiir and Paul Malong as the UN panel of experts report states; Dr Machar had to flee Juba to save his life! If the Americans under Obama administration are not complacent to Kiir’s misrule, why should John Kerry, Samantha Powers and Donald Booth play the loose cannons by making statements that embolden Kiir even when the regime in Juba abused American women who were helping needy South Sudaense?

    Princeton Lyman and the UN panel of experts seemed to be the only people who understand the problem of South Sudan. Kiir fooled the whole world by signing an agreement he was not able to live with; he lied to the world just to lure Dr Machar to Juba to face his demise. Kiir must account for the war crimes he committed against South Sudanese and Americans!

    Boutros, I am sure you now see the logic in Prof. Mamdani’s proposal for handing the country to technocrats during his presentation a few days ago.

    The Eastern Rock!

  2. No dogs waggling tails for nothing! There is something in the South Sudan! The human bloodsuckers in this world,they would like to take the resources of the South Sudan through pretext of UMSSI The country has nothing to do with UN!

    We knew before! They have accused the dictactors Saddam Husssein,Moumar El Ghaddiffi,in Ugoslavial Slovodan Milosevic. They want kirr so that they are going looting the resources Meanwhile they preach democracy and human rights to the fools one politicians!

    Ongelet South Sudan,Africa

    • Peacemaker says:

      Resources for whose’ benefit when the country is being deserted by its citizens? Chief Abieko, take a retreat and contemplate about the conditions of our people and be honest with yourself. God is watching and surely he will have the ultimate say. I pray that peace will soon come and that those leaders responsible for war crimes are made to account.

    • Sabah Jadeed says:

      I think kiir and in law malong and JCE they construct this war in south Sudan so that they can stealsouth Sudan resourcesbut what is going to happen will happen through UN. If did not fear to loot and kill what else for him because he is empty and free from any knowledge of how to lead we feel sorry for this nation to get her independent with no leading vissionary leader . But he will flee this time from justice and even from the hand of people south Sudan or from God judgement. Sabah Santos

  3. Eli says:

    Biel Boutros Biel
    The only peace in SS is through the barrels of gun. Juba asked for war we bring war to them.
    Officially we have cut off Juba-Nimule Lifeline Road.
    No more discussions with the government of Juba, PERIOD.
    Eli Wani

    • Force_1 says:


      That’s not a cutting off of Juba-Nimule road if you can’t wait for at least half an hour before the army shows up. You’re just like a bank robber who hit the bank; take the cash he need and hit the road running before the police shows up. Bank robbers are much more dignified because they don’t kill the very same people they robbing! Ambushing and killing civilians who will never fire back at you; robbed the food for their children are not the things you can brag about!

      What good dose it do to you when you hear or see the army coming; you ran to your hiding places like rats? Firing with AK47 to blow up the gasoline tanker and robbed unarmed civilians at gun point is not actually a control of Nimule/Juba road; you’re just bandits looking for something to eat!

      Anyone fighting for a cause doesn’t killed innocent civilians because the civilians are the very same people they would be fighting for to free. Let me know if you become useful human being to capture a real town controlled by SPLA.

      • Eastern says:

        Dr Garang’s ragtag SPLA took years to make their presence felt in the Sudan; the Anya nya 1 used rudimentary means/tools to wage the 17 years war against the jellaba. Force_1, just wait and see as the war effort unfolds.

        Take note that “Riek Machar” is not the individual Riek Machar, just like Salva “Kiirler” is not the individual Salva Kiir!

        • Force_1 says:


          Please just stay on the internet; that’s the only war you would know how to fight and after 17 years according to you; you would let me know any town you capture in South Sudan over the internet! I will be waiting to hear from you in 17 years and good luck.

  4. Nuer-Another Israel in East Africa says:

    Biel Boutros Biel,

    Nobody cares about human life anymore. Humanity has long been replaced by greed, interest, selfishness, and hatred. If you think your recommendation is going to change a thing, put your thinking cap on. The world is gutless and doesn’t care. Solution of our problem is with us. I just keep on writing when I should be doing something to stop this war. I am to blame as well. If we want the change, we must first change ourselves.

  5. Gatdarwich says:

    To hell with the traitorous Jenges–killer nyankiir and the Dinka warlord killer Malong. Their days are numbered period

  6. False Millionaire says:

    Chief Abiko,
    Bravo chief for your excellent comments.
    As for your detractors,since when weren’t the west the makers of the dictators in the comments and ended up assassinating them when they revolted and turned out to be of no use to serve them as stooges any more?
    There isn’t any need to dismmiss truth tellers than wait to reap the benefit of doubt.
    The true truth is,in our life time,let’s be patient and wait for the yankees to parachutte into power some one like Dr Riek,Pagan Amum,Dr D’Agoot or any potential stooge out there and see if they wouldn’t force him to eat shit from the first hour of his reign.

  7. Eli says:

    Dear Compatriots
    We will do whatever it takes to avoid civilian casualties. But make no mistake that we have zero tolerance if civilian vehicles are used to transport military armaments to supply Juba with ammunitions instead of very much needed food and medical supplies to care for the people.
    Oil tankers supplying fuel for SPLA-IG operatives to roam around Juba to torture and kill innocent people WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO PASS JUBA-NIMULE ROAD.
    We once again are issuing a strong warning TO SPLA-IG THEY MUST STOP USING INNOCENT CIVILIANS AS HUMAN SHIELDS.
    We want to alert our civilians not to ignore our warnings, LEAVE JUBA BEFORE IT GETS WORST, WE ASSURE YOU THAT our target is SPLA-IG armed soldiers and its leaderships, WE WILL STRIKE HARD AND SOON WHERE IT HURTS THE MOST.
    Eli Wani

  8. Toria says:

    “Bank robbers are much more dignified (than spla jenge crooks) because they don’t kill the very same people they robbing! Ambushing and killing civilians who will never fire back at you; robbed the food for their children are not the things you can brag about!”

    Are you referring to those crooked jenge militias stealing cassava from civilians?
    Go and tell your king killer Kirr aka KKK, JCE aka Jenge Corrupt Elders and their dogs Malong Awan and big eye Kuol Manyang the Human Blood Drinking Vampire Mosnters to STOP KILLING OUR PEOPLE OR YOUR MTN CIVILIANS WILL PAY THE PRICE.

    • Force_1 says:


      Either way you still can’t win; or if you were winning by killing innocent Dinka civilians travelling; then why would you be calling the UN protection if you think you were winning? You know you were armed militia against the SPLA and since you can’t beat the SPLA; you’re taking the easy way out by going after the unarmed Dinka civilians.

      Bear in mind; there is no Dinka civilian that’s not train by SPLA and since you admitted now publicly that you’re deliberately going after Dinka civilians because SPLA is killing your militia; well thank God that you let the cat out of the bag.

      Taking revenge is something we never forget and we know how to do and you can ask Nuer about the 1991 and price they are paying for it today! The villages were those ambushes happened; we marked them out one by one and make no mistake about it that when the time come; there is no way God will blame us since God is watching what’s going on; on those roads and the proximity of those villages!

      And yes; the people in those villages could be completely innocent and so do the innocent Dinka being killed on the road every by the code name “MTN”! And at the end; who would remain standing as a winner? Well the time would tell.

  9. Toria says:

    Indeed time will tell. And you and your worthless Jenges are not bullet proof either. The unfortunate situation for you is that you are treading on our soil where the scorpions, the poisonous cobras, the bitter cassavas, the tsetse flies etc. are our allies. The day is coming when hell breaks loose and M7 is no more there to cover your leaking arses, that dreadful day is on the rise. You failed to understand that Nuer and Equatorians have two distinctive personalities, so don’t dare to compare or celebrate the genocides of Nuer just yet, because “what goes around comes around”. We don’t fight for leaderships nor power or materialism, leadership and power and wealth come to us and no one can take them away.
    Look at how shallow minded you sound, you being the mouthpiece of Jengeism on this net is proudly mocking the Nuer including the traitor so-called 1st V.P Taban Deng Gai and his disciples all from Nuer and yet your king killer Kirr aka KKK claims to be implementing the failed and buried peace agreement. What a brain dead diehard spokesperson you are? Shame on you.

    • Force_1 says:


      There is nothing you Equatorians will tell us that we don’t already know; we have been in this soil for centuries including the last 25 years of SPLA struggle to liberate South Sudan. We know all about your poisons and one of Eastern Equatoria State village or the other village which find out what had happened to the village which happened to disappears in one of night of operation. When SPLA personals were dying mysteriously and village elders pretend that they had nothing to do with it.
      The SPLA command made a move on one fateful night and the scores were settle regardless of whether or not they were innocent in that particular village. And guess who came to the SPLA central command and begged for peaceful coexistence with SPLA after that fateful night? Let me give you a hint! The people from the next village!
      Don’t warn me or anyone about any of your plan; just go right ahead and do whatever you can afford.

  10. Kokora II says:

    I couldn’t agree with you more. Your comments above here are to the points. Don’t waste your time with this lunatic he is obviously living in a land of oblivion. Keep enlightening the masses Sir.

    You are a real liar just like rest. Which part of Equatoria you have been for centuries? I grew up in Equatoria until to date the only Dinka in the area came as displaced people after 1991 war that Nuer was going to annihilate you, the people of Equatoria was begged by Garang to allow displaced Dinkas to take refuge for the sake of success of the revolution. Unfortunately your relatives who are now almost all in refugee camps in neighboring countries misbehaved and from now on Dinkas either stay in refugee camps or go back to your lands. The war of independence from the north is over and now you Dinkas are the only target and I promise you it will never end until the land is purged of dinkocrazy. Go and ask the Mundukurat how long they were here and where they are today, same fate lies ahead for Dinkas.

    • Force_1 says:

      Kokora II;

      You were probably born in the 1990; that’s why you don’t have any clue about the history of Dinka in South Sudan in general. Do you know what your name mean or the word “Kokora” you use as your name? The term “Kokora” was coined to mean separation that; Dinka must leave Equatoria and go to their home land.

      The campaign for Kokora started in the late 1970s and ended early 1980s. If Dinka came to Equatoria after 1991; then why would your elders campaign against Dinka to leave Equatoria in the 1970s? And second to that; how did the village named “Thongping” in the West side of Juba Airport came about? And what language is the name “Thongpiny”?

      Here is a video evidence of Dinka long history of South Sudan liberation since 1950s and 60s; take a look by watching it and then proved me wrong.
      Or you just need to ask Editor because he is mature enough to school you about Dinka in South Sudan.

      Now; I don’t have to response to you that I am not a liar but I have to present you with undeniable facts and evidences and those are the things knowledgeable people like I am do and you have a good day.

  11. Toria says:

    Sorry but jenges have no chance. Jenges have made for themselves too many enemies and it is just a matter of time you are going down. Your king killer Kirr aka KKK is like a bull buffalo being surrounded by pack of lions, Kirr knows he is going down but keeps fighting like a wounded buffalo, but as the lions start to sink their teeth into every blood vein until each lion takes a bite after bites, the final blow is to grab the throat and chock the wounded buffalo to the last breath. And that is the how I can confidently predict the demise of the dumbest cowboy.
    But I guess you never mentioned anything about Nuer again. Are you chickening out?

  12. Kokora II says:

    Holding War Criminals of South Sudan to account.
    Shame on Dinkas

  13. Kokora II says:

    I may be young but not stupid. Only a stupid person or people keep repeating the same mistakes, as you well admitted that you were once kicked out. What makes you forget that you will once again be kicked out? This time it will be for good.

    • Force_1 says:

      Kokora II;
      If you keep defending that fact that you’re not stupid; then you probably are! First of all; there is no sentence or a line in my previous comment that demonstrate that we were once kicked out in any part of South Sudan whatsoever; that’s just your wild dream. Owning a territory takes courage and sacrifices which are not in any fiber of your being.

  14. Toria says:

    Kokora II
    The history of Dinka in South Sudan in brief:
    First; Jenges left West Africa running away from competing tribes and slavery. Next they settled in Northern Sudan where was called kor-otum (meaning the dying of two rivers White Nile and Blue Nile and become one) presently aka Khartoum, if you go to Khartoum North or Bahri you will see exactly what am saying. Then, they got mistreated, enslaved and finally kicked out by the Jalabas aka Mundukurat. As today they are IDPs in Equatoria running away from minority tribes like Murle and Nuer. That was how they got to South Sudan. Next they are now refugees in Uganda etc, they will claim that they are Ugandans, Kenyans, Rwandans, Congolese, American-Dinkas, Australian Dinkas etc.
    Just as Force_1 said above here that the campaign for Kokora I took many years , so will campaign for Kokora II take some years. But I promise you it will happen again because JENGES ARE NOT EQUATORIANS AND THEY WILL NEVER BE EQUATORIANS.

    • Force_1 says:

      Everybody came somewhere else including you; are you trying to forget that you were from Kenya, Uganda and Congo? You need to worry about Dinka kicking you back to those countries that mention. Ask Native Americans in USA; after they were trying show their hardhead to Europeans; they were taken down in mass numbers and the remaining survivors were told to either live free or die. And their choice was to live free; so careful don’t force us to use that phrase against you to either “Live Free or Die”!

  15. Toria says:

    Good that you know you are aliens in SS. Unlike the Europeans you are uncivilized naked cow followers and you have no base, your villages are ruined and destroyed that you have no where to retreat that’s why you are refugees, IDPs and lawless roamers, you are not even close to any human civilization such as neocolonialists. So go and follow cows or shut up.

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