Category: National

Diplomacy and Economic Advancement in the Republic of South Sudan

Strengthening South Sudan’s Foreign Relation through Trade Initiatives

BY: Goy Leek, AUSTRALIA, JAN/8/2013, SSN;

As a new nation created in this magnificent techno-age of the 21st century, the Republic of South Sudan is faced with numerous challenges. One such challenge is the need to anchor the nation on a firm economic platform so as to advance the livelihoods of the populace. Being a new nation, she is now a witness to economic growth models of new emerging world economies. The countries with such economies have at times been dubbed as either “developing” countries or new global “economic partners.” These countries have at one stage of their emergence gone through the trails of turmoils currently experienced in South Sudan before gaining their economic stability.

Therefore, in addition to bolstering prosperity, these countries have formed alliances such as the international economic body of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South African (BRICS) in a bid to combating economic dependency on large global financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Besides, there are the continental economic bodies such as Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations which were later merged to form the Union of South American Nations (UNSAN) with a single objective to establishing an economic platform within South America.

Regionally, there existed the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Southern African Development Community (SADC) and East African Community (EAC) clearly aiming at intensifying economic activities through partnerships and cooperation. These allied countries have adopted a cohesive strategy of unionism through trade economic practices to achieve the goal of economic stability by amalgamating their resident economic sectors.

The cooperative approach identified by the above mentioned states to achieve the economic strength through the shared market and diverse resources utilization is something that has boosted local growth and development within the alliance. At the core of such formations of alliances, there is the existence of a fundamental and an amicable diplomatic protocol and policy agenda that aims to drive the programs of the coalitions forged. The battle waged against economic dependency as branded by most of these nations is a path that has been confirmed by many economists and capitalist nations as a practice of a progressive economic independence.

South Sudan therefore as a nation aspiring to establish its economic status regionally and internationally is not an exception in this scenario and thus requires an ultimate consideration of prioritizing its economic programs alongside its diplomatic discourses so as to create leverage in the world’s industrial and technological market for a profound economic stance.

At this juncture, the RoSS is also an observer to various trade and industrial activities of the already “developed” countries with established strong economic foundations. These countries are continuously strengthening their economies effectively through political and diplomatic leadership. As widely perceptible, most “developed” countries have limited economic resources and less agricultural activities to bolster their manufacturing and industrial sector. Therefore, they profoundly rely on the robust foreign markets for raw materials particularly in Africa. Their demands are being met almost instantaneously by the host ‘green states’ unfortunately at stumpy values.

The resource relation between the west and Africa which is intermittently silhouetted and embedded under an unreciprocated financial relief is indeed a delicate one. It provides the “developed” countries with greater advantage to advance their industrious business practices. On the other hand, the green states are entangled in myriads of debts unable to visualise the effects of the business practice.

So, however much the race is getting steadier and increasingly unrequited, the RoSS is also witnessing the challenges facing these ‘developing’ and ‘developed’ countries. These challenges range from the recent global financial crisis to the euro-zone economic crisis and from the political turmoils of the Arabian countries especially the Middle East, the northern and western Africa to the current second-phase neo-scramble for African resources by the west and the new economic super-power – China. These events though seemingly distant and outside our diplomatic and economic scope do require prominent considerations should South Sudan aspire to be considered globally while satisfying its economic agendas at home.

Comprehensively, the Republic of South Sudan needs a strategized global economic exposure through diplomatic proficiency given the involvement of the international community in most of the Republic’s affairs officially from the Intergovernmental Authority on Development era to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and onto the contemporary issues such as Abyei, the oil saga, internal insecurity and many more.

Our diplomatic participation in economic forums regionally and globally is highly crucial however sensitive the internal state of affairs are. The basic reason is that the policies for the new nation need to be represented accurately and candidly with maximized advantageous outcomes; this will prevent being misconstrued as a nation with a contrary agenda other than that popularized during the CPA under the banner of democratic reforms by means of secular transparent government.

The international community’s involvement in the affairs of South Sudan since its creation through to its infancy is nothing new and thus requires proper projection of the obligations and the fundamental pledges the nation made upon the inception of independence so as to retain the high-spirited jovial atmosphere of independence into the future for future generations. Thus, the best way for the Republic South Sudan to remain intact with local development which is a prime recipe in nation building is to equally brandish it’s foreign and public policy by prioritizing economic diplomacy to assert itself locally and globally.

Our nation’s foreign policy requires a world-class statecraft construction or otherwise refurbishment so that it reflects our need for economic growth as per foreign relation expectations internationally and at home.

During the endorsement of the first South Sudan’s foreign policy by the cabinet ministers three weeks after independence, the preamble of the document read out by the then caretaker minister of Information, Barnaba Marial Benjamin stated that “being the newest nation state vying to carve out a respectful position amongst the world body of nations, South Sudan is keen and resolute in establishing a democratic secular transparent system of government, reflective of established international norms and standards such as the observance of the rule of law and respect for human rights.”

These pledges are indeed appropriate and perhaps flamboyant; however, they can only reach their optimal impact when itemized in accordance with proper resource economic sector, suitable regulatory trade conduct and accommodating legislative programs of resident innovative potentials and skills.

Therefore, as much as we aspire to position ourselves as a nation on the global diplomatic stage, our principle objectives inclusive to the above mentioned obligations needs to also incorporate our readiness and strategic responses to immediate challenges experienced locally since they can gravely influence and overshadow our reputation internationally.

To achieve this, it is vital to encourage members of the public to participate in pioneering projects towards local businesses by primarily emphasizing on the promotion of transparent, free and fair economic practices through indispensable regulations. The promotion of local businesses and renewing the trade systems at home will highly give a recognizable credibility to our intercontinental trade partners that consider engaging in mutual and bilateral relations with the Republic of South Sudan.

With these few items on the list of initiatives that our foreign ministry needs to engage itself in, the nation will be best placed to operate and create a frontier and a market for our natural resources hence providing our societies with renewed sense of economic potency.

Furthermore, it will also be beneficial to engage our diplomatic missions to venture into appropriate representation of the need for economic relations by conducting robust generation of modern economic diplomacy. The frontline staff in the foreign missions should prioritize this task to effectively implement the agendas of the government.

Although it will be a daunting task for the sixty three identified foreign missions, the task to internationally represent and translate our government’s agendas will require reflective presentation though being the first Foreign Service officers from the republic of South Sudan. Their role will be met with intricacy requiring efficacy of their competence and expertise irrespective of acquired prior experiences.

Hence the needs for committing and engaging in the commercialization of our natural resources are far a greater benefit for the nation at large to administer its highly needed primary services such as healthcare, education and security.

As much as our foreign missions take their responsibilities into establishing long lasting relationships with foreign countries, the government of South Sudan should not do so at the expense of the local public. Firm and dignified foreign policies that are coherent will only thrive and prosper under the effective articulation and translation of our public policies that have comprehensive public rating and ultimate benefits to the local populace.

It has now been seventeen months since the endorsement of the first foreign policy document by the council of minister of the government of South Sudan; the intentions have been widely known such as to firstly adjust the nation’s diplomatic relations and concisely delivering on that premise.

Secondly, the platforms on which these ties were to be conducted have been laid out in the structures of embassies, consulate generals and permanent missions. Currently, the stages of establishing the foreign offices have now passed and the firm task of introducing and strengthening mutual bilateral relationships has begun. Therefore, lowering the guard or slacking on the policy could be highly detrimental on grounds of economic development.

The quest to build a knowledge-based foreign policy to foreign publics is highly dependent on how best our missionaries (ambassadors) will educate these foreign public on our economic and financial systems through making available means for free trade, safeguards and protection of prospective investors to embark on transparent market-based economies.

As much as our aim as a republic is to build close links with foreign public, our diplomats and all government officials should be encouraged to make use of this 21st century’s technological capability to reach out to our own home populace to reform and renew the economic sector so as to support our local industrial sector and not just focus on the foreign policy that could be void of substance when it comes to stronger economies.

So that our local economic activities remain to boost our foreign policy, the government of the Republic of South Sudan should consistently encourage our foreign staffers to innovatively create projects and programs that are aimed at enhancing the fiscal objectives of South Sudan’s foreign policy. These programs should include the likes of educational and internship scholarship programs, entrepreneurial empowerment, the enhancement of our social and public policies and even contemporarily on challenges such as the currently pending CPA protocols and various issues contributing to insecurity in South Sudan’s ten states.

Likewise, building and nurturing our young entrepreneurs to gain stability is an aspect of proper economic planning through economic diplomacy to instigate the utilization of local resources. Such an approach will give rise to an economically established society that is capable of supplying its local communities with basic products and services currently supplied by foreign bordering countries.

By doing so, the government of South Sudan is set on the right foot to empowering young people fulfilling some of their talents and potentials and hence strengthening our economy where the nation will be best placed to combat minor resident challenges while getting groomed to be own community problems solvers rather than remaining ardent consumers and a shallow dumping ground for international inadequate aid.

In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that South Sudan’s foreign affairs and international cooperation ministry is in the right direction in respect to its effective establishment of foreign missions and constant engagement in relative issues at regional and international levels.

However, we have to qualify a fact; the recent attempt by the RoSS to be included into the East African Community (EAC) was perhaps hastily presented. The fact that the application for membership was adjourned for further scrutiny and review against the union’s criterion presented a rather grim and an uncomfortable reality. South Sudan for so long and presumably just before the end of the CPA period had had the wild thought that it was going to be automatically amalgamated into the economic union of the Eastern African countries bloc.

The categorization for the acceptance based on the proposal was somewhat allocated into a very worrying basket – together with Somalia (nothing is surprising given the history of instability within the two regions). However, to those who are familiar with Somalia’s state of affairs, you will find it remarkably preposterous for the new nation to be in the same classification with Somalia at least as per the struggle agendas and the legacy of the dispute resolution through the accredited CPA process.

The reality of such a finding does not project a good reflection of South Sudan’s foreign policy especially in the EAC region as the region should have remained to be RoSS’s robust diplomatic stronghold. The Countries of East Africa; Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi are all familiar with the situation of South Sudan, therefore, subjecting RoSS’s application for further scrutiny is grossly either a lengthy conduct inappropriate to the procedures or an outright scepticism and denial of granting entry into the union.

For the government of South Sudan, it is a sign that should have been closely followed with intensive probing and fact finding missions especially when the Government of South Sudan considers itself worthy of the inclusion and has shown admiration to the regional bloc.

Therefore, a stronger foreign relations policy with an enshrined economic aspect will noticeably ensure a stronger South Sudan with a capacity to address its internal issues without external interference pertinent to our sovereign values.

The writer currently resides in Australia. He can be reached through the private e-mail of;

Appeal to all Concerned Citizens of South Sudan

By: Justin Ambago Ramba, UK, JAN/7/2013, SSN;

Let me start by wishing you all a happy new year although belatedly. Nonetheless a new year is always a thing to be optimistic about. It is thus my wish that the year of 2013 will bring along with it the much needed political will from all the stakeholders in our new country which unfortunately was made to spend its eighteen months of independence in misery, misrule, corruption, lawlessness , insecurity, and impunity. In short we are a failed state right from birth if not from conception as such.

The challenges ahead of us are numerous, but there must be a way out of it. Many of us have unfortunately stayed behind instead of stepping forward to actively play their national duties. It is only the people of South Sudan who can sort out their own mess. Sticking one’s head in the sand and pretending that all is alright when everything around you is degenerating is but a betrayal of your country.

We have all witnessed how our country has rapidly degenerated into the dire socioeconomic and political chaos. Our economy which was in fact “a single item (resource)” economy has now been grounded by political amateurism. The other talk about the diversification of the economy is at its best a political rhetoric, much more so used by the leadership as a form of a political smoke under which much more money from the public coffers went missing. Or simply stolen as put by Salva Kiir the country’s head of state.

The freedom of speech is now a punishable crime in our country. When we differ on policies and views, it is meant to enrich the debate in order to find better and informed choices for solving our national problems. That is the essence of the debate.

As citizens of one country we can differ on opinions and that makes us rivals, but never ever as foes or enemies. The sad facts that marked the past eighteen months where the ruling SPLM-led government openly demonstrated to the world that it is not ready to hear dissent voices not even amongst its ranks and files, speaks volumes.

Incommunicado arrests of activists, intimidation of known SPLM supporters turned critics, of opposition party members and censoring their activities, harassment of civil society members and assassination of opinion writers have all contributed to taint a very nasty and horrible image of our nascent country.

What Hopes do we have in 2013

It is now an open secret that since its inception in 1983, the ruling SPLM party as a result of its gross mismanagement of the new country is currently suffering its ever major unpopularity amongst most sectors of the South Sudanese communities at home and in the Diaspora. It is against this background that the embattled and corruption ridden party is about to hold its convention in 2013. But the million dollar question still is will it come out with changes to the wider community?

Will the SPLM’s 2013 party convention find solutions to the countless and the immense mess that the party has got the new country into as a result of its amateuristic policies and conduct?

For if anything good is ever to come to the country then much change in the attitude of the ruling SPLM towards other political parties and civil societies that exist and operate in the country must be a priority, otherwise the result of failure to do so is everybody’s guess.

However better still we hope that the SPLM can be able to change its “rotten to core” leadership which has practically run out of ideas, otherwise what we are seeing is a country being rushed into a totalitarian rule under a one man dictatorship.

On the other hand the same year of 2013 can be considered a year for the opposition political parties to start preparing for the coming 2014 elections. They will need to start making plans for a strong coalition, strong candidates and start organizing themselves to lead a political campaign of their life time.

The memories of the 2010 Sudan General elections that brought the current corrupt politicians into office is still fresh in every one’s mind. All can still vividly remember how the SPLM internal electoral politics were carried out and the same can as well be reminded of how those who refused to confirm with the ruling party were made to pay the ultimate price.

The Sudan 2010 General Elections were widely fraudulent. All opposition candidates and their supporters were intimidated, harassed and the whole electoral process was terribly manipulated in favour of the SPLM. This must never be allowed to happen again, for despite the fact that all the above mentioned malpractices by the SPLM during that infamous election were tolerated, however those circumstances were different and they have so far changed. Any attempt to repeat any of the countless “politics of bullying” will no doubt have a detrimental effect on what is left of the new nation’s fabric of unity!

The anticipated Political coalition of the South Sudan’s opposition parties must see to it that the country’s new constitution comes into existence through the right process. In other words it has to be approved directly by the people through a popular ballot and never ever by the current SPLM’s rubber stamp parliament.

The Political coalition of South Sudan opposition political parties is the only way out to defeat the corrupt SPLM. There must be an end to what our beloved country is now going through. The inherently corrupt SPLM politicians and party officials have all stolen from the public coffers and many are squarely behind the gross deterioration in the security situation the country wide. To continue under this era is in fact to reverse our sense of independence and freedom.

The international community should still continue to play its vital role in helping this country to embrace democracy. It has to press very hard for the first ever post-independence election to be held on time. It must also start to prepare the platform for free and credible elections. Elections that’s far away from fraud, gerrymandering, vote stuffing and all kinds of political malice if we are to avoid the Kenyan experience of 2007.

To wind it up all, one must stress the importance of a free press and the freedom of speech. This has to start immediately if we are to mark a line between the dark moments that extended throughout the 2012 period. Without these freedoms not only the talk about a new constitution becomes meaningless, but even going for an election becomes an act of ticking the boxes and an outright political hypocrisy.

Hence there is only one conclusion here and that the year 2013 must be a busy year for all those who want to see South Sudan come out of its current man-made misery.

Author: Dr. Justin Ambago Ramba. Secretary General – United South Sudan Party (USSP). Can be reached at: or

The Wau Massacre exposes lack of accountability in South Sudan

BY: Bol Garang de Bol, Canberra, Australia, JAN/5/2013, SSN;

South Sudan is both discomposed and confounded by the inefficient approach with which the Government continues to address insecurity in the Western Bar el Ghazal, Jonglei State and Lake State that has left a number of persons dead and many more injured. Sadly to
mention, the Wau massacre isn’t the first incident in which our Government has failed our people.

The Government has failed the citizens by not undertaking rapid response, efficient data collection of intelligence information, and measures to diffuse conflict in Mile 14, Heglig (known as Panthou) and Abyei. Instead the South Sudan government and the ruling party
(SPLM) seem to have adopted a “fire fighting approach” that responds only to a disaster instead of responding to signs and symptoms that could potentially prevent a disaster.

The way our government responds to threats of the security of the citizens is confusing and indefensible. The Government must have a proactive response to a threatening situation by assembling all national security machinery for collecting necessary intelligence
information that could circulate a volatile situation and the government could drag its feet to prevent death of innocent people.

The South Sudan government’s inefficient approach raises fundamental condemnation and distressing questions that leave our National Security in disbelief. The South Sudanese people may ask why the President and Commander in Chief of South Sudan Armed Forces
cannot command an immediate action to end the on-going massacre in Western Bahr el Ghazal, Jonglei State and Lakes State.

The recent incident in Wau undermined the eligibility of South Sudan police Inspector-General, Achuil Tito Madut, Minister for National Security, General Oyai Deng Ajak and all Directors of security organs to hold public positions.

The President has a moral obligation to the citizens of South Sudan under the Interim South Sudan Constitution which stipulates that the President shall ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rules of law. The people of South Sudan for the last seven years since 2005 have continuously witnessed the breakdown of the rule of law and the inability of the persons conferred with such responsibilities failing them every time and again.

We’re deeply concerned with reports that the aid agencies spoke of properties being looted and houses burnt. While the number of those killed by the SPLA has not been counted due to tight security situation in the town. The use of military personnel against civilians, and the use of brutal methods for extracting information from the suspects are unacceptable and should be condemned by all civilized societies.

I would like the South Sudan Government to take note that we condemn the violent killings in Western Bar el Ghazal that are as a direct result of the pressure that has been building due to failure by the State to uphold the rule of law.

I also note that the failure and delay by the Government to undertake security sectors reforms is undermining key changes that could enhance the performance of the security sectors to ensure sustainable peace in the country.

For the sack of national interests, I call on the South Sudan’s government to:–

1. To strongly and speedily stop and investigate the Wau massacre.
2. The immediate resignation of National Security Minister, General Oyai Deng Ajak and South Sudan’s Inspector-General of Police, Lt. General, Achuil Tito Madut.
3. The immediate disarmament of the general population
4. The South Sudan Government must take political responsibility by enforcing the rule of law so that such acts of lawlessness may not happen again.
5. The government must inform the public about what measures are in place to control future massacre.

I believe, not only me, but many Southerners now and in the near future will share the same idea with me by accusing this government of having failed to deliver to people’s expectations. The people of South Sudan under the current leadership of President Salva Kiir Mayardit are agitating for good service delivery, a corruption-free South Sudan, transparency in the Party leadership and public sectors.

The major issue in the Government of President Salva Kiir, is accountability. No one is being held accountable to the South Sudanese people… neither the President nor his Executive arm of government.

The President and his Executive keep denying if anything went wrong, therefore, who will the South Sudanese hold accountable for rampant corruption, Wau massacre, stolen $4 billion and malicious killings in Juba?

Giving critical analysis to the situation facing our country today under the SPLM Rule, you may find it that the Movement we joined 30 years ago isn’t the same Movement we’re having now. The SPLA/SPLM was formed as the Movement of the people for the people to liberate South Sudan through a change of government but in a civilized way.

I was assuming the people of South Sudan to go for service delivery government similar to those of UK, US, Australia, Kenya, South Africa which are responsible governments not that of “Fire Brigade” with only one or two with the vision for all. The government we need in South Sudan between now and 2015 is a transitional government which can represent the interest of South Sudanese people and protect them and their territory.

We don’t want the government which failed to negotiate the political fate of Abyei, Mile 14 and Wau massacre. The people of South Sudan at this critical time need a national leader that can build trust among ethnic communities on this momentum.

Bol Garang de Bol is a South Sudanese living in Canberra, Australia.
He can be reached at

Correcting the economic mess in South Sudan

BY: Bol Mathieng, RSS, DEC/31/2012, SSN;

Dear readers, on returning home, I thought the government through the Central Bank, has got rid of the money changers along the streets by asking the police to arrest such individuals in a bit to curb the incidence. On seeing them again, I immediately asked myself several questions like:

‘Why were they (street money changers) left undisturbed when in other countries you can rarely see them?’

‘How does the Central Bank regulate the amount of money in circulation when the money changers exist and actively go about their money changing business?’

‘How can limited hard currencies be rationed to meet the nation’s hard currency demand with the presence of money changers?’

‘How can fiscal policy successfully work when the money changers are not organized dealers with considerable level of experience in education necessary for book keeping which can be used to levy taxes?’

The list is endless. What is the way forward? The solution lies in the hands of policy makers in government (Central bank) to immediately get rid of money changers, and remain with Forex bureaus and commercial banks.

In my opinion, the numbers of Forex bureaus should be regulated, you can agree with me if you look at this view at the angle of extending credit to borrowers necessary for expatiating economic growth and development. Have you ever seen the Forex bureau extending credit here in Juba or anywhere in South Sudan?

What they are known for is exchanging money and transferring hard currency abroad to student, importers, sick people etc… to meet their hard currency demands abroad, but the number of commercial banks that extend credit to local people is limited in comparison with these numerous Forex bureaus. It should be noted that commercial banks in which I cherish increase in their numbers are the locally owned or jointly owned commercial banks.

So how will local entrepreneurs get credit and financial advice if some areas are not covered by the commercial banks? I was happy to see an indigenous bank known as Nile commercial bank operating well in early 2006, 2007 before it collapsed. What are our local businessmen waiting for? I have seen many of them opening Forex bureaus instead of commercial banks.

I am also pleased by the existence of National commercial bank as an indigenous bank, what is now needed is its expansion so that it can cover more areas country wide. Let me give you example of Centenary Bank in Uganda, the bank has the widest coverage in Uganda, interestingly, its share holders are not all foreigners. Of the shareholders are indigenous people (the Catholic Church, local individuals and few foreigners).

We can also learn a lesson from Rwanda, whose indigenous bank is doing great task in accelerating economic growth and development there through extension of credit to local farmers. In my opinion, an organized group of south Sudanese should pooled their resources together and form a commercial bank through partnership, or else the one which is now present should be encouraged to expand its services country wide by emboldening savers to opening many saving accounts with it instead of saving abroad or increasing consumption locally.

The next issue that did not impress me is a domination by foreigners of the informal economic sector. What will local individuals with relatively limited amount of capital invest in small businesses like bars, restaurants, tea selling, water selling through water tanks, hair cutting, bodaboda riding, taxi or public transport system, building of houses and fences etc…

These should have been owned and dominated by the citizens because they required limited capital and skills, but now the opposite is true, why? Can’t we do those jobs? Are they financially and physically hard for us to afford? The answer is no, people just need to wake up and recuperate their economy from foreigners.

If you have been in Juba, you must have read how the some foreigners testified how they made money from the jobs that are considered dirty, for example, one of the newspaper last year published a story of a chapati seller who made roughly 100 south Sudanese pounds in two days, assuming he is a good saver, he would have made considerable amount of money at the end of the year.

Domination of hotel services by foreigners
If you ask yourself a simple question like this: how are the citizens of south Sudan particularly residence of Juba city who happened to be neighbors of such hotels benefiting from the existence of the business in their area? The answer is no, they are not economically benefiting in any way.

Just take your time and tour hotels in Thongpiny, you will not fail in your survey to find that all the waiters and waitresses are all foreigners, why? Don’t we have young ladies that can do those jobs? If the criteria of choosing a waiter is based on beauty, then I can also ask a question, don’t we have beautiful girls that can occupy those vacancies that are now filled by foreigners? The answer is YES, we have beautiful girls that can suit that criterion.

Taxes alone are not enough, yes, government can obtain taxes from those hotels but what about the local population especially unemployed young ladies, where will they get employed?

I call upon the ministry of public service to look into that matter and employment in general, those who have academic documents should register with the ministry so that they are employed depending on their careers, those who lacks academic papers should also be registered and they should be employed in areas that do not need academic qualification.

Reduction of imports
Since the approach that our government has taken is seemingly people-based agriculture production system where government avails tractors to farmers, the individual states should take advantage of Juba city as their ready market for all their agricultural products in the first place before they would think of exportation in the future.

For example, Central Equatoria state citizens can take the advantage of its being the host of the national government and invest heavily in perishable goods like tomatoes, onions, all green vegetables such as Kudura, okra…etc, it can also invest in other crops that they can produce well. Each state can specialize in commodities it can produce better and leave the rest to other states. They can then have inter-states trade and this will definitely reduce importations of food stuffs and boost unity among states since traders will interchangeably carry out their trade.

In short, government should have agricultural farms, or they can relocate residents of Rank and use the entire region of Rank as an agricultural area in a bit to produce more output.

Establishment of National planning Authority/planning commission
Without a planning commission, the country can not be able to formulate, monitor and evaluate the plans effectively. This is true with perspective plan which is broken down into annual, five or ten-year plans. It should be noted that it was because of feasible plans that Indian commission formulate that account for Indian sustainable development, China had also followed the same suit while pursuing its developmental goals.

Therefore, my appeal to the government is that, when it gets resources once again, it should endeavor to form a planning commission. The saying goes thus: failing to plan is planning to fail. Planning commission is equally important like other commissions that republic of south Sudan are now having.

Formation of national examination board for primary and secondary school and national council for higher education for university education
Human capital development is one of the important aspects that every country needs to flourish in its economic development ambitions. Although the nation is still young, the formation of national examination board charged with reviewing the syllabus, setting and marking primary and secondary examinations is important, it is a strong foundation laid in primary and secondary education that give raise to quality graduates.

On the other hand, national council for higher education plays an important role of reviewing the qualifications that an institution has to award degrees, masters, and PHDs. These facts are not new to each one of you but I greatly wonder why such institutions are not in place when we have very experienced, knowledgeable professors like Prof. Machar Kachuol, prof. Cuir Riak, Prof. Job Dharuai and many other highly educated south Sudanese that I may not know but are qualified as well,

To proof to you that we are not well off educationally, just log on to Google and type top 100 African universities, you definitely find none of South Sudanese universities in the ranking. The massive search of quality education in our neighboring countries and overseas and is clear manifestation that we have a poor education system. But it is not too late to rectify it, it requires formation of the above institutions, establishing teachers training centers country wide, improving school facilities like classrooms, syllabus, and above all paying attractive salaries to all teachers and lecturers that are under government aided schools or institutions.

Our great nation needs strong education system that can even attract foreign students to study here in Republic of South Sudan. It will also reduce the need to study abroad because everything that overseas educational institutions have will be found here if the above measures are put into considerations.

In conclusion, I appeal to my fellow south Sudanese, both policy makers in the government and local people to do something about our economy, we have successfully achieved our political independence until we obtained the title of Republic, the next battle is economic independence, which requires everyone (policy makers in the government and public at large) to be involved, do any economic activity that earns you a living and stop dependency.

You can reach the writer by mail:

South Sudan: Human Rights Deterioration and Possible Consequences

BY: Jwothab Othow, RSS, DEC/28/2012, SSN;

The purpose of this paper is to examine and identify the major human rights violations and their consequences that have occurred in South Sudan within the last 8 years since 2005. As citizens of South Sudan, we are deeply concerned about the deterioration in the rule of law in the country since the attainment of independence has raised questions on the fundamental principles of human rights. It has become common knowledge that the framework for establishing the rule of law in South Sudan has fallen short of the expectations of citizens and the international community.

The alleged extensive killings, disappearances, media harassment, detentions and torture were carried out by the government of South Sudan’s security forces. As we all know that human rights violation is an unlawful deprivation of individual rights considered inherent to all humans. Perpetrators of human rights violations within the security forces used numerous tactics of repression, with both physical and psychological consequences.

The government of South Sudan must be held accountable for human rights violations against it citizens and it is crucial as a deterrent, in order to ensure that these violations are not repeated. Therefore, by international law South Sudan is obligated to effectively investigate suspected breaches of human rights and prosecute those responsible. For example, we have witnessed what happened recently in Wau town whereby SPLA soldiers were killing peaceful protesters. Nine civilians were reportedly killed and several wounded. South Sudan must be held responsible for the protection of their citizens and therefore what is happening in Wau is not acceptable and the government of South Sudan must be held responsible for failing to protect its citizens.

On December 4, 2012, Isaiah Abraham was killed in his home in Juba by unknown gunmen. On December 17, 2012, Lawrance Korbandy who is the chairperson of the South Sudan Human Rights Commission (SSHRC) called for the resignation of security ministers due to the killing of innocent civilians across the country, and in the capital, Juba, in particular; and to allow investigations into the death of Isaiah Diing Abraham Chan Awuol to take place fairly. Gen. Oyai Deng Ajak who is the National Security Minister expresses his concern that, “I will not accept to work for an institution which kills people.”

One of the most difficult things for civilized people to comprehend is that these wicked barbaric acts of cruelty were not the actions of psychopaths, but soldiers. Their “enemy” was not an invading army from foreign borders, nor were they fighting for freedom against a repressive racist regime; the vast majority of the “enemy” was their fellow South Sudanese. This is a clear human rights violation of the fundamental right of freedom of expression and assembly.

According to Amnesty International in it reports on South Sudan human rights violations that time has come for accountability. There are assaults on the media, the political opposition, civil society activists, and human rights defenders; these are important components needed for a democratic society to prevail.

According to European Press Photo Agency reports on November 21, 2012 who visited the South Sudan two prisons: Rumbek Central Prison and Juba Central Prison which was built in 1948 by the British colonial government, Rumbek Central Prison houses some 600 prisoners who live in overcrowded cells with practically no access to basic health care, sanitation, as well as adequate food and nutrition. Many detainees have no legal representation and South Sudan has no functioning legal aid system. Many are also vulnerable to illness and diseases, which they rarely receive proper care, unless they can pay for medicine themselves. Ten inmates died in Aweil prison and at least five died in Bentiu prison in 2011 alone, most of treatable illnesses, according to Human Rights Watch (HRW).

Arbitrary detention is widespread in South Sudan, according to HRW in its 2012 report. Conditions in South Sudan’s prisons evidently do not comply with international or domestic law or standards on prisoners’ welfare. South Sudan’s human rights deterioration could possible result in serious consequences against the government of South Sudan and possible isolation by the international community if it fails to improve its human rights conditions. It is also disturbing that United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) seemed to have failed to fulfill its responsibility to observe human rights violations carried out by the elements of SPLA in South Sudan since the country gained independence.

The whole world was shocked by the atrocities and abuses which were committed by SPLA in the Chollo (Shilluk) Kingdom in 2010. According to Aljazeera report which was broadcasting the video report on the Television network; it was clear that there have been serious human rights abuses against the civilian population in the name of so-called disarmament program in Chollo (Shilluk) Kingdom. The government of South Sudan’s security forces committed a range of human rights violations despite the presence of UNMISS in South Sudan to monitor and report human rights abuse both in Chollo Kingdom and Jongeli states. In 2010, the SPLA army clearly committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in Shilluk Kingdom where Shilluk men and women were targeted as a result of Robert Gwang’s rebellion, women were raped and men severely tortured or killed.

The women were raped by SPLA soldiers to dehumanize them and as a form of punishment for their male family members, as rape not only humiliates the person raped but also the whole family and their community. It is clearly based on the evidence of ongoing human rights abuses against civilians in the Chollo Kingdom during the so-called disarmament. The element of Padang Dinka’s elites within the SPLM ruling party orchestrated their agenda to grab Chollo land using Robert Gwang’s rebellion as an excuse. Until now, the SPLA forces who committed odious war crimes and crimes against humanity have not been brought to justice.

Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the government of South Sudan under the leadership of President Salva Kiir has been engaged in extrajudicial and other unlawful killings; arbitrary arrest, torture; harassment on the media, and inhuman treatments or punishments against its citizens and those who are critical against his government. Arbitrary arrest and indefinite detention without trial is against international law and it is a serious violation of human rights. South Sudan’s security agents have been carrying out killings of civilians and journalists; e.g. a political commentator who are critical to the government and questioned the unconstitutional practices of the security forces.

South Sudan Security forces routinely commit political violence, including torture of citizens in custody, particularly in areas suspected of support for the opposition. For example, on July, 7, 2011, the SPLM-DC leader of opposition in South Sudan Legislative Assembly (SSLA) and Deputy Chairman of SPLM-DC was harshly beaten by the SPLA Military Intelligence.

The government of South Sudan must reform it security forces because continuation of these abuses such as extrajudicial arbitrary arrest, indefinite detention without trial, torture, harsh prison conditions; restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, freedom of assembly, association; prevention of international human rights observers and discrimination against women and child abuse could lead to more deterioration of human rights abuses that will damage the nation creditability in the international community which could result in sanctions against South Sudan and isolation from the international community. If the South Sudan government wants a sustainable peace and to be part of the international community it must respect human rights and should demonstrate its commitment to international law by carrying out full thorough investigations into human rights violations nationwide. According to HRW researchers who have met scores of people sent to prison by chiefs who had no formal legal training, for crimes that do not appear in South Sudan’s criminal code.

South Sudan government should prosecute those responsible for any criminal acts within it security agency. According to HRW that, “The government of South Sudan should send a strong and clear message that it will not allow soldiers to abuse civilians or fail to protect them during clashes.” For example, the SPLA carried out operations against militia allegedly linked to SPLM-DC in Fashoda County, committing serious human rights abuses in the process. The SPLM leaders who are perpetrators for the crimes committed against civilians and are criminally responsible as are both military and political leaders who participated to implementing the policy that instigated tribal violence among the communities and human rights violations.

President Salva Kiir could be qualified for criminal liability as a leader and under whose administration crime which has been committed against civilians populations. South Sudanese civilians found themselves the target of mass atrocities at the hands of the government of South Sudan and SPLA forces.

The international community and regional and sub-regional bodies must act now to protect the populations. Call for SPLM/A to be held accountable for human rights violations against civilians. Since the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, civilians have been at risk of mass atrocities in the hands of SPLA forces. As we have witness the recent killing by SPLA forces shooting at protesters and peaceful demonstration in Wau. The government of South Sudan must uphold the responsibility to protect civilians. The SPLA armed forces and their leaders expressed clear intent to continue committing massive human rights violations against the civilians in South Sudan.

The SPLM ruling party are responsible for manufacturing ethnic conflict between the communities in South Sudan since 2005 as result of SPLM policy of provoking ethnic violence where it will remain free from challenge in the political arena. Until now the government of South Sudan has not addressed the land dispute between Shilluk and Padang Dinka communities that has turned violent on several occasions in recent year”s alienated Shilluk communities according to HRW.

According to Amnesty International Executive Director, Suzanne Nossel, who made the following comments in response to reports that the international hip hop artist and human rights advocate Emmanuel Jal had been seriously beaten by South Sudan police in Juba. His account of an unprovoked attack, preceded by the seizure of his mobile phone, must be immediately investigated and all those responsible must be held accountable. “We further call on the authorities to ensure that Jal is able to move freely and in safety while in South Sudan. Jal has been a dedicated advocate for peace and security in the region for years. His early years as a child soldier had made him extraordinarily credible as an advocate to prevent the use of children as soldiers worldwide to support the establishment of a global arms trade treaty and to defend human rights.”

The government of South Sudan must comply with international law and investigate all abuses by it security forces and end “horrific acts of violence” by security forces against it citizens. As a consequence South Sudan must and should address the atrocities committed against civilians by South Sudan’s security forces.

South Sudan civil society has been weakening due to consistent harassment and intimidation by security forces and its leader Mr. Deng Athuai Mawiir Rehan was once abducted and beaten badly. Also it is undeniable that the notions of tribal politics in South Sudan has weakened and divided the organizations such as civil society and the media to prevent them from taking a united concerted action against the repressive regime due their tribal loyalties. These organizations are important components and a cornerstone in the society to maintain social peace and defend human rights in South Sudanese society.

It is my sincere belief that if South Sudan is to be great, it must live up to her ideals for freedom, equality and justice for all. It must continue to fight against tribalism in order to succeed in her pursuits for an inclusive society that is base on the principle of equality for all, democracy, freedom, justice, human rights and lasting peace. South Sudanese must and should understand that tribalism is the most divisive and destructive element in our nation’s social fabric future.

South Sudan’s government has clearly failed to stop the security forces that have been committing these horrific acts of violence against its citizens. President Salva Kiir promised during an independence-day speech to respect and ratify human rights treaties. He also signed into force a new constitution that proclaims the country to be founded on justice, equality, and respect for human dignity and guarantees rights to due process, physical integrity, and protection from unlawful deprivations of liberty.

According to Human Rights Organization that, “The abuses committed by the government of South Sudan, including lack of the rule of law and lack of respect for the basic human rights. Arbitrary arrests by South Sudan’s Security Services targeting vocal journalists and active members of civil society are widely becoming a public concern these days in South Sudan.” Mr. Deng Athuai Mawiir Rehan who is the chairperson of South Sudan’s Civil Society Alliance was abducted in June and tortured because of Alliance’s outspokenness towards just and democratic governance including a fight against corruption in South Sudan. No group has been found responsible although the government had promised to conduct investigations to establish who was behind the kidnapping.

It is undeniable that the South Sudan government continues to use repression and intimidation to silence human rights advocates and to prevent them from exposing abuses and promoting respect for human rights. South Sudan authorities continued to stifle the media by arresting, detaining, and prosecuting journalists reporting on sensitive topics, and extra judicial killing and torture.
The government of South Sudan has failed to investigate the ongoing cycle of violence in Jonglei state, and to stop the violations committed in the course of civilian disarmament, and ensure that those responsible are held accountable. Lack of accountability for serious crimes is a longstanding problem in South Sudan, a country with limited law enforcement capacity and a vast territory.

President Salva Kiir has promised in many occasions to investigate the crime which has been committed by security forces and he has established a committee to investigate the violence and identify those responsible but nothing has been done until now. Freedom of speech is a fundamental human right and the government of South Sudan must ensure to respect and protect freedom of expression. According to Africa director of HRW, “South Sudan is a new country and badly needs an effective justice system that upholds human rights and dignity. It is a fundamental building block for establishing rule of law and accountability.”

Most of South Sudanese ruling elites within the SPLM party still behave as if they are still operating as guerrillas and not knowing they are no longer a guerrilla but statehood and they are require by the international law to comply with the international law as member of the international community. It is very important to highlight the series of human rights abuses in chronological order for the readers to understand the extent of serious human rights violations in South Sudan.

May 15, 2012, the police in Lakes State’s capital Rumbek arrested Ms. Ayak Dhieu Apar, the Radio Rumbek 98 FM journalist. She was detained for hosting a live radio talk show with the title, “How Could the Public Respect the Police?” which drew in callers, questioning the conduct and competence of the police.

February 06, 2012, Mading Ngor Akech, the New Sudan Vision Editor-in-Chief and the host of the popular ‘Wake Up Juba’ show on Bakhita FM was assaulted and humiliated at South Sudan’s parliament. According to a journalist who witnessed the scuffle in the August House, Mr. Mading “was manhandled by the security guys who tore his trousers to the extent of nearly exposing his underpants to the public.”

On June of 2012, Mayol Kuch, a South Sudanese American who was on a family visitation in South Sudan, was detained and beaten to death by SPLA soldiers in Bor, Jonglei State. The soldiers suspected him of having participated in “the violence that followed disputed elections in the village for chief of the Adol community” in which two people lost their lives. The case is yet to be solved, two months after it occurred.

In 2007, Nhial Bol Aken was arrested after his newspaper exposed “wasteful spending at the finance ministry, which purchased 153 cars for government officials.” According to Aljazeera, the price tag was $60 million, a staggering $400,000 per vehicle. On June 12, 2011, just before South Sudan independence, Mr. Nhial Bol “was arrested again on his way from a dinner party organized by the British Consulate in Juba at a hotel called Da Vinci, south of Juba’s main town and was threatened to back down from his activity or risk dying before July 9,” South Sudan Independence Day.

On October 1, 2011, Mr. Bol was arrested for the fourth time by police before being released “following his newspaper’s investigations into the business dealings” of a Warrap state minister, Joseph Malek Arop, who was reported to have unlawfully acquired 10% stake in the Chinese oil company, Tesco South Sudan Ltd.

Many South Sudanese citizens had publicly expressed opinions critical toward the government behavior whereby the state security continues to intimidate citizens who criticize the government and routinely arrest those who are critical of the government. The South Sudan security services have also to stop their brutality against the citizens of South Sudan that violated basic human rights and systematically denied civil society activists the right to peacefully assemble and associate.

South Sudan’s ongoing massive oil corruption which has benefited the political and military leaders within the SPLM/A led government for the last 8 years. They have been smuggling out of the country billions of dollars while leaving millions of South Sudanese facing severe food shortages and are dependent on emergency international assistance. The whole world is now aware that the SPLM’s ruling elite is corrupt and are profiting from the country’s oil exports at the expense of the poor. It is apparent that Kiir’s administration encourages and harbors those who have stolen billions of dollars from the people of South Sudan and they have never been arrested or prosecuted for corruption charges.

We know very well that when South Sudanese from all walks of life took up arms in 1983 against oppressors in Khartoum, people did not fight the war only to benefit the ruling elites or bourgeois at the end who are now the ones enjoying the benefit of freedom after South Sudan has gained its independence on July 9, 2011, which was fought by all the people. The US and European Union should maintain travel restrictions as well as freeze the assets on President Kiir and his inner circle until South Sudan carries out concrete human rights and institutional reforms.

You can go on and on, for example, Dengdit Ayok and Ngor Arol Garang of The Destiny Newspaper were forcefully detained on November 05, 2011, over a column article in The Destiny written by Dengdit Ayok, questioning the rationale behind President Kiir’s daughter’s marriage to a foreigner. As reported by the Committee to Protect Journalists, Gen. Akol Koor, the Director General of the South Sudan’s National Security Services, faulted the two gentlemen of “non-adherence to the media code of conduct and professional ethics and of publishing illicit news that was defamatory, inciting, and invading the privacy of personalities.”

In the same way Dr. James Okuk a former ambassador to Brazil was arrested on October 21, 2011, for allegedly “writing against President Salva Kiir on the internet.” In January 2012, the New Times editor, Richard Mogga and his counterpart, Badru Mulumba, were quietly “picked up by people claiming to be police.”

The South Sudan army’s also known as SPLA has been accused of human rights abuses in Jonglei state and other areas in South Sudan where deadly ethnic clashes erupted. In September of this year, the government of South Sudan has forced a UN human Rights officer to leave the country. Sandra Beidas, a human rights investigator with the mission, was ordered by the South Sudan Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Ministry, to leave the country within 48 hours. The United States government was very concerned about South Sudan’s decision to expel a human rights officer working for the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). This action by the government of South Sudan is evidence of how the human rights condition is deteriorating in the country.

The flight of South Sudanese journalists is well captured according to Ojja William Benjamin, a freelance journalist from the Eastern Equatoria State that, “It is becoming a habit these days that journalists are picked up and arrested by the powerful individual government officials and released without charges after spending long periods in jail. This is not acceptable! On December 31, 2011, Dr. Jok Madut Jok, an ewmployee in the government of South Sudan was beaten in Wau airport. According to Dr. Jok Madut Jok that, “I was brutally attacked, my arms tight by several men, a blow to the side of my head with the butt of a gun and several punches straight onto both of my eyes; no questions asked, not even any accusations of wrongdoing. I was tortured properly while I had quickly shown the soldiers my identity card, demonstrating that I am a senior official in the national government, undersecretary in the Ministry of Culture, but the ID thrown away and several men wrestled me to the ground.”

Late Dr. John Garang once said, “If the SPLM government will not provide basic services and security to the people under their care, then the people will throw them into the sea, and even if there is no sea around, they will definitely find one.”

Ngor Garang, Editor in Chief at The Destiny newspaper, and journalist for the online newspaper, The Sudan Tribune, was arrested on 1 November. He was summoned to meet with the Director General of South Sudan’s NSS concerning an article that had been published in The Destiny. He attended the meeting with two colleagues, who were released following a three hour interrogation. Ngor Garang remains detained without charge. On 5 November, two cars full of NSS personnel, six of whom were carrying guns, entered the offices of The Destiny and arrested one of its journalists, Dengdit Ayok. He also remains detained without charge. Both men are believed to be held in the NSS headquarters in Jebel. It is the failure of South Sudan civil society, social media and grassroots movement to put pressure on the government of South Sudan to make a meaningful institutional reform concerning human rights violations over the last 8 years.”

In conclusion, the government of South Sudan must uphold its international obligations to respect the fundamental human rights, freedom of expression, assembly, and association, and cease arrests, harassment, and detention of individuals based on their political views. The government of South Sudan must make serious reforms within it security forces because continuation of these abuses such as extrajudicial arbitrary arrest, indefinitely detention without trial, torture, harassment on the media, harsh prison conditions, restrictions on freedom of speech; restrictions on freedoms of assembly, association, prevention of international human rights observers and discrimination against women and child abuse which would lead to deterioration of human rights abuse that will damage the nation’s creditability in the international community which could result in sanctions against South Sudan and isolation from the international community.

My appeal to the South Sudanese citizens that they should demand their fundamental basic human rights to be respected by the government and to put pressure on the government to make institutional reforms and to educate society on their basic human rights and encourage South Sudanese civil society, human rights defenders, media, grassroots community, etc to stand together.

The author is a South Sudanese concerned citizen; he can be reached at

New Year 2013 Message to the Government and People of South Sudan

BY: Beny Gideon Mabor,JUBA, DEC/23/2012, SSN;

The world youngest country called Republic of South Sudan has now successfully passed over one year and five months since independence on 9 July 2011. Although seven years have passed notwithstanding the said period after independence from rest of the Sudan, the task of nation building for establishment of a vibrant, stable state and an all-embracing homeland for its people realistically remains a big challenge. Yet, there are potentials for change and needs a lot of commitment to implement the task of nation building.

Surprisingly, both ordinary citizens and the relevant stakeholders in governance are aware of these challenges that impacted our progress as seen in several opinions and resolutions for the former and the later but nonetheless without implementation. After one year of full control of our own affairs in Juba and state governments levels respectively, we have fully observed the records of our government at all cost in its constitutional duty as a democratically elected government of the people for the people and by the people.

The most worrying question is what can the government and its law abiding citizens remember to crossover to the New Year 2013? It is certain that the youngest state is significantly prosperous but with surmounting difficulties.

The second question is how can these challenges be reduced so that Year 2013 is different from 2012? First to the citizens, we must take with us a message of peace, love, unity, understanding, forgiveness, tolerance and hope for change in our aspirations from the government.

Second, the government must redouble its efforts to create a conducive environment and tirelessly listen to the voice of the people to make this call a reality. In other words, I always say and it shall remain my motto that the will of the people is the best law. The government must work according to the will of the people which is a core element of democracy.

However, it is only through collective responsibility as government and good citizens that such huge aspirations can be achieved. The government is not ruling in the vacuum to do or continue doing what is narrowly observed this year 2012, where the prioritised duty of the government to provide security of its citizens, their properties and territorial integrity was almost at stake.

The continuous inter-sectional clashes in some states like Jonglei state, Lakes State, Warrap State and Upper Nile State; politically motivated violent crimes like Wau incident in Western Bahr el Ghazal State; the Madi-Acholi civil unrest over a contested piece of land in Eastern Equatoria State, all are clear points of security instability in South Sudan.

The rampant killings in South Sudan and Juba in particular, robbery and to larger extent the presence of rebel groups in the bushes of South Sudan are things we must collectively pay attention to put them to rest.

In fact, if such situations persist, what would be the reason for liberation struggle to attain an independent South Sudan if the
government is not capable of protecting the very citizens and other elements of a living state? This young generation and the coming ones must grow up in a peaceful South Sudan where their liberators have dearly paid the price for freedom instead of a bad historical repetition.

In reality, it is not a Pandora box at least to say that insecurity in general and violent crimes in particular have risen up to immeasurable stage over the last six months in South Sudan and in Juba than ever before.

According to a research data released by my senior colleague, Mr. Zachariah Diing Akol , a Ph.D student of political science at the London School of Economics and a Director of Training at the Sudd Institute under his article entitled Juba’s Insecurity: A Challenge to state authority and credibility, he said the violent crimes in Juba are organised into three categories: “organized crimes that target individuals for commercial reasons, organized political assassinations and random killings both directed against South Sudan nationals and foreigners.”

It is true as all killings for the first target are well calculated against individuals of financial capacity. A case in point is Dr. Alemayehu Seifu, Ethiopian national and Country Director for African Medical and Research Foundation AMREF-South Sudan Office who was killed outside his residence in Malakia, Juba on 14 January 2012, and the assassins ran away with his car. Another case is the broad day light shooting of an employee of the Mountain Development Bank in Juba Town market on December 12, 2012. And other similar attacks in the in Juba city.

Alternatively, the government must rise up to this challenge and address it without delay or else be declared similar to a failed state.

Second, on accountability and transparency, it is very unfortunate that we are crossing over to the New Year 2013 without bringing to justice the accused senior government officials allegedly said to be behind the painful loss of 4 billion US dollars.

The year 2013 is expected to be a year of a just developmental state with serious business of nation building and zero tolerance to many evil thoughts of underdevelopment including corruption, incompetence to do the job, diseases, hunger and illiteracy amongst others.

One may wonder and courageously direct a question to the President, General Salva Kiir Mayardit, who has written notice to the said individuals and institutions responsible for alleged corruption, when will he bring them to justice?

Mr. President ought to know that justice delayed is justice denied. The non-appearance or non-prosecution of the accused individuals discredits President’s declaration of war on corruption and a countdown to zero tolerance remains very high in South Sudan.

Third, on legislative development, our country has magnificently done its best compared to the old Sudan when it got independence from colonial masters. In one and half year now, South Sudan has legislated over 50 pieces of legislation apart from laws enacted during the interim period. This achievement is due to the Ministry of Justice and other line institutions to the national legislature for enactment.

Yet, there are important areas that are not governed or provided for in any legislation namely: insurance, intellectual property, national security, firearms and ammunition, public and animals health, to mention a few.

In conclusion, this message is just intended to wrap-up what is noticed to have gone wrong in the year 2012; the expectation of the year 2013 and what is progressing or achieved or observed with potential to archive and finally the proposed middle ground for us and the elected government to solving the challenges of nation building.

The government once again must adhere to its constitutional principles vested with will of the people under the Transitional Constitution 2011.

Last but not the least, this country is ours and none ever will rescue it from likely destruction by enemies of peace and stability, be them from within or outside, but only through unity of our internal forces regardless of political color, ethnicity and interests. The public interest represented by the Republic of South Sudan must prevail over any self-sponsored interests.

Beny Gideon Mabor, lives in South Sudan and can be reached at

Distortion of concept of taking towns to villages in South Sudan

BY: Jacob K. Lupai, RSS, DEC/15/2012, SSN;

After the dust of turmoil settles down in South Sudan some people may find themselves in the dock in the International Criminal Court of Human Rights at The Hague for crimes of human rights abuse. There are civil liberty groups which can assign human rights investigators to establish the level of human rights abuse. The human rights investigators could press charges against human rights abuses in South Sudan because South Sudan will not be an exception.

South Sudan hardly has any constitutional or human rights courts and if they exist may either be under-resourced or incapable to handle cases of human rights abuse. This may explain the rampant rise of human rights abuse with much impunity. People in power deliberately engage in human rights abuse because they are sure to get away without being charged. If people were acutely aware of the consequences of their actions, the unprecedented level of human rights abuse could not have been sadly witnessed in South Sudan. However, at the end of the tunnel there is a ray of light.

The turmoil that is engulfing South Sudan should be considered as something temporary. People are already aware of what the problem is. The problem is that the population is in trauma. It is, however, a delight that as the problem has been identified it is half solved.

Concept of taking towns to villages
The concept of taking towns to villages was of Dr John Garang, the iconic, charismatic and visionary leader who was instrumental in bringing independence to South Sudan. It was the concept of a revolutionary who genuinely wanted each and every South Sudanese wherever they were whether in urban or rural areas to enjoy modernism. It was not something to be imposed but a natural development strategy in the national master development plan for the progress of the country.

Basically, the concept of taking towns to villages is an attempt to deliver basic services to people nationwide. It is also a solution to rural-urban migration which has its adverse effect on development. It is a well thought out attempt to deliver to the rural areas the same basic services found in towns. It is not necessarily the transfer of a county headquarters to a village but rather to transform the village itself into a vibrant town with or without transferring a county headquarters there.

The concept of taking towns to villages is in reality to transform villages into attractive towns with all the necessary services delivered in a modern town. It is to create and develop towns in the vast rural areas of South Sudan where about 80 per cent of the population lives. The concept is to electrify the rural areas for cottage industries, to bring clean drinking water, health services, education and modern infrastructures to mention but a few to the rural areas for a high standard of living.
For South Sudan the concept of taking towns to villages should be seen as independence dividends and a justification of the costly liberation struggle that lasted for about four decades at the cost of over 2 million dead and 4 million displaced notwithstanding the massive destruction of the rudimentary infrastructures.

Relevance of the concept to South Sudan
When Dr John Garang took the mantle of the liberation struggle he knew that the vast majority of people of South Sudan lived in the rural areas. Dr John Garang also knew that since the British colonial era and the mismanagement of the old Sudan’s affairs in post independence era, South Sudan never tasted modernism. He then carefully developed the concept of taking towns to villages as a strategic acceleration of socio-economic development of South Sudan that had remained one of the most backward and underdeveloped regions on planet earth.

The concept of taking towns to villages is therefore of high relevance to South Sudan in the effort to deliver basic services nationwide. Dr John Garang did not want to see two worlds of prosperity in towns and abject poverty and squalor in rural areas. Truly Dr John Garang was a legend, visionary and charismatic, and had he lived long enough probably people would not have experienced the acute frustration with what is engulfing South Sudan in the post independence era.

Distortion of the concept of taking towns to villages
The poor abstract understanding of the concept of taking towns to villages seems to be causing problems. Also, poor conceptualisation of town-village dichotomy seems to be compounding the problem when people resort to a dogmatic approach with little or no flexibility. For example, in Western Bahr el Ghazal State serious clashes occurred between protestors and security forces in Wau, the capital, because of the imposed transfer of Wau County to a place called Bagari some 12 miles from Wau. Bagari is assumed to be a rural area.

There are conflicting reports of causalities. One source said 10 people died while another talked of 25 dead with many more, about, 21 sustaining injuries. Regardless of causalities it was senseless to hype up the transfer of Wau County the way it was done. The dispute in the transfer of Wau County to Bagari was evidently the result of poor grasp of the concept of taking towns to villages. Bagari is only 12 miles from Wau and should be considered near Wau. How then is Bagari not a suburb of Wau with the expansion of population? Is Bagari really that rural to justify the imposed transfer of Wau County to it in a misguided enthusiasm to put into practice the concept of taking towns to villages?

The Governor of Western Bahr el Ghazal State had appeared insensitive to the felt needs of his subjects who were strenuously opposing the transfer of Wau County to Bagari. This is evidenced by how the Governor is now backtracking in his approach of using security forces to impose his will. The Governor has established a nine-member committee to investigate the clashes between protestors and security forces (Sudan Tribune, December 12, 2012).

The Governor is now pledging that his administration will seek a peaceful resolution to the dispute arising from the poor decision to transfer Wau County to Bagari. The U-turn of the Governor shows some naivety in not perceiving the strong opposition to the transfer of the county only to turn around for a dialogue after a serious damage has been done. This seems to suggest that the traumatised may not care and indeed can be very dangerous in their ambition as the causalities in Wau show.

The imposed transfer of Wau County to Bagari is at best a distortion of the concept of taking towns to villages. Dialogue and a peaceful resolution of the dispute could have been the appropriate option from the beginning instead of being rigid. The use of excessive force and by using live ammunitions on unarmed civilians exercising their right to express themselves was very regrettable. It was shocking to watch innocent civilians not armed deliberately gunned down by the security forces as shown by Al Jazeerah TV English Channel on 14 December 2012 at 4.00pm local South Sudanese time.

Taking towns to villages
One high profile case of taking towns to villages is the relocation of the national capital from Juba to Ramceil. The national government has used its prerogative to relocate the capital as stipulated in the constitution. The relocation process is at an advanced stage. As the national government has handled the relocation of the capital with sensitivity, there has never been a trouble like that which has been witnessed in Western Bahr el Ghazal State as a result of poor decision to relocate Wau County headquarters. This should be a lesson to all governors who are contemplating to take towns to villages in their states.

With regard to the concept of taking towns to villages it should be the state capital to relocate instead of relocating a county headquarters that shares the capital with the state. County headquarters should be transformed into cities, and payams and bomas into towns respectively. This is when people are serious about taking towns to villages. It will be truly putting into practice Dr John Garang’s noble concept of taking towns to villages for modernism in South Sudan but not the distorted and erroneous concept adopted by Western Bahr el Ghazal State. It is unfortunate that the Governor who seems to have an agenda of his own has tried very hard to mask the agenda with the noble concept that took brains to develop.

The concept of taking towns to villages should not be implemented enthusiastically as in the case of Western Bahr el Ghazal State where unnecessary innocent lives were lost as the Governor ignored the explosive situation created by his rush decision to relocate Wau County to Bagari. Taking towns to villages should be seen as a smooth transformation of the rural areas with equal opportunities for peaceful co-existence and also to make rural-urban migration to nearly zero. With improved infrastructures such as roads urban and rural areas will be a continuous land mass with equitable facilities that the rural folks will have no cause to envy their counterparts in urban areas. In short the concept is that rural areas should be urbanised.

In conclusion, the concept of taking towns to villages should not be politicised. The concept is mainly an economic one to bring material wealth to where poverty exists. In South Sudan poverty is more prevalent in the rural areas which lack employment opportunities and basic services comparable to urban areas. The concept when applied properly is likely to promote national security and unity, and prosperity for all. People’s basic needs are addressed through the delivery of services which are the focus of the concept of taking towns to villages.

The author can be reached at

Why the killer(s) of Isaiah Abraham will be very hard to find

BY: DENG DUOT DENG (DENG-Ajith), Queensland, AUSTRALIA, DEC/09/2012, SSN;

In any political environment there is and there will always be political assassins that tend to occur in every day lives. The tragic death of Isaiah Abraham is a political assassination and it is going to be very difficult or harder to find his assassins because it’s politically motivated. According to history, there had been great politicians with other popular persons being assassinated in the past around the world like Abraham Lincoln of United States of American, John F Kennedy of USA, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, Patrice Emery Lumumba of Congo, Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and civil rights activist and revolutionary leader Malcolm X. Likewise Isaiah Abraham was also assassinated in Juba Capital in the early of hours of Wednesday morning local time. These men are victim of political assassinations including Isaiah Abraham.

What is common from this list of those few people that I have mentioned is they are politicians. They were killed by their own people or assassinated. Lumumba of Congo was executed by the Congolese military which had the backup support from the Belgium government and the CIA of the United States of America. This is evidence because the Belgian government apologized to the Congolese people in February 2002, the Belgian government admitted to a moral responsibility and overwhelming portion of responsibility to the events that led to the death of Lumumba.

Such a typical killing like one of Isaiah Abraham case is a very organized crime that cannot be committed by a cheap person. For example, how do we call the tragic death of late Dr. John Garang De Mabior? Some people might believe it was an accident but I doubt, it was not an accident. His death was a political assassination that went beyond African capacity.

Look, the former chairman of Southern Sudan government plus others were selected to investigate his death. However, they never reported back to us as people who are waiting for their finding. These have let me to apply my hypothesis that the death of Isaiah Abraham is one of those political assassinations.

I think some of my readers will question me that Dr. Garang’s death is a bit different with Isaiah Abraham’s. But I can assure you that Late Garang’s death was organized in a foreign land. While Isaiah Abraham death is within the ground rules of South Sudan. I have a lot of things to justify or say in relation to this horrified death that has caused many concerns for South Sudanese around the entire earth as well as on social networks/forum, e.g. Facebook.

In this situation, many people including me myself made little statement about the future of this nation call South Sudan. From this perspective I strongly believe there are a lot of questions running in everyone’s mind which need to be asked. We deserve answers from the current authority.

As I was one of the people who heard the tragic news of Isaiah Abraham locally recognized by his parents, relatives and friends as Diing Chan Awuol., that there was an operation in Juba which had been carried out and conducted professionally to take away Isaiah Abraham life from us forever. This has caused some dynamic concern about the Generals turned politicians governing system.

Personally I am a person who sometime gives my opinions about the way our current government in all levels across South Sudan is doing things or governing the Country. I am really surprised of who is doing what? And what role is the government of Generals actually playing. This change game is not providing us with what we fought for all those years. Yet, we are not getting what we hope to find as results of going to the scrub land.

What is more, who are the current trouble makers in South Sudan? Is it the current police, the South Sudan Army common known as Sudan People Liberation Army referred to as SPLA? Or is it the National Security. Or finally is it insufficient individuals whose are to kill people house to house in South Sudan capital Juba every night?

It is really excruciatingly and unbreakable for people like me to believe that the war of liberation that started 1955 finished in 2005 when the CPA was signed would end up in this dreadful way. What was all those years of war all about? My answer(s) is short and sample, for basic human rights, freedom, like freedom of expression, not being torture without good judgment, and hope to have rule of law in place. That why the ministry of justice was established plus other court systems. There has to be a stage people who committed crime have to go through without killing.

If we looked at Western world today, fighting is the last resort. The same to South Sudan, killing should be the last alternative. Isaiah Abraham was the victim of no crime he had committed except tell our government that they are not doing enough job to satisfy their Citizens.

Therefore, I can say we are way behind and will remain way behind as South Sudanese in many angles. For examples, people like Isaiah Abraham who has the brains, the knowledge and critical thinking, we need them in this crucial time for the good of our beloved nation of South Sudan. He did his part like others who have contributed to this struggle movement since it was formed in 1983. Late Isaiah Abraham I can term him as a Nationalist who like his contemporaries, have capacity to speak out. He was hoping to change something from the current system.

Substantially, we the brothers, sisters and friends of the same nation are hoping to find his killer(s) and bring them to justice so we can really understood the motivation of his killing. I never knew that the current government would eliminate top officers like Isaiah Abraham and exceedingly educated people in such a way. The building of any nation is it resources. And who are the resources of the nation? The can be natural resources such Gold, Iron ore, oil and many more. Also there is human capital or resources. Isaiah Abraham was human capital or asset to South Sudan according to what he has done and what he was willing to do for the benefit of his Country.

Every culture in this world have it owns aspects, but what is common across cultures in the whole world is that parents usually told good and bad things to their children in order to be better mature up children. This is equally important in a political reality; criticism of the government is like parents telling their kids what is good or bad so they can be well propagated kids.

Now what type of Country are we if we eradicate our brave men like Isaiah Abraham. Many people assumed including me that we had learned through experienced when important person like late Judge Martin Majier, Thon Ayii Jok, Makur Aleiyou, were murdered in cold blood in political environment without even full justification of what they had done wrong. I think the same person in charged now was in charged at time when these gallantry men’s lives were taken away from us.

I am not interested to bring the past back but indicating what they have done previously was very wrong.

Does this current system care about the future of this nation or is it about the time being? Subsequently, the future of South Sudan is very hard to determine because if they assassinated their own party member, who stand behind them since the founding of the SPLA/M movement. He had never been accused of disagreeing with them. He worked for them and gave his opinions based on current issues facing the nation. In the end, the killed him in cold blood.

What about others who are in the opposition parties? No question, they will liquidate them without being questioned by any chance. The death of Isaiah Abraham has led to so many to believe the current administration is only caring for what is going into their compartments instead of the public interest.

In the last few days, many government officials such the Police Spokesman, Inspector General of the police Acuil Tito Madut and the current president of the Republic of South Sudan have promised the entire public that they will make thorough investigation into the death of political commentator Isaiah Abraham. This has been always the statement produced by high authority in any form like this. I have no hope of finding final conclusion with positive fallout. In saying so, an assassination is always complicated to find out the real killer/s so they can rationalize the actions into good conviction.

I don’t want our well-founded nation of South Sudan to go into international scene as a country that is well known for killing her innocent people. We are already identifiable as a failed state that does not meet the UN mandate. These behaviors are very unacceptable on international level by human rights groups.

In conclusion, the killer/s of Isaiah Abraham will never be convicted. The justice will never be done to please me as an individual. In my knowledge they will never provide us with full explanation. This is a high-tech organized crime by the authority of South Sudan especially the intelligence inner circle. Let’s make some moves in correcting the wrong things and go forward to transform the lives of our society in positive manner than causing this unforgettable incident.

Isaiah Abraham you will rest in peace. God shall be always with you.

Regard. By DENG DUOT DENG (Deng-Ajith)
Deng Duot Deng is a South Sudanese. He is residing in Australia, state of Queensland. He can be reached at email,

Labour laws and private sector employment opportunities

BY: Panom Koryom, RSS, DEC/05/2012, SSN;

The high rate of unemployment in the youngest Nation in the world where literacy may be 20% or so is ridiculous. There has to be a correlation between job market competitiveness and skills supply but this isn’t the case in South Sudan. There seemed to be job market competitiveness and little skills supply, especially for South Sudanese who seemed not to fit the private sector employment requirements.

Before shifting the blame to policies or foreigners whose their characteristics seemed to match private sector job requirements, I want to briefly expound on who’s fit to be called unemployed.

Who is unemployed?
Unemployed person is a job seeker who is actively seeking for the job that matches his credentials or qualifications. However, the person who was seeking for the job but did not get it and therefore gives up that the labor market is not opening up for him/her is not called unemployed but the discouraged person. This means he/she has given up and does not have any interests in the job anymore.

So that means there are two categories of people, the unemployed and the discouraged person, that we have to blame the institutions or policies of not having created employment opportunities. For unemployed person, the Government has to be seen exerting better policies that would create or avail job opportunities in the private sector for unemployed persons to explore. However much job opportunities may be available or created by the Government in the Private sector, there seemed not to be the responsibility of the Government ‘to make the cow drink the water,’ so to say.

However, it might be the responsibility of the Government to educate the public about job market and productivity. People don’t have to stay idle and expect to eat for the food will not put itself into the mouth. You need to fetch water, flour, firewood and do the cooking.

Living in the village is characterized by hard work either; farming, looking after cattle and taking them for water and pastures before you could enjoy the milk and meat. Anywhere and everywhere in the world, there has to be efforts put in to survive. This means that discouraged persons don’t have to give up for if they do that, then they have given up living.

So whose responsibility is this? Both the government and public must respond to each other’s call if we are to make South Sudan a better place to live in or make our people appreciate the fruits of liberation, independence and freedom. The Government, through public services, needless to say, has to make a call and people have got to response. This call has to be enforced by laws like it is done in Jonglei State; calling citizens to pay taxes of 100 SSP per year.

The questions could be: is the Government only interested in collecting taxes? There may be no obligations for citizens to pay taxes if they are not getting any benefits – jobs creation, security, roads, health facilities and any other social benefit – in return. All these are possible only if the law and enforcement mechanism exist.

As the old slogan says: ‘you can take donkey to the river but you can’t make it drink water.’ That slogan is the Government slogan. The Government slogan is that; it can take donkey to the river and make it drink the water. So the river here is job opportunities and people have got to work. They must be made productive or else our blood would have gone in vain.

Do job opportunities exist?
There are plenty of jobs available for nationals in the labor market. The only thing that needs to be done is to create policies that make these jobs opportunities available for citizens. There are some labor sectors where jobs should only be limited to nationals, period.

In Hotel and restaurant industry, waiters and waitress must be South Sudanese. The question of attitude and laziness doesn’t have to arise in the first place. An employment is one of the major conditions or requirement in investment policies and prerequisite before business registration. Investment law clearly entails how citizens are going to benefit from this Hotel/restaurant investment.

Selling food is not a benefit but an act of generating profits for the owners but the benefit to the Nation is employment. These sectors must employ only South Sudanese people of various qualifications. That one has to be a law and it is in the interest of both parties – the government and the investor who needs money (but not to create job for his people in a foreign Country).

Of course, when you are investing in a foreign country, it comes with a cost for training staff who will staff your business. People don’t cook cheese here but you can’t import a cheese chef from abroad either. You have to train somebody here on how to make cheese.

Once that law exists, it is now the private sector that will be soliciting for employees and not employees seeking for jobs, for there will be more demand for labor than supply. And this means even those who are still in the universities would even get jobs before completing their studies.

Each and every business has its own culture and what they ought to do is to create their own brands by training their staff on how to provide the services, how to dress, how to pose, how to walk and so on. There is no way a business person says he doesn’t love South Sudanese but he wants to make more money here in South Sudan.

You either love South Sudanese people and love making more money here or you hate South Sudanese people and therefore quit go invest in a Country that you love its people, period.

Not only in hotel/restaurant industries but also in driving sector, shop attendants sector and NGOs sector where the skills can be sourced within South Sudan, it doesn’t have to be outsourced, and there should be no law that permits that.

Once all these jobs are availed to citizens, the living standard will improve and this comes with responsibilities of paying taxes and therefore more revenues for the Government to provide social benefits without borrowing from anybody else.

So the Government needs to make decisions on this and enforce it. And this finally means there is a relationship between labor laws and private sector employment opportunities.

The writer holds MBA, degree in Procurement & Logistics Management and BA.
He can be reached through

South Sudan’s new laws offer a blueprint for a transparent oil sector

For immediate release: 29 November 2012: GLOBAL WITNESS

NOV. 29/2012, SSN; Amid reports of endemic corruption, escalating security concerns, and delays restarting crude oil production, South Sudan’s new oil laws offer grounds to be optimistic about the prospects for development and stability, said Global Witness in a report released today.

The report, ‘Blueprint for Prosperity: How South Sudan’s new laws hold the key to a transparent and accountable oil sector,’ outlines the major opportunities and challenges the government faces in ensuring that management of the country’s oil wealth is responsible and open to public scrutiny.

“South Sudan’s new oil legislation contains strong public reporting, revenue management, and contract allocation requirements,” said Global Witness campaigner Dana Wilkins. “But laws are only as good as their implementation. The real test will be in whether or not the government follows through with these commitments.”

In July 2011, South Sudan became both the newest and the most oil dependent country in the world. With the oil sector bringing in more than 98% of the government’s revenues, South Sudan halted all production following a dispute with Sudan over confiscated oil shipments. The two countries have now agreed a deal for the export of South Sudan’s oil via Sudan’s pipeline infrastructure and operations are expected to restart shortly.

Since independence, there have been concerning reports of new oil sector deals being negotiated and awarded apparently outside of transparent bidding processes. No oil production data has been published, and it is not yet clear if exploration and production sharing contracts will be made public.

Building a transparent and accountable oil sector in South Sudan will require serious political engagement from the government, major capacity building, and consistent implementation of the blueprint set out in the new legislation. The report released today seeks to support such efforts by providing an analysis of the new requirements and making recommendations to address major risks and challenges. Key recommendations include the following:

The government should pass the draft Petroleum Revenue Management Bill without delay and ensure that strong provisions for the collection, management, auditing, and public reporting remain intact. [1]

The Ministry of Petroleum and Mining and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning should immediately start implementing the requirements for transparent contract allocation, and for the publication of production data, contracts, and quarterly and annual oil revenue management reports.

The government and international donors must ensure that South Sudanese civil society groups, and oversight bodies like the Audit Chamber and parliament, have the resources, access, and technical expertise necessary to carry out effective checks on the oil sector.

“South Sudan’s new petroleum laws are a major achievement which, if implemented effectively, could ensure that South Sudanese citizens are able to see and trust in how their oil is being managed,” said Wilkins. “Accountable management of the oil sector will be critical for the long-term development and stability of the nation.”

/ Ends

Contact: For more information contact Dana Wilkins on +44 (0)7808 761 570, and Faraz Hassan on +44 (0)20 7492 5848,


[1] This bill has not yet passed the parliament but is expected in the next few months.


Dana Wilkins

Global Witness

+44 (0)20 7492 5828

+44 (0)7808 761 570

twitter: @dwilkinsgw

Nominated for the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, Global Witness is an international NGO campaigning to prevent natural resource-related conflict and corruption.