South Sudan: War without end

By Richard Dowden, Posted on March 26, 2015 by AfricanArgumentsEditor, SSN;

Last week President Salva Kiir of South Sudan rejected all the main proposals put forward by the African Union to bring peace to Africa’s newest state. Standing on the temporary podium erected for Independence Day just over three and a half years ago, he refused all attempts at compromise with Riek Machar, the former Vice President.

Standing in a black suit and cowboy hat, surrounded by praise singers, ministers, religious leaders, foreign ambassadors and school children, he read laboriously from a script. With a few thousand others I stood in the searing Sudan sun listening to his rejection of a peace deal.

No to more parliamentary seats, he said. No to more ministers. No to federation – unless the people demand it. That was, I suspect a private joke: no one is allowed to demand anything here.

There were no substantive concessions to anything that Machar, now at war with the president, is demanding. President Kiir rejected the idea of a ceremonial head of state with an executive presidency. “Riek must be number two to me,” he said. He did offer an amnesty but that they “must accept the line I give them”.

This means war.

The crowd was peppered with suited security men. Some of them stopped me and asked why I was not wearing a pass. I didn’t have one. They didn’t know what to do next so I wandered freely around the podium but as I, and two western journalists left, we were stopped and questioned. “Why are you leaving before the President finished speaking? You are insulting the President.” Of course I denied it but it would have been a perfectly sensible reaction.

What, I kept thinking, have the Southern Sudanese learnt from the rest of Africa’s post-independence mistakes over the last 50 years? How could South Sudan avoid the coups and bitter personal enmities that rivals tribalised to make war on each other?

Who was able to stop the gross theft of state funds? Why did so many African rulers live in paranoid secrecy and total security? Above all why did those rulers lack any interest in development for their own people? I had seen it in Idi Amin’s Uganda, in Moi’s Kenya, in Mobutu’s Congo, in Abacha’s Nigeria, in Houphouet-Boigny’s Cote d’Ivoire.

And here, now, in 2015, in Africa’s newest country all those criminals are being mimicked by this scarcely literate clown in a black cowboy hat.

The rival armies have already fought a few rounds. As the war develops further a few more fighters will be killed but thousands of South Sudanese, mainly women and children, will die of preventable diseases having been forced to flee from their homes. I was in South Sudan in 1991, the last time they fell out with each other. They seemed to fight with more bitterness towards each other than they fought the Khartoum government. Whole villages were sacked and burned and women and children slaughtered.

Maybe, despite being handed one of the most beautiful and potentially wealthy countries in the world, the leaders simply decided that killing, looting and raping were more rewarding than development.

There is not much to choose between the two warlords and their numerous fickle allies. Riek is admittedly a far better educated man. He holds a PhD from Bradford University in engineering and can discuss global issues with great insight and knowledge. He deploys great charm to foreigners. But he is allied to the White Army, a militia of young Nuer killers and rapists who have committed some of the worst atrocities. If the International Criminal Court had been a success, Machar would be a prime target.

Perhaps war is what they are most comfortable with. The region has been a warzone on and off for more than 1000 years. From the 10th Century, maybe longer, Arabs began to raid what is now South Sudan for slaves. In the 19th Century the British took over the region to control the Nile from the source to the sea, but their administration was more like an imperial military occupation than colonialism. There was no development for the people except what the Christian churches managed to organise. Each denomination was given an area to Christianize.

Independence came suddenly in 1956 and the south was then ruled from Khartoum. War broke out immediately but paused in 1972, which allowed 11 years of peace and a little development. That changed in 1983 when Colonel John Garang, one of the few southerners with a university education, launched the Sudan People’s Liberation Army – not to fight for independence, but to turn the whole of Sudan into a “united, democratic and secular Sudan”.

The war officially ended in a US brokered peace agreement in 2002 and South Sudan became independent with the agreement of the north nine years later. That brought another brief period of peace but also theft on a vast scale as some ministers have simply stolen the entire budgets of their departments.

In 2011 the American ambassador had some of these thefts tracked, made a list of the names and bank accounts, and handed it to the President. Nothing happened.

As Alex de Waal wrote in African Affairs in July last year: “Kiir’s strategy for managing the SPLM/A’s fractious leaders was to indulge their appetite for self-enrichment.” He argues that when the money ran out the recipients simply went back to war – it being what they were used to.

One positive thing that has emerged from this horrific tragedy is an African Union report that has been leaked. African Union reports do not normally leak and if they do, they are so anodyne and inconsequential that no one can be bothered to read them. But this report is different. It is bluntly honest, quotes ordinary South Sudanese, attributes blame to individuals – including the President – and recommends extraordinary measures.

It reveals that a South Sudan Army has never been created. It remains a collection of tribal militias amounting to officially, but improbably, 480,000 men. Each general – for which you can read ‘warlord’ – gets paid and is supposed to pay his men. Many do not. That is in part what caused the return to war.

Here are some of the gems from the report:

A quote from the street:

“They put a knife into what bound us, turned the crisis from political to ethnic.”

The population of South Sudan is 10 million people and its revenue is $5 billion. 75% of the population is illiterate. One in 50 dies at childbirth (this is the worst indicator in the world). There are a large number of returnees from Sudan. 70% of government budget goes to pay people in arms. Small arms are proliferating. Socially excluded youth have evolved into a volatile force, and a very large group of unemployed youth are ripe for manipulation.

The violence, which originated as a schism in the governing elite of South Sudan, targeted one particular ethnicity, the Nuer. Its intent and effect was to divide the civilian population along ethnic lines, to destroy the middle ground, thereby to polarize the society into ‘us’ and ‘them.’

“Every time we integrate, someone declares in Khartoum that we have a militia. We integrate them and give them a rank. Most of these militias are illiterate – led by illiterate Major-Generals. Even today, we have not integrated them. We tried to demobilize them, but that was difficult. You cannot demobilize someone who has a gun. You give him money under DDR. When the money is finished, he will go back to the bush.”

South Sudan has never had an election. Salva Kiir was elected Vice President of Sudan, but never President of a state called South Sudan.

It is wrong to think of South Sudan as a failed state – for the simple reason that South Sudan never was a state. There was no bureaucracy, no judiciary, there was nothing to fail. There were only fighting forces, most of the time fighting one another and a make believe state whose leadership was propped up and fêted by important sections of the international community. South Sudan may exist as a state on paper, but more as a juridical fiction than an institutional reality.

To think of South Sudan as a failed state is to overlook the simple fact that the very political foundation for the existence of a state – a political compact – has yet to be forged within the elite and between the communities that comprise the country.

Jok Madut Jok, a South Sudanese academic, described the looting spree during the CPA: “The period following 2005 was a period of entitlement, we are entitled to eat, we liberated this country. But…flagrant theft of public money created serious injustices.”

President Kiir publicly accused 75 top officials of being responsible for the cumulative theft of $4.5 billion. There are three main sources of corruption in South Sudan: oil money, government employment and land.

Haile Menkerios, former Special Representative of the Secretary General of the UN (SRSG) to Sudan and South Sudan, told the Commission: “Oil revenue for Sudan as a whole was $50-60 billion from 2005 of which 50% came to South Sudan. There is nothing to show for it.”

He said oil is sold in two ways, in the open market and in the spot market: “None of the spot market money got into the bank. It is divided between individuals.” (Definition: Spot market is where the oil is sold for cash and delivered immediately. Contracts bought and sold on these markets are immediately effective. The spot market is also called the “cash market” or “physical market”, because prices are settled in cash on the spot at current market prices, as opposed to forward prices. Also, Crude oil is an example of a future that is sold at spot prices but its physical delivery occurs in one month or less—Investopedia, from Editor)

“International donors,” wrote Peter Ajak, the presidential advisor, “deployed legions of foreign technical assistants who, eager to showcase immediate results, ended up doing everything themselves, transferring little know-how to South Sudanese civil servants.”

The prime targets of large scale land acquisition, what has come to be called ‘land-grabbing’, are the areas of peasant cultivation in the south of the country, mainly Equatoria. The editor of Juba Monitor told the Commission: “Equatorians are very unhappy. Their major grievance arises from land grabbing. A lot of land around the President’s house was taken with no compensation.”

Elite reconciliation has evaded South Sudan for decades. The only program around in which different factions managed to come together was the campaign for independence. Since independence, the South Sudan political class has lacked a project around which to coalesce.

The responsibility for this falls squarely on the shoulders of those who designed and steered the six year transition period ushered in by the CPA. By focusing on Sudan to the north as the enemy to be confronted the CPA lost an opportunity both to confront its past failure at reconciliation and forge a national project around which the South Sudan political elite could unite.

The split in the SPLA in 1991 was never resolved – it was simply deferred. The accommodation that was made at Wunlit in 1999 was pragmatic, not principled. Former President Thabo Mbeki recalled 1991 as a recurring theme in his discussions with President Kiir: “Salva told us: Riek killed a lot of Dinka, and we will not give him the opportunity to do so again. Rebecca (Garang) said we agree with Machar that Salva must go but I will never allow Riek to be President – never a fellow who did that.”

Hilde Johnson, UN Representative, “This crisis is beyond anything we have seen in scale, magnitude and depth. A quick fix power-sharing agreement will not work – problems of the country and leadership are too deep.” She repeated, for emphasis: “We need to re-boot South Sudan – no quick fix, no deal, will do it.”

The ambassadors of the Troika (the U.S., U.K. and Norway) agreed that President Kiir should step down and, indeed, both Kiir and Machar should both step aside.

The British envoy: “Dinka without Kiir will not settle; Nuer without Machar will not settle; and yet, the two will not work together.” The US envoy said “there is so much hatred they can’t move forward even with both of them there.”

The Norwegian envoy concurred: “There is no reflection yet on why things went wrong.”

Commission therefore recommends a transitional period with three distinctive features:
–(a) a High Level Oversight panel to guide the period of transition;
–(b) a transitional government that excludes those politically accountable for the crisis; and –(c) a transitional program that address the question of justice in different forms.

Richard Dowden is Director of the Royal African Society.

18 Comments

  1. Defender says:

    This is another vindication that those who are still hanging on the words of the government that the time is now for the them to let go. There is no way we as a people entertain such idiocy. Our country, if there is such a thing, given the explanation herewith, needs to be rescued. There is no way we can sugar-coat this any longer. The world has already undressed the King and its subject must come to reclaim their rightful place.

  2. Eli says:

    Richard Dowden;
    Indeed you have perfectly narrated the events in a compendious details. As an outsider your observations are very worth noting and should be taken as advise. However, the elites in the regime of Salva Kirr don’t have time to read nor listen to anything besides their core cronies which I termed as “SPLA/M-Juba”. I have picked up some few points that I think are vital to enumerate upon, although most of your article is focused on the history but lacks future solutions. As usual when talking about Africa most Western analysts always would like to repeating the history rather than offering new ideas and solutions. First of all you in the West know every bit of “how to bring peace to our ravaged nation” but you would rather watch it at far distance and mock and laughed at the sufferings to prove your points that Africans are not ready to run their affairs but should have remain under European colonies, good enough yes your points are taken and you are right. In a recent document released by the White House what the former US President George W. Bush saw in Salva Kirr during their first meeting when President Bush was still in office. Even the former Bush Administration admitted to have seen that Pres. Kirr was clueless and had no vision yet they went ahead and blessed Salva Kirr to become the leader, mind you had the US back out a little, not from granting the independence but from allowing Kirr to lead the nation, had they tried to negotiate a little bit more with the SPLA dominated incoming “New Nation” and do some soul searching; for example there were many other political parties in South Sudan (the DUP or Democratic Unionist Party Original, Justice Party, National SANU, the Communist Party, African People’s Progressive Alliance, Labor Party South Sudan – LPSS, United Democratic Front, South Sudan Democratic Forum, South Sudan Liberal Party, South Sudan Communist Party, United South Sudan Party) some of these political parties existed prior to 1956 independence who had already formulated how to run affairs of an independent nation, there was even an active parliamentarian system in Juba before SPLA existed. Well; perhaps to integrate these political parties with SPLA instead of dismantling and asking everybody to join to either assimilate into SPLA or get lost. Such that SPLA as a party would have taken, let’s say 50 to 60% of seats and the remaining 50 or 40% be given to the “others”. Had the US and TROIKA done its homework first we would have less problem today in South Sudan. But since it is just “another African problem” far away from its borders why should the West worry?

    Now, let me get to my points; as seen below here I would like to confess that I actually paste and copied some your comments to make it easy for me to analyze on them:

    1) “Independence came suddenly in 1956 and the south was then ruled from Khartoum. War broke out immediately but paused in 1972, which allowed 11 years of peace and a little development. That changed in 1983 when Colonel John Garang, one of the few southerners with a university education, launched the Sudan People’s Liberation Army – not to fight for independence, but to turn the whole of Sudan into a “united, democratic and secular Sudan”.

    2) “The population of South Sudan is 10 million people and its revenue is $5 billion. 75% of the population is illiterate. One in 50 dies at childbirth (this is the worst indicator in the world). There are a large number of returnees from Sudan. 70% of government budget goes to pay people in arms. Small arms are proliferating. Socially excluded youth have evolved into a volatile force, and a very large group of unemployed youth are ripe for manipulation.”

    The points that I would like to comments on are: “Independence came suddenly in 1956″, ” War broke out immediately but paused in 1972″, “That changed in 1983 when Colonel John Garang”, “one of the few southerners with a university education”, “75% of the population is illiterate”, “One in 50 dies at childbirth (this is the worst indicator in the world)”, “There are a large number of returnees from Sudan”,” 70% of government budget goes to pay people in arms”, “Socially excluded youth have evolved into a volatile force, and a very large group of unemployed youth are ripe for manipulation.”

    All the above quotes in parenthesis are from your article. Well, it is a no brainer question to ask why I quoted all these quotes. Simply all that I am trying to point to is the fact that you in the West having known all the negative complicities; shouldn’t a sound mind person or people who are well off in life standard like the Western World done something about this, even before the USA allowed Salva Kirr’s the SPLA uneducated general to be declared as the sole well armed military regime-leader?
    The truth is that; the TROIKA nations pampered SPLA and smeared their bums with an olive oil even after knowing very well they (SPLA’s) dirty human rights records of brutalities in the years of the bush (jungle) era; child soldiers, rapes, tortures, land grabs, innocent killings and every atrocities you could name. There were many voices in rights groups who voiced their concerns about the SPLA behaviors and over and over but the TROIKA paid deaf ears to every human rights violations committed by SPLA instead they legitimized the party and handed a whole nation to be butchered by SPLA, by the way it’s happening right now as we peak. I personally think that the TROIKA nations are part and parcel of the crimes, just as the leaked AU reports said the US and TRIOKA are partly to blame and they do share the blames in the sufferings of innocent South Sudanese citizens.
    The massacre of innocent Nuers in Juba and many other poor souls could have been prevented had US government asked SPLA/M regime some tough questions even prior to granting the South it’s independence. Right from the get go TROIKA should have dissolved SPLA army and urged or enforced for a national army, such as those Southerners in the National Armed forces from the then united Sudanese National Defense Forces, who happened to be more disciplined than those bush guerrilla mentality SPLA tribal militias. The former South Sudanese Army was more organized and respecting and they were composed of multi-ethnicities with nationally oriented principles, you can ask anyone beside SPLA supporter and they will say the same thing. For example in Equatoria and W. Bahr Ghazal people are very respectful and even before schooling these people were well behaved, but the SPLA came and destabilized every harmony and brought about cattle camp mentality of anarchism and now look at what you Westerners handed to us? A nation full of barbarism and chaotic leaderships and utterly useless system.
    To be honest if I had the power to do so I would have taken the TROIKA to face criminal court of justice, but who am I? But I still believe that there is a final court of justice even in the next life.
    Mr. Dowden;
    Having aired out few of my grievances, hopefully not directed towards you as an individual but rather I see you here as Western intellectual who happen to be concern with our situations. I would even be glad to face you and bring to table more details and some of the solutions that I think would reduce the suffering and bring about prosperity to my suffering people. I don’t see tribalism being any much issue, but rather the solutions lies in offering people hopes and alternatives. Thank you for your time in reading my reply to your enlightening article.

    Eli Wani is the Founder of SSNLF and a concerned South Sudanese. Working hard to give back the government to “We the people” and to better and upgrade our peoples’ life standards. I believe even though; “slow but sure there is a light at the end of the tunnel”. SSNLF wants to encourage our people that don’t lose hope because help is on the way. My goal is to see justice, peace, and pursuits of liberty and happiness to ALL. And I am not above the law.
    Your can reach Eli Wani at e_wani4Peace@yahoo.com

  3. Mawien Magol says:

    Richard Dowden, the problem in South Sudan is a tribalism and mismanagement issue as you did mentions a lot of things. I myself from Dinka tribe and if there is an election in Today apparently, I wouldn’t vote to anyone from these two leaders namely Dr. Riek Machar Teny and general Salva Kiir Mayardit because they are all greed for leadership and whoever educated than other lacking Ideas on how to united Southern Sudanese people. The general Salva Kiir Mayardit has no Ideas for starting good development not even knowing how to set up the government regulations and the rule of laws. The former vice president is making escape-goat that, there was no coup attempted in the last year and he seem to pertaining as an innocent leader however, the first Nasir faction gave him bad recorded in the eyes of Southern Sudanese people and when this happened on december15/2013, Southern Sudanese people believes the former vice president was seen to act like rival to his boss and this is how president thought about removing him from national vice president and he was told to prepared for general election for the year we are talking unfortunately,. Dr. Riek Teny was fully aware that, if election held clearly, he wouldn’t win and though for short cut to come to power and it is very sadden that, our people are dying day light just because of leadership and Dr. Riek Machar would have been a good leader if he was not attaching himself with his own tribe.

    You did mention that, the British envoy said, Dinka without Kiir, the problems will not settle and Nuer without Machar, the problems will not settle. The truth about these men are widely different in their commons history, because the president have had appointed a lot of Nuers tribe from a very beginning whe he was assuming leadership for example, the former vice president himself was from Nuer tribe and the president appointed him as his VP. The president also appointed Top generals from Nuers tribe to serve in his government as one of them was a chief of staff James Hoth Moi, the late Paulino Matip Nhial as a general command of Bilpam HQ, and another one was general John Kong Nyuon as a Defense Minister as well as Dr. Marial Benjamin to be the Minister of Foreign Affairs and cooperation and some others high ranks are still serving in his government aat this moment and this indicated that, the president had shown good example of united in one government and I hope the world have seen when the president appointed more people on the Top from none Dinka to serve in his government yet, his former vice president who turned rebel leader was not satisfied and chose to act like rival leaders in four years. Yes, as a member of Dinka society, I had lost trust on former vice president since he created first rebellion at the time when Southern Sudanese were struggle in the bushes together with some from Northern Sudan and it was so foolish Idea to created faction while, their main enemies of Southern Sudanese were waiting them.The Dinka people are ready to votes for any good politician Southern Sudanese who might united them than divided us. I promised you Richard, if former vice president took the power Today thus, you will hears the South Sudan nation will never be stabilizing and the real genocide could happen, because he always taking side with his tribe as you can see 98% of his rebels are from his own tribe Nuer and there is a benefit of doubt that, the former vice president maybe will returned this Young nation to reunited with Old Sudan some thing he had been deny but had been going back and forth to Khartoum’s government for number of years and our people view him as a traitor and collaborator.

    Finally, to answer British’s envoy, the Dinka people are not taking side to defending Salva Kiir Mayardit but we want a leader to come to Public Office through voting Box and not by forcing people in the forms of rebellion creation. It is very simple to understand that, human being have same mentality and they can repeats history to make a violence cycle in South Sudan therefore if we allowed the politician like former vice president to take power through rebellion effort then, there will be another bad politician or general to takes foot-step of former vice president in the near future and this is why it is important for Dinka people to refused and many more others tribes also have rejected the Idea of rebellion creation. I will not generalizing the whole Nuers as they are bad people but a lot them are lacking understanding and problems solving and if they wanted to siding with former vice president then, they can do it but I am totally afraid that, this former vice president is playing a dangerous game by letting young civilians White army got killed and his political interest had betrayed his own tribe and its people although they don’t see that way hence, they will realizing when it is too late.

    • Mawien Magol,

      You need to stop spreading liars on this respectful officials web site. If you and Kiir knew that Riek Machar was going to lost election, then why didn’t you let election go ahead? Dr. Riek Machar had requested for SPLM party convention 1000 times so the SPLM party could elect party chairman who will be a candidate for 2015 election, but Kiir cancel the SPLM convention indefinitely. Dr. Machar formed National Reconciliation when he was a vice president, but Kiir dissolved the National Reconciliation team and elected Dinka to lead the National Reconciliation Team.

      Yes, Kiir appointed many Nuer in the government, but purposely to use them against other Nuer. Kiir failed to deploy ordinary Nuer who have been in the movement since 1983, but prefer promoted Nuer who have been with Sudan government purposely to exploit them against Nuer who have been fighting them when they were serving Sudan government to keep Nuer from living in peace. Kiir appointment for Nuer has been unjust appointment.

      Again, please stop lying on this web site. Kiir fail the country miserably, he instigated the violence in December 2013, he canceled SPLM party convention indefinitely, he dissolved the National Reconciliation Team formed by Dr. Riek Machar Teny, and Kiir make unjust frequent reshuffling that target Nuer only in the military. Kiir genocide is so goofy, visionless, clueless, and most world foolish leader.

      • Mawien Magol says:

        Hi, rebels supporters Mr. Toutoute Dagany and Mr. Bentiu Ramaran.
        Please you let me laugh while, I was not actual interesting, Mr. Touteoute you said, any way Dr. Riek is coming for his rightful presidency whether I like it or not. You did state also that, the former vice president has won the West moral world diplomatically adding all, they are behind him indirectly and quote, the author is the proof. Mr. Bentiu Ramaran acknowledge what amazing when president made many appointed on specifically, Nuers and he state that, the president did appointed many Nuers but for purposely to be use against Nuers adding, he should deploy ordinary Nuers who have been SPLA/SPLM in 1983. First of all, I would like to tell you that, I am not spreading lies but the truth yes, Second to that,we have already acknowledge the involvement of his brothers and his sisters in-law both his Son and him have married foreigners women just to bothering themselves but no way brothers and yes, they are behind him since when he started forming Nasir movement and he end up surrender to Omar al Bashir and this is the fact there is no one argue on that, but I got to tell you that, the foreigners can not and they will not imposed their brother in-law to lead us if we don’t like him then, he will not lead South Sudan nation..Thirdly, I can see you guys are so bias indeed if not why denying those Nuers which the president appointed them to serve in government as they are citizens like any others Southern Sudanese and I was just laughing at your comment as you mention it because you said, the president should have deployed those who have been movement since 1983, and it is partially correct for you to say, there are others oridinary Nuers to gets appointed to high positions while, the whole Nuers who were in the SPLA/SPLM did returned back to origin SPLA/SPLM led by the late chairman Dr. John Garang in 2002 and they were same boats as those Nuers who were working with Arabs government in the Sudan. Also it is true that, the former vice president has set himself to be rival to his boss while, they are serving same Part SPLM [RSS] same government but he failed to understand that, if you want to contest with your boss then, you must first resigning from your position and after than, go ahead to make Public announcement that, you are interesting to contest for the coming general election and by doing this step clearly, the citizens will trust you and they will vote for you base on your back-ground history and your platform unfortunately, the reforms which former vice president have been singing all long is to take chairmanship during the convention conference which is unlawfulness to be accepted by the president. For those dreaming that, the former vice president will become a president through help by his brothers in-law are kidding me and the efforts of his tribe to grab power is totally outrage and there is no room on that fiction notion. The power is in the people of its nation and not outsider to force them and if that was his intention to marriage foreign lady so that, his brothers in-law will grabbing power to him then, it is very wrong intention and it is not going to work for him trust me brothers.

        Finally, I strongly belief the former vice president did not understand on how these politics are played properly and it is very unusual in the worldwide to see PhD, Engineer had jumped up to politics instead, he should be looking for Items that are supposedly to be related to his studied in the first place.Certainly, we have no any rights to blamed the teachers who taught him from British’s University nor his parents who raise him up, because the teachers always teaching Students to lived peaceful with one another and the skills which a person gained in the study should have been put in good practices to works and get pay to support your family unlikely to what engineer and former vice president had brought back to South Sudan that let many innocents military persons died and many hundred thousands civilians have had lost lives just, because of his problems two times.Bear in minds that, we Dinkas are not in favor of current president however, there is a way to resolving problems not always war will solve your problems. The continuous of rebellion in the Young nation is absolutely wrong moved by former vice president and eventually the war is giving chance to Salva Kiir Mayardit for now and he will become a dictatorship in South Sudan. Although, the majority of the Dinkas don’t like Salva Kiir Mayardit because he failed to started making development thus, for this moment we have no other choice but to keep him leading the Young nation until the next election held to elected new president and different Cabinets but not former vice president who have been supporting violence and make himself a creature of rebellions since 1991 till now. I don’t understand what convention the so call Bentiu Ramaran is talking about when the vice president was calling his boss a dictatorship on SSTV, while the president Salva Kiir Mayardit left to France and the former vice president was acting as a president at the time when a president was absent. Both G11 political accusers and former vice president were fighting to get to the Top chairmanship and they went to SSTV and each one want to become a chairman of the SPLA/SPLM meanwhile, the current president was in French is that the reforms you guys are looking to do or coup plan? You have made a hard choices since 1991 and we have been forgiving him but not now and not this time around, the people of Southern Sudanese are tired about rebellion through out and we have rejected former vice president whether he is getting supports from his brothers in-law or collaborating with Arabs in the Sudan we will not shying to deny him period.

    • AHAHAHAHAAAAA!!!!

      OMG!

      Mawien Magol, did you say quote:

      ” ,,,, Dr. Riek Teny was fully aware that, if election held clearly, he wouldn’t win and though for short cut to come to power and it is very sadden that, our people are dying day light just because of leadership and Dr. Riek Machar would have been a good leader if he was not attaching himself with his own tribe…. ???? ”

      If all of you bad jaan were sure Dr. Riek was not going to make it in a fair elections, why did you & M7 advise Salva Kirr to go ahead disolve the pre-July 2013 cabinet? Why didn’t you wait and let that election take place? Why did you frustrate and delay the NLC decision-maker conference?

      Anyway Dr. Riek is coming for his rightful presidency – whether you like it or not. You guys think you got him by the balls, but no, he is the one who have gotten all of you by the balls. Diplomatically, he has won the West and the moral world behind him indirectly as evidenced by the author of this subject article.

      You better play your cards well or he will be justified to take power by force and use & rule you with your current constitution and all Jieng will whining for the rest of their inconsiderate lives to eternity!

      Read below how Dr. Riek Machar has gripped you by the balls:

      http://www.southsudanliberty.com/index.php/latest-news/380-south-sudan-s-economy-is-facing-imminent-collapse-said-former-petroleum-minister-luel-deng

      The count-down for your days has began, just brace yourselves for a shameful exit from J-1 within the next few months!

      AHAHAHHAAHHAHH!!!!

  4. Raan Naath says:

    Who are the plotted members of the so-called High Level Oversight panel that will guide the transition in South Sudan? Will they come from the divided South Sudanese citizens or will they be selected from AU member states who have their own interests in the conflict? Does AU see this as a solution? The weakness by AU and the international community at large is the fact that they have resorted to making proportionate blame on both leaders – Salva Kiir (victor) and Riek Machar (victim). Why is the world shying away from condemning and denying support or even helping to uproot a visionless, warmonger dictator like Salva Kiir who has carried out a genocide against an ethnic group and dragged the country in this violent crisis? I guess the world is not serious to call spade a spade but rather chooses to entertain the situation with more nonsense!

  5. Dear Richard,
    This article projects South Sudan as no nation grounded on foundations of nationhood. This is true indeed. However, anyone wishing to see it prosperous should focus on developing next group of leaders, peace & reconciliations, along trials of bringing justice to all those affected.

  6. False Millionaire says:

    The fact is,the thieves who have stolen the billions of dollars from RSS’ coffers since the CPA n throughout the age of the independence include Riak Machar,Salva Kiir n Pagan Amum among the rest of the SPML/A elites.Please read today’s Sudan Tribune edition:a huge amount of money reserve in RSS banknotes in the centeral bank that had been programmed to last for five years has been stolen by SPLM/A thugs in Juba.The factors of fall of oil prices per barrel,the raging war that prevents extraction n exportation of the oil in great quantities will prevent the flow of dollar into the country’s coffers in any near future.That’s without forgetting to consider that there are no fools out there who are too stupid to be out witted to borrow money to Juba.The sugar-coated idiocy has been décoated naked.False kojor tricks of witch doctors won’t help.So with Riak,Kiir or Pagan on the helm,the carrots are cooked for consumption.The destination of the cow named RSS is death.

    Cher Mr Defender,
    If there is any chance for the subject to,”claim their rightful place”,it’s better now than after the cow’s death!l!

  7. GatCharwearbol says:

    The author has touched some very interesting and crucial points to take as food for thought. I do not think so, but do know so that Salva Kiir is not an elected President. There were never an elections in South Sudan as the author sincerely put it. This is the fact of the matter that Salva Kiir’s supporters ought to know and to let go of pressing that button of a “Democratically elected”. This is balderdash! Dr. Machar is surely the best option we got right now and Dinka needs to let go of tribalism. If we all want South Sudan to be at peace once and for all, it is wise to give Dr. Machar the opportunity to rule this nation. He is actually the only person who sees all our tribes as equal not on tribal lenses as Salva Kiir see us.

    The author demonized White Army base on hearsays. This is unfair label for the Nuer civilians who were basically responding to the genocide committed in Juba to their fellow Nuer.

    Other option is to let these duo out of South Sudan political arena including all Kiir’s puppets and Tribal Elders. These are the very driving force responsible for tearing this nation up. Yes, there is no government in South Sudan from the beginning, there were just bunches of clowns clad up in government uniforms.

    To west friends, if you truly want a permanent peace in South Sudan… let these two tribes solve it themselves under your surpervision. If they want to fight it out , let them do without interfere from the outside world. First order Uganda to withdrawal its troops and all mercenaries. Give the playing field to Dinka and Nuer to either solve their problem peacefully or fight it out without any help from the outside world. The solution is home grown and it starts with this suggestion.

  8. False Millionaire says:

    Mr Gatcharwearbol,
    With all due respect,if you claim that our elder brother Dr Riak Machar,”is actually the only person who sees all our tribes as equal not on tribal lenses as Kiir sees us”,how come the nuer armed forces murdered unarmed dinka civilians in Bor,nasir,Malakal,Bentiu n every where in nuer land without him issuing orders to stop them by the merit of his capacity as chairman and commner-in-chief of the SPLM-IO?

    Secondly,to say that,”If we all want south sudan to be in peace once and for all,it’s wise to give Dr Riak opportunity to rule this nation”,what’s he doing now to reconcile the waring communities meaning dinka n nuer before becoming RSS president?!!!

  9. GatCharwearbol says:

    Mr. False Millionaire,

    I apologize for my late feedback. Anyway, it is better late than never. Sincerely, Dinka were murdered in various places as you mentioned. There is nothing to repudiate. But it isn’t per Dr. Machar’s directive. The manner in which Dinka innocent people were killed is out of emotion unlike the well planned genocide of Juba. Nuer people reacted emotionally upon hearing the genocide. Each took decision into his own hands. Many of these Dinka were murdered before Dr. Machar declared himself as the leader of the rebellion. Thus, he is very clean in this regards.

    If you remember before the civil war broke out, Dr. Machar came up with National Reconciliation Initiative (NRI) which was taken away from him by Kiir. This initiative is there on the table. For the fact that civilians were killed in Bor in 1991 when he parted with SPLM mainstream, he apologized directly to the people of Bor. This is how true leader should act. He demonstrates the much sought after leadership trait. I abundantly comprehend that many from my Dinka tribe do not see it this way, it is understandable. A worthy leader always has slimmed chance of getting to the right spot because evil forces out number the righteous. You are thinking that Dr. Machar could have prevented Nuer from attacking Dinka, it was too late for him to do just that. People have taken the law into their own hands. I hope I answered your questions, sir!

  10. Lavina Lual says:

    GATBOL-
    Your humble and sincere response is admirable, I concur with you when you said “a worthy leader always has slimmed chance of getting to the right spot because evil forces outnumber the righteous”, but I rebuke it in Jesus’s name because at the end of the day, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked, Eccl 3:17, meaning all the work of the devil will come to pass for Kiir is on his way to the grave if you have no idea. Just try to “listen to his speeches and follow his health status, God has sentenced him to death already, he is gravely ill, he is right now searching for his successor”, as you are aware for the wages of sins is death, Romans 6:23. Where did Kiir think the blood of the innocent people he killed during Dec 2013 will go…….of course to his neck because this country should have been a holy or an exemplary nation after having passed tabernacles before the CPA because of already many human sacrifices made during the liberation struggle for the birth of this country.

    History is repeating itself, remembered Southerners were minorities in Sudan and comprise of only 20% of Sudan population, today they have a new nation because God rescued them except that things went wrong because of the wrong leaders who failed people of South Sudan to enjoy equal opportunity, freedom, and prosperity.

    The good news is the same God of Israel that gave us this new nation has already put his hand on the minorities led by Dr Riek who is now transformed into godly like to Kiir. God is resurrecting the minorities and the oppressed; Dr Riek is the New Moses and Kiir the Pharaoh, remember the land referred to as Cush in the bible is one of the nations where Lord recovered the remnant of his people, Isaiah 11:11.

    I have quoted several verses of the bible because Kiir is in real problem every time he has group of people to pray for his failed leadership in the house while on the other hand working with witches, very contrary that is why he is fading out, because bible is an opposite force of the witches. His prophet refused to come to South Sudan because God might directed him that the Kiir has involved himself in sever genocide-blood sucker

    LL

  11. Hoiloom says:

    Thanks for a great comment Lavina Lual! We have hope for this crumbling nation of ours. Indeed God will rescue its people and this country shall be set on the right path. It’s never been about Nuer vs. Dinka but a fight for righteousness, reforms against dictatorship. Things have gone out of control as Gatcharwearbol has narrated, therefore Salva and not Riek should bear responsibility for the mess he has created. No one among our citizens should die unnecessarily irrespective of their ethnic background.
    Stay Bless!!

  12. GatChatwearbol says:

    Lavina Lual,

    GOD of heaven and of our ancestor is on our side. We will prevail against Kiir’s evil forces.

    • Bol says:

      Gat…bol
      Congrates for the new found love .you’re now brother in law…firstl step towards resolving our problems.

  13. Goodluck Maker Awuoc says:

    We have puts blame on leaders but we have involved ourselves to politicization involved criminalisation with tribalisation which complicates signal of peace talks .our war is fight wrong doers because we know the long destination we have passed through as today call ourselves independent nation.my brothers and sisters let us fight with true enemy of the development which is corruption ,.

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