Divided Rebellion, Indifferent government & the Politico-Military Impasse in South Sudan

BY: Kuir ë Garang, Author and commentator, NOV/12/2017, SSN;

“I need blankets. It is cold at night and I don’t want my children to get sick,” said the 23-year-old Rebecca Barnaba, a mother at Doro camp in Upper Nile State. But who’s listening?

It’s very clear in South Sudan that none of the political groups that claim to be the one with the interest of South Sudanese at heart is actually playing their verbal claims. They only attempt to exonerate themselves from Juba failures while consolidating their positions and potential power-sharing as future stakeholders.

Undoubtedly, South Sudan has reached a politico-military impasse. The rebels have markedly confused politico-military agendas and they have no strong military means or strategies to oust the leadership of President Kiir.

Their personal interest-driven agenda is actually turning them against one another. If their interest is political reforms or rescuing the country from descending even further into the proverbial rabbit hole, then their interests would have been aligned and united in a concerted strategy to launch a single front against Juba.

Unfortunately, we know that liberating South Sudan is far from the agenda of these once power-players in Juba.

Like the tribalized government in Juba, these rebel groups become the abode of tribal agendas dressed-up as liberation forces. How can a national leader recruit a tribal army and expect to have a national appeal?

How can such tribal militias whose purported agenda is to remove the failed Juba regime fight one another and expect to succeed?

Essentially, rebellion, as conceptualised and exercised by the current rebel leaders, is by no means a panacea to our political ills in South Sudan as such a strategic move requires wise, solution-focused, military-political strategist and an individual with an appreciable sense of selflessness.

So far, most, if not all, the satellite rebel groups, are after creating a negotiation and power-sharing front in the future political process.

As Aristotle once said, “Anybody can become angry – that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way – that is not within everybody’s power and is not easy.”

We are all angry in South Sudan – ALL OF US – but what are we using our anger for and who are we aiming it for? For rebel who purportedly took up arms against Juba, one wonders why they are ‘angry’ with their fellow rebels? It’s all about POWER!

However, these leaders will inundate us with exorbitant and ambitious claims of fighting to democratize Juba and bring freedom to the people of South Sudan.

By forming satellite, tribally-based rebel groups instead of uniting under a single force, these leaders have shown us that this is not about fighting for the people of South Sudan but power.

Since being a rebel with a fighting force makes one heard, rebelling to get a national and international profile, has become a normative, power-exercise reality in South Sudan.

However, the readers should know that I understand the reasons behind these leaders rebelling and I understand the extent to which president Kiir’s government is damaged and tribalized beyond redemption.

However, the manner in which rebellions are being formed and led will only lead to more suffering instead of positively bringing a complete political overhaul in Juba.

After forming his new rebel movement, National Democratic Movement in September of 2016, Dr. Lam Akol had this to say: “The National Democratic Movement (NDM) was born to wage the struggle, together with others in the field, against the totalitarian, corrupt and ethnocentric regime in Juba that is bent on dragging our country into the abyss.”

Akol added that, “It must be clear from the outset, the NDM is not just for change of personalities in Juba to replace them with others of the same feathers; it is out for a radical change in the country that will bring about genuine state-building and nation-building.”

In an interview with The Messenger in March this year, the leader of National Salvation Front (NSF), Thomas Cirillo Swaka, claimed that he is “Inspired by the spirit and need to create a new political dispensation in the country that is based on the principles of democracy, unity and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms anchored in a federal structure as the basis for uniting and rebuilding the country, the National Salvation Front is the movement determined to fight for a New South Sudan in which all its citizens will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities.”

While these leaders have strong reasons for leaving Juba and the words quoted above appreciable, I doubt if their chosen methods to change the system in Juba would work. Until such time when these leaders unite, they’ll just be some territorial warlords in the bush.

What makes Lam and Cirillo think that they can do better than Dr. Riek Machar of SPLM-IO is something I would want to see. Reduced to a prisoner in South Africa with his movement only nominally functional and forces fighting without clear strategic plan, Riek Machar will have to admit his failure.

If he cannot use his leadership skills to prevail on South Africa to free him, then how can Riek Machar help South Sudanese?

Again, as long as these leaders believe they individually are the salvation torch-bearers, then rebellion will only be a negative feature in our country not a solution strategy.

What makes the above rebel position even more saddening is the fact that Juba is in no better position to seek an end to this impasse. The Agreement for the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS) is dead, but the government operates as if it’s still something they are implementing or have implemented.

The National Dialogue, which actually admitted in its first document that it can only make recommendations to the president, is being pedalled by the government as another way to solve this impasse.

National Dialogues should only be used to heal not end wars. Since the president knows the grievances advanced by various rebel movements but he doesn’t want to sit with them, it’s clear that Juba isn’t interested in ending this impasse. It only wants to end the crisis in a manner that leaves its power-bases intact.

Besides, the treatment of General Malong Awan, the former Chief of General Staff, is a clear testimony that president Kiir isn’t interested in ending the country’s crisis. Creating more problems is not an act of a man who cares about his own people.

While I agree with the former political detainees about giving Dr. Riek Machar and President Kiir an exit package, something I proposed a few month ago, the former political detainees need to understand that they are an opposition group and any of their proposals will only be seen as a self-interested agenda to remove the government.

No matter the soundness of their proposal, the mere fact that they oppose both the SPLM-IG and SPLM-IO, will always project them as using their methods to get rid of them.

While SPLM-FDs propose a government of technocrats, they’ve not clearly explained who these technocrats would be even if we know that they also exclude themselves, like Kiir and Riek, in a would-be transitional government of technocrats.

However, the FDs should make clear if they are mere opposition group or solution providers. Their existence as part of the government in Juba and at the same time as fierce critics of President Kiir and Riek Machar, make me wonder what exactly they are doing?

They can’t be both a part of a failed government and pedalling as solution providers.

While FDs is one group that proposes alternative forms of government, their murky political stand compromises their proposals; and this makes it hard for them to be taken seriously. They should either remain as critics or become solution providers.

They can’t expect Juba to take them seriously if they bitterly criticise President Kiir as the problem and then again expect Kiir to respect their political settlement proposals.

Unless they pull out of the government, stop criticising IO and IG and only remain as a neutral, objective think tank that’s only interested in helping Juba and opposition arrive at workable solution models. But I guess this would make them politically irrelevant so they would not be stakeholders in any future power-sharing government.

So what’s the solution?

I propose that all the rebel groups unite under one leadership and fight against President Kiir. This would also give the international community, which already knows how rotten Kiir leadership is, an impression that a united rebel front is after a real political change in South Sudan not a mere cult of personality augmentation and tribal agenda-dressed-up as political reform.

Since this is going to be nearly impossible, then it’s high time for South Sudanese to dispense with IGAD and meet in Addis Ababa, Nairobi, or Kampala, to agree on a peaceful way forward.

While the latter proposal sounds naïve, one needs to remember the naivety of bitterly divided rebel groups who expect to defeat Juba.

A government that’s run out of ideas and only channels money into political intimidations, and a divided, tribalized opposition that’ll see no victory, is a classic impasse that will continue to prolong suffering of South Sudanese civilians, more than 4 million of whom haven’t fled the home; more than 2 million of those displaced being refugees in neighboring countries.

…………..
*Kuir ë Garang is the author of South Sudan Ideologically and Is ‘Black’ Really Beautiful? For more information or to contact the author, visit www.kuirthiy.com

20 Comments

  1. info@southsudannation says:

    Excellent, Mr. Kuir Garang,
    Do we really have leaders or a bunch of PTSD-invalids posing as leaders?
    I am one of those who strongly and scientifically believe that these so-called leaders, who have all at one time dressed in SPLA military uniform, shot and killed fellow South Sudanese and stolen money in their government of so-called liberated South Sudan nation, will never transform themselves into truly ‘national leaders.’
    Their past and present criminal deeds and sins are severely haunting them…… their collective senses of guilt will always follow them until their graves.
    Editor

  2. Samuel Atabi says:

    I agree. I always lament the dearth of leadership quality among our elite. Is it because of the inferior education provided by an apartheid-like regime in Khartoum? Until we discover a towering leader with impeccable moral authority, we cannot expect liberation from the perfidious lot now masquerading as leaders both in government and opposition.

  3. Concerned says:

    When you have selfish ignorant people, you always end up with selfish ignorant leaders! Folks, this is the best South Sudan can offer and will continue to offer, selfish leaders the likes of Salva Kiir, Lam Akol, Thomas Cirilo, Riek Machar, Pagan Amum…

    I thought Thomas Cirilo would have been a rare exception given his highly praised military background which should give him an advantage over the rest, but I was dead wrong! The guy is nothing but full of himself, and how did he started! He first started by wrongly spelling out the name of his movement as NAS, which everybody knows should be NSF, then he engages in a tribal based recruitment by encouraging the defection of his tribe’ men from IO and the fired his first bullet at his supposed allies…He couldn’t even defend his actions as he ends up borrowing a well dressed lie from Juba government, that Taban-IO has an army which he is fighting against…Somebody needs to undress this lie so it may not become the naked truth…

    So folks don’t expect anything better coz this is what our country produces: just a garbage in and a garbage out…

  4. Concerned says:

    Actually, giving out an economic exit package to criminals is just a stupid idea because it won’t work and it has never worked…

    First of all, Salva Kiir owns the entire banks of South Sudan as his private properties, where on earth then are South Sudanese gonna find enough money to buy him out? If South Sudanesewant back their stolen and wasted 20 billions South Sudan’s money in the last 10 yrs or so, they need to ask none other than Salva Kiir himself because he was and still the ring leader of the infamous 75 South Sudanese thieves…

    This old outdated idea of buying out just shows how bad the gangs of G-10 and their behind the door advisors, which may include the author of this article since he claims to have proposed the idea in the first place long before G-10, have run out of ideas as they are ending up borrowing ideas shamelessly, they should retire and go homes since they appear visibly and mentally exhausted…the idea has been for years tried unsuccessfully with the next door neighbor, the Uganda’s life time dictator M7…

    The idea didn’t work then and it won’t work now because M7, like Salva Kiir in South Sudan, owns everything in Uganda and there is no amount of money which can them him out…

  5. Eli Wani says:

    Mr. or Ms. Concerned
    Whatever your real name is, you are a treasure in hiding. Perhaps if some of us with qualitative ideas and linguistic arts could only spell out our real names for the public to know, maybe the nation might rally behind you. Very good analysis without biases. Keep it coming

  6. Eli Wani says:

    Kuir ë Garang
    Well put, but I doubted if anyone of them would even contemplate about your proposals. However, I disagree with your assertion that the Opposition should unite only to dispose of Kirr, if that is the only primary objective then it’s just recycling the same old dirty politics of lion takes the biggest share, by this I mean those who are holding the guns will again claim to be the LIBERATOR of the others. There must be a well prepared broader base agendas before unity, after all, there is no need forming mini-rebellions. The only reason I see these groups are springing up is that they are copying what late Dr. John Garang started, having their bases inside their tribesmen which are not really national agenda. Dr. Garang started by mobilizing his ethnic Bor, then he reached out to Kirr as a Bahr Ghazalian, he brought those of William Nyuon, Dr. Riek etc to galvanize the Nuer, he brought in each tribal leader from Equatorian to win their support and so on. Today nothing is new, these warlords are only there to serve their interests. Maybe the young generation who are none militarized minds could become the future hope if they can only look past the tribal fiasco. The road is still winding and narrow and far from real peace.

  7. Samuel Atabi says:

    When someone tried to persuade Museveni to retire and bag Mo Ibrahim prize, Museveni retorted that he was not a poor man. Correct, neither Kiir nor Machar is poor. What is needed to persuade them to retire is threat. Machar is already cornered. Kiir now must be indicted for war crime and should be arrested if he leaves South Sudan. The US and other powers should withdraw their sovereign recognition of Kiir and downgrade their diplomatic missions. Failing that, they should arm Thomas Cirillo to degrade the crumbling Kiir forces. (TC is yet to be condemned for poor leadership)

    • info@southsudannation says:

      Mr. Atabi,
      Whilst fully concurring with you on the necessity to depose the duo, Kiir-Machar from the nation’s leadership, I still believe that the South Sudanese themselves must initiate and take the necessary actions to rid the nation of Kiir first by all and any means necessary. Both SKM and RMT have needlessly and remorselessly killed tens of thousands of South Sudanese just to enable them continue shining in the limelight of the nation’s leadership. This must be brought to an immediate termination.
      As I have said before, whether it’s TCS, Johnson Oling or those Yei/Kajo-koji poor rebels now be cunningly exploited by the jieng and Nuer to kill each other, their first target should be to get rid of Kiir/Machar, instead of decimating their own brothers, sisters, parents, cousins and uncles across the beautiful Yei Kare where they all share one same language and culture.
      Those truly heroic nationalists of Elia Lupe, Aggrey Jaden and Marko Rume must be rolling in their graves when they see these hapless young men and women fighting this alien jieng-Nuer war!!!
      Editor

  8. False Millionaire says:

    Editor,
    I appreciate seeing u making common sense.Now it’s the likes of Atabi who burn the bush in a miscalculted way to get the lion.General TCS under the influence of Atabi’s likes has already become a small soldier on the drive for narrow obiectives that begin with targeting innocent citizens in the hope to cause an earth quake that will make the sky collapse on the dictator in Juba.
    One should digest why Kiir didn’t come to blows with King Paul in the latest stand off.Jieng took over the matter and spoiled it all togather.But do u understand why?They want jieng in tact waiting to see which way the road targeting on slaughts will take.Don’t beat around the bush.The ball is on your side and u must come out clear with intentions to fight the bad government in Juba without targeting innocent jieng as a way of achieving it.
    Mr Atabi’s think that arresting Kiir and sending him to the Haag is the solution.But what solution with jieng united as a blook?
    The brits with the yankees aren’t that foolish to sue for an array of instability.Trump talks business now with relish after signing multi billion dollars business deals with China.There is no beauty contest here.It won’t be a surprise to see them keep Kiir for life the day Kiir hands them over our natural resources and u will turn out to be the first enemy to beat.Be happy if that’s what u want.

  9. mading says:

    Samuel Atabi. Giving Thomas Crillo arms will make his tribal army any different, they have so many guns right now. But nobody firing them, so more arms will not do you any good Jur rebels.

  10. Concerned says:

    False Millionaire,

    you are right that more than 90% of Jiengs support Salva Kiir’s rotten government. They do that not because they love Salva Kiir’s rotten government but because they are blind folded by Kiir’s tribal politics which favor the jiengs and the Jiengs in turn have allowed him and are even helping him slaughter South Sudanese in thousands! Therefore, the jiengs have indeed become nothing more than the stupid majority, to borrow from late John Garang for the lack of better description…

    Unless you have no shame, something that differentiates animals from humans, you can’t really compare what the MNT highway hunters are doing to Jiengs to what Salva Kiir is doing to South Sudanese, Salva Kiir atrocities are way more than the combined atrocities committed by both the late Dr. John Garang and Riek Machar combined!

    It should have been up to the rest of South Sudanese victims to put up their acts together in order to save their lives from the monster, but they are equally if not more stupid than the monster and his Jiengs! Instead of putting their damn azzes together in order to effectively face Salva Kiir and his Jiengs along with their self-made slaves in the name of IO-Taban and others Jieng’s worshipers, the South Sudanese are gambling with their lives…They are hoping a miracle will happen in the names of some new cats in the block, new cats like Lam Akol or Thomas Cirelo…

    So wake up South Sudanese, time for miracle is long gone, since this is 2000 years after the death of Jesus and so don’t expect any more miracles to happen…

  11. Concerned says:

    Mading,

    Stop bragging about who can fire and who cannot, it doesn’t make sense at all. Just look at what is happening now in South Sudan, the Jiengs, armed to teeth with superior fire power, are beating up the Nuers along with their allies in almost all fronts, something unthinkable just a few years…

    To win a battle or war in these days in age, you only need resources and not bravery because even if you are coward, you can still buy mercenaries which is exactly Salva kiir been doing despite having 90% of his jiengs fully behind him…

  12. Peter Adwok Nyaba says:

    Dear Kuir
    I couldn’t have agreed more with your concluding remarks …. “I propose that all the rebel groups unite under one leadership and fight against President Kiir. This would also give the international community, which already knows how rotten Kiir leadership is, an impression that a united rebel front is after a real political change in South Sudan not a mere cult of personality augmentation and tribal agenda-dressed-up as political reform.”.. However, the real problem is not unity per se but the absence of a leader around whom people would coalesce and unite. In 1983, notwithstanding the circumstances that brought him to power, Dr. John Garang de Mabior (R.I.P) managed to piece together the SPLM/SPLA because I believe he had the foresight and skills to wade through the different contradictions. This was partly because he was not part of the confusion in Juba which led to ‘kokora’ and the political divisions among the political elite that ran the Southern Region. Looking at the opposition leaders: Riek Machar, Lam Akol, Pagan Amum, Bangazi Bkosoro and Thomas Cirillo, they all were, at one point or the other, members of the SPLM/SPLA. They all know each other and indeed, some resent each other. Do you think they can unite? They behave like the Biblical women in the Court of King Solomon. They will kill the child.
    I have been a member of the SPLM/SPLA (IO) since July 2014. Once the urge for vengeance, for the massacre in Juba of ethnic Nuers, dissipated there was no strategic objective left for war to continue other than recapturing positions in the TGoNU. As a senior rebel; having been in the Anya-nya, the Democratic Front against May regime. the SPLM/SPLA, and now in SPLM/SPLA (IO), I would suggest that the we isolate and retain the National and Democratic in (NDM). (NAS) and (SSNM) and add the Front in (NAS) and create a wide coalition for democracy to be called National Democratic Front (NDF) to include other social and political forces inside the country to united our people across ethnic and provincial lines and transform the civil war into a National Democratic Revolution with expressed objective to construct a National Democratic State in South Sudan. Let us discourse these ideas rather than blaming ourselves. Regards
    Peter Adwok Nyaba

    • info@southsudannation says:

      Prof. Peter A. Nyaba,
      Indeed, in recognition of your much acknowledged and acclaimed nationalism, it’s now time for some of you in the top leadership of the SPLM/A-IO to metaphorically shake-up Machar from his long slumber and myopia so that, first, he erases the now badly disgraced acronym ‘SPLM/A’ from his movement and secondly, that he imperatively recognises that the other armed anti-Kiir opposition groups now in the bushes of South Sudan are also important and complimentary in the war against KIIR tribal regime in Juba.
      South Sudan is simply too big for the Nuer to naively imagine and assume that they alone MUST be the next MASTERS OF THE COUNTRY, presumably after they ‘defeat’ the Kiir dynasty.
      If South Sudan is ever to be rescued from the inevitability of total collapse that is surely coming, all these forces now separately resisting the Kiir’s tyranny must bury their inflated egos and accept to work together in sync against Kiir.
      Dr. Machar and his IO must accept that the South Sudan is simply and clearly too expansive and diversified that he, Machar, must humbly recognize the separate/autonomous participation of other ‘rebel’ groups in the same struggle against Kiir’s jieng tyranny.
      MOST IMPORTANTLY, MACHAR MUST IMPERATIVELY SHARE AND DISTRIBUTE HIS MASSIVE RESOURCES THAT ARE/WERE PREVIOUSLY DUPLICITOUSLY ACQUIRED IN THE NAME OF ALL SOUTH SUDANESE SO AS TO ENABLE THESE GROUPS NOW IN THE BUSHES OF SOUTH SUDAN PARTAKE IN THE COMBINED DEFEAT OF THE KIIR REGIME, INSTEAD OF HE, MACHAR, DEVIOUSLY MISUSING THESE SAME RESOURCES TO ELIMINATE OTHER ANTI-KIIR GROUPS OR SELFISHLY RETAINING ALL THESE ‘NATIONALLY-ACQUIRED’ RESOURCES AT HIS DISPOSAL ONLY FOR HIS NAATH BRETHREN FIGHTERS.
      The aged-old-adage/wisdom…”Divided we fall-‘lose’, United we stand-‘succeed’,” still runs true, specially in the bushes of South Sudan
      Editor

      • Concerned says:

        Erasing the “now badly disgraced acronym SPLM/A…” would be equivalent to a poisonous snake shading off its skin, it is still dangerous. The problems with the SPLM/A are deeply rooted into the cultures that created it, it was a product of very violent cultures of Jiengs and their cousins naath. The Americans tried to reform it after the CPA but they failed terribly…

        The jiengs celebrate arrogance, greed, threat and intimidation, things that breed, nurture and promote violence. And although their cousins naath discourage and hate those things, e,g,. they value equality while condemning arrogance, greed and intimidation, they are more prone to be easily provoked into violence than their cousins Jiengs…

        The naath have no memory, zero! They can’t remember any bad thing that happened yesterday nor do they plan for the next day.

        This explains why they always go back to the same monster that slaughter them. And if you were wondering why Riek Machar came unprepared all the way from the safety of his headquarters, Pagak, just to be made a sacrificial lamb in Juba, this is the same reason!

        He couldn’t remember that he left Juba running naked the year before…John Garang would have told John Kerry and Donald Booth go …….but not Riek Machaar he was easily lured coz he has no memory…Same to Taban Deng Gai, he forgets that he’s just another gang from Pagak…

        Naath are like animals who go back to where they were hunted yesterday nor do they remember any bad things they might have done.

        To give you a typical example, there is now a toothless naath general in Juba accommodated as a minister. If you know the phrase “they all poop,” that is both sides commit atrocities, that general is responsible, he mobilized the Nuer White Army to raid malakal three times and on his way, he burned alive hundreds of innocent jieng children and women…He now lives at the mercy of his enemies for now…

        The Jiengs are much better in this category than their cousins although they only remember two and only two things: the 1983 and 1991.

        1983 was when their world was created and 1991 was when it almost came to an end. In their world, John Garang is god while Riek Machar is a Lucifer…they don’t remember anything before ’83 nor anything that happened in between 83 and 91…

  13. False Millionaire says:

    Mr Concerned,
    Please admit u are just another unconcerned mad fellow from unearthly lune. The line will never move as u wish in your daydream until u differentiate Kiir and his regime on one hand and jieng ordinary masses on the other as two different entities.One unarmed dinka kilt on the road in the name of struggle against Kiir’s regime is a grave mistake that can bring down the sky collapsing over u.
    Since those malicious road killings began, jieng are still faring as before in south sudan and have not yet killed a single non-jieng dog for revenge.But if they mobilized one day against u, better know u will have a place in the sky because u will be taught what hell is.
    Dr Nyaba is just here.
    Please learn from him and keep your nasty mouth shut from soiling the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.

    • info@southsudannation says:

      False Millionaire,
      Unfortunately, you’re still living in your own enclosed dreamworld. Do you ever seek to find out what’s the result of Kiir’s jieng revenge against ‘others’ is? Don’t you ever ask any mongjoour about the damages and unprovoked killings by Kiir’s Mathiang Anyoor vagabonds these days in and around Juba, and in Yei, Kajo-keji, Nimule, Mongala, Lobonok of your own jieng slavish vice-president, otherwise also known as Wani Igga?
      There is no more so-called ‘road killings,’ it’s now open warfare against Kiir’s tribal tyranny by equally armed opposition, from Renk in Upper Nile, to From Raga and Azande land in the West, to all Equatoria in the South and to Kapoeta and the Naath territory in the East.
      Better look for a way out before serious aggravation takes place.
      Stay tuned.
      Editor

    • Concerned says:

      FM,

      You see, you are more concerned about those few random road incidents than the countrywide ethnic cleansing by your jieng militia (mathiang-anyor). Those incidents are nothing compared to damage done by your militias. And by the way, those incidents must have gotten really close to you personally, you must be ones of those business men who frequent those roads just to keep your dirty illegal business a live and as your name suggests, you are a beneficiary of the stolen South Sudanese money and you will be asked at the end…

      And no, don’t tell me you still have any sky left to collapse on me, don’t forget you have already thrown out at me all your kitchen sink content and I took it very well, you have nothing left really to throw! It just a matter of time before you ran out of those resources at your disposal to arm yourself to teeth or hire out mercenaries…

      We will defeat you and your rotten government at the long run despite the help you are getting, either directly or indirectly, from some of the confused oppositions…

  14. Peter Adwok Nyaba says:

    Dear Mr. Peter (Editor)
    Thanks for your rejoinder. I believe time is coming when individual leaders will never count; it is the others who are not capturing the opportunity. There are people struggle against the regime using other means. The situation as I have always said is ripe for revolution. Those still stuck in the old mindset will be surprised.
    Kind regards

  15. Samuel Atabi says:

    Dear Dr Adwok,

    Someone tells me that revolutions are like earthquakes: they are always predicted and sometimes they come. They also begin at the top as is happening now in Zimbabwe, and as happened in 1917 Russia. Although a determined crowd is essential for it to be completely implemented, a revolution must necessarily start with the elite abandoning the existing political order. These conditions now exist in our country as the Malong affair shows. Yes, you are right.

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