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Towards SPLM unification, again? What a tragedy for South Sudan

EDITORIAL ANALYSIS: OCT/21/2014, SSN;

As president Kiir and arch-rival Machar met face to face to initial yet another futile agreement deal on October 20th, 2014, at the Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge outside Arusha, Tanzania, the day will stand out as an inauspicious and unpropitious day in the political evolution of South Sudan nation as specifically pertaining to the political behavioral evolution of our so-called political leaders.

If the assertions by both rival sides (SPLM ruling and SPLM-in-Opposition) that the goal of the talks and the agreement thereof is the re-unification of this monstrosity known as the SPLM again, then the oppressed peoples of South Sudan are once again being callously and unashamedly betrayed by the same personalities.

Yes, not only once, twice or thrice in our life time, but for the nth time, is the nation of South Sudan silently witnessing another duplicitous realignment of personalities who until this very moment have combined, colluded and commissioned the murders of hundreds of thousands of the citizens.

Sadly, the Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge parody comes after the abysmal and clear failure of the IGAD-negotiated Peace Talks in Ethiopia, whereby both sides of the government and the rebels came out immensely disappointed by the IGAD mediators.

In the latest statement from government spokesperson, the unpredictable minister of information, Makuei, the IGAD mediators were more interested in the participation of one politician at the peace talks and that was Dr. Lam Akol was deliberately prohibited by Kiir from traveling to Addis.

But more pertinently, IGAD also wanted to dish out an almost equal proportion of the share in a new government of national unity to each of the three, i.e. SPLM ruling, SPLM-in-O and SPLM ex-detainees, which didn’t bode well with Makuei’s boss, Kiir, hence the adjournment of the Addis talks.

Now, seriously, if after all those many months that the IGAD has been coercing, cajoling and counselling these same SPLM ‘compatriots’ in Ethiopia but to no avail, what difference would Tanzania’s ruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi and Pres. Kikwete do differently to achieve concordance among a bunch of diabolically cantankerous and self-seeking persons?

Nonetheless, one important anomaly needs to be pointed out about this gang of so-called SPLM ‘leaders’ and that is their selfish propensity to fully and criminally exploit any chances whereby they are being feted and accommodated luxuriously and freely at someone’s expense, and even get paid for their irresponsibility.

We clearly saw this behavioral manifestation during the unnecessarily prolonged pre-CPA talks in Nairobi and Naivasha, where greed became a prominent characteristic of these SPLM gangsters. The IGAD Addis is a rendition of their greed of financial exploitation.

According to Tanzanian President Kikwete, he had invited the Kiir and Machar “to a dialogue aimed at reunifying the South Sudanese SPLM ruling party.”

Furthermore, quoting the Secretary-general of Tanzania’s ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi, Mr. Abdulrahman Kinana, Kiir and Machar had been invited “to the intra-SPLM dialogue with the hope to re-unify the party.”

However, it should be recalled that a week before (October 12 to 18) the so-called Kiir-Machar Summit at Ngurdoto Lodge, a bunch of SPLM ruling and SPLM rebel and ex-detainees representatives had been meeting in Arusha and according to Mr. Kinana, “the SPLM family have reached progress on establishing a framework for the SPLM dialogue, including shared principles, objectives and agenda for engaging dialogue.”

Seriously, for many of us concerned South Sudanese, this is the biggest and scandalous exposé of the SPLM dishonesty and dis-ingenuity. What’s there that the two SPLM protagonists have to talk about to ‘unify’ their long-exipired party?

The SPLM for all intents and purpose is a dead party, what Kiir, Machar, Pagan or Lam Akol are supposedly leading are mutually antagonistic and mutually destructive, self-serving but deadly clones of the former SPLM that only serve the particular interests of these personalities and their tribal peoples or criminal gangsters.

Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba, who incidentally is leading the SPLM-in-O group at Ngurdoto, posed the following in his latest book, ‘South Sudan: The State we aspire,’ “What’s the difference between confusion and a vicious circle? In essence, there’s no difference between the categories…… but in the context of South Sudan, confusion-cum-vicious circle is the political environment the political elite engineers in order to de-conscientise the masses and prevent them from appreciating the oppressive reality in which they are submerged.”

Dr. Adwok further goes on: “Because most political leaders practise double talk, it becomes absolutely necessary for them to generate confusion about their real intentions and they create a psychological environment which could be described as a comedy of political impotence.”

Precisely and unfortunately, the Ngurdoto document just signed by the so-called ‘three’ factions of the SPLM, which will serve yet again as another roadmap for further negotiations to reunite the SPLM and end the war, epitomizes the ‘confusion-cum-vicious cycle’ Dr. Adwok Nyaba referred to above.(pp 148)

Succinctly, Dr. Adwok Nyaba concedes, “…the comedy of political impotence is the havoc the political elite, former revolutionaries of the national liberation struggle, pursuing a personal agenda for power and wealth, are wrecking havoc with the destiny of the people of Southern Sudan.”

The biggest misfortune is that the civil societies and other stake holders in the current predicament facing our nation were deliberately excluded by Tanzania’s president Kikwete with the obvious complicity of the three SPLM leaders and this doesn’t bode well for any possible or probable future resolution of the crisis in the nation.

The SPLM as a whole is seriously and permanently debilitated by internal contradictions, schisms and rivalries which have cumulatively wrecked havoc among these so-called leadership or former revolutionaries.

Nothing good will ever materialize even if God himself came down and took these SPLM ‘leaders’ up into Heaven to negotiate among themselves.

These SPLM criminals, like the biblical people of Babel who disobeyed God himself and built the metaphorical ‘towers of Babel’against God’s will, must be destroyed and dispersed into different directions (many into prisons for life).

More concisely, the SPLM leaders have collectively lost their legitimacy to rule the country anymore because of the crimes they have committed or commissioned that, as Dr. Adwok Nyaba even wrote in his book (pp 148), that with the preponderance of evidence, “it would be easy to pick up and send to the International Criminal Court-ICC- in The Hague many of those in positions of authority today in South Sudan.”

Since coming to Juba in 2005, Pres. Kiir and his ex-deputy, Machar have never really resolved their political differences from the bush era, on top of their bitter tribal differences, a fact overtly exacerbated by the big educational disparities, the latter a PhD holder and the former an primary school leaver.

On the other hand, Kiir has never forgiven or forgotten those so-called Garang’s Boys, such as Pagan Amum, the leader of the former detainees group, for their mischievous role in his (Kiir’s) marginalization and abuse during the bitter animosity with Garang when the late briefly contemplated dumping his deputy, Kiir,

Moreover, in the current opposition groups, those of Machar and Lam Akol still behave like two bitter ex-wives married to the one husband, never will they ever consensually collude and come together to even overthrow the Kiir regime, a near-miraculous expectation those many South Sudanese opposing the Kiir government had hoped would happen sooner than later.

Lately, the Machar’s SPLM-in-O, has publicly and wholeheartedly embraced the popular demand for federal system of governance in the country. If now SPLM unification has become a top priority, is Dr. Machar not once again exhibiting his traits of betrayal to the Equatorians, the Nuer and Western Bahr el ghazel supporters who stood out to support the rebel SPLM?

If the improbable were ever to materialize that a united SPLM came back to life and took over the running of the Juba junta, that would be the biggest tragedy of our nation and its people.

A South Sudan government with Kiir, Machar, Pagan, Alor and company would be diabolical mockery and a painful insult to all those innocent compatriots needlessly eviscerated during the so-called struggle for regime change.

Once again, one would imagine Kiir boldly and without shame stand up in the dead beat parliament to pronounce a general amnesty for his own crimes and for the crimes of other SPLM co-conspirators.

Bitterly, the nation will be again forced to swallow the painful realities that they will and must have to live with once again ad infinitum, the ‘confusion-cum-vicious cycle’ of SPLM political disasters, one after another.

Like it or not, tribal domination will be overtly expedited, there will be no accountability for any crimes commissioned by the ruling SPLM gangsters, people will be murdered and brought with decapitated heads to the government morgues and other unimaginable egregious crimes perpetuated blatantly and lawfully.

In conclusion, whatever the case, the nation should not countenance or allow the tragedy of SPLM unification and the comeback of the SPLM monstrosity to again damage, desecrate and disintegrate the stalled progression and evolution of our nation.

The construction of future conflict in South Sudan

BY: ELHAG PAUL, South Sudan, OCT/11/2014, SSN:

It is over 9 months since President Salva Kiir unleashed his dogs of war, the ‘Dootku Beny,’ on the Nuer and the people of South Sudan killing tens of thousands and destabilising the country. President Kiir, Michael Makuie, General Wani Igga, Dr Martin Elia, Ateny Wek Ateny and their blind supporters are still in place engaged in violence and disinformation blitz to entrench Dinkocracy.

Defensively and in a persistent manner they bark loudly hoping to dupe the international community. “This government was democratically elected by the people of this country and the time for elections has not yet come”, “Any moves to replace an elected government by force was unconstitutional and unacceptable.” http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article52545

Obviously, these Dinkocrates have conveniently forgotten that they usurped power on the eve of independence on 9th July 2011. The democratic mandate they received in April 2010 expired with the break up of the then Sudan into two countries.

As everyone knows, elections have not been held in the new state of South Sudan. So what are they talking about?

Listening to and observing these Dinkocrats misbehave conjures up images of people who are out of touch with the reality. They speak with confidence while blocking their ears to the truth being told to them. To the world they are deaf and yet they want the world to listen and believe their side of the story which is completely false.

These Dinkocrats seem to believe in what they say to be the ultimate truth, even when the average person in the streets of South Sudan does not perceive it so. They have unreasonably convinced themselves that they are democratically elected and they must not be asked to cede power.

Whether it is President Kiir or his deputy General Wani Igga or Majok on the street, the vigour, fervour and the conviction with which they spread their lies is just the same. As social theory postulates – when something or a lie is repeatedly said, it gradually becomes a reality to the preacher with the bombarded listener turning into a believer.

In the process the preacher and those being preached to lose touch with reality. In a sense they become mentally corrupted. Could this be the thing that is affecting the Dinkocrates?

Could it be the same thing that sunk IGAD? Or was it IGAD’s partiality? Or is it a combination of both?

Whichever, IGAD is doomed to failure mostly due to its partiality. The songs of “democratically elected” only became sweeteners to solidify their biasness. IGAD does not offer any hope. It prescribes more of the same (SPLM misrule).

This is not peacemaking but rather the construction of future chaos and instability. Where then is the peaceful future that IGAD’s mediation promised? Who in South Sudan wants more of the same?

Who wants the continuation of the current tribalism, thuggery, and the Jieng engineered ethnic cleansings?

In a nutshell IGAD’s mediation represents doom and gloom for South Sudan. IGAD is not working for peace. It is working first for the interest of its heads of states and secondly for an entrenched instability in South Sudan.

So, in order to address the problem of South Sudan it requires focusing on the real root causes of the current problem namely: SPLM’s resistance to democratisation and diversification of power; the creation of private tribal armies like Dootku Beny; vicious Jieng tribalism; lawlessness and the ethnic cleansing of the Nuer.

These are the critical issues that must be addressed by all South Sudanese stakeholders if a lasting peace is to be achieved in South Sudan. What does IGAD then do? It embarks on one plan to patch the SPLM as a solution without plan “B”: http://allafrica.com/stories/201404140864.html

In the last 9 months it has done everything to realise this objective knowing very well that SPLM is the real problem. It is the cancer destroying South Sudan. SPLM in reality is a Jieng machine through which Jieng tribalism is detrimentally implemented in the country.

Disappointingly and unethically, IGAD has consistently worked with President Kiir frustrating the participation of the stakeholders to the extent that now the only parties left in Addis Ababa are the SPLM factions responsible for the chaos.

Interestingly, IGAD now shouts that peace is within reach. Do you see the hypocrisy of this club of dictators? What hope is there for South Sudan under the mediation of this hypocritical body?

Sweeping the real issues that plunged the country into chaos under the carpet and rewarding the very party responsible for it is not going to help in the healing process and the stabilisation of the country.

These issues will not go away, they will not disappear but they will fester and grow until they explode with devastating consequences. What IGAD is doing now in Addis Ababa is the deliberate construction of a future conflict.

So whatever deal they sign now will only afford South Sudanese a temporary respite. More over this deal would only be between Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile only. President Kiir and the SPLM-IG represent the former and Dr Machar and SPLM-IO represent the latter.

Equatoria which would have been represented by the other political parties has been frozen out. So Equatoria is already marginalised and its horrific experiences under the SPLM murder machine have been dismissed.

How can the exclusion of Equatoria which comprise a third of the country lead to a lasting peace? I leave that to you to think about it.

Could IGAD’s behaviour not be seen as sending messages to Equatorians to follow in the footsteps of those who have plunged the country into chaos should they want to be counted, listened to and taken seriously? How responsible is IGAD when it becomes part of the problem by marginalising a third of the country?

IGAD is messing South Sudan and creating for itself two serious problems that will come to bite its members.

First, the manner in which IGAD has failed to fairly mediate the South Sudan conflict has displayed to the world its weakness. In addition to losing credibility in the world, new non-state actors emerging in the region in future will not take it seriously and it may not be accepted to play any role.

Secondly, the South Sudan conflict has shown that IGAD has no fangs. It is all talk and threats without any power to enforce it. Take for example, it declares targets with datelines and nothing happens when these datelines are breached.

Its target of 60 days issued in June 2014 to achieve peace agreement in South Sudan expired in August 2014 without any outcome. Again in August 2014 it issued another target of 45 days for same purpose and it is about to expire within this week without any ray of hope in sight.

These targets have been blatantly breached without any consequences. The question is: why does IGAD bother to set these deadlines if they are unable to see them through?

South Sudan will continue to remain in problems not because South Sudanese are trouble makers, but because IGAD makes choices that prolong instability as if it has rights in doing so.

It is the South Sudanese people’s failure to make use of their sovereignty that has led IGAD to assume the right of a decision making in the country’s affairs in support of a criminal party (SPLM).

The responsibility of this failure falls squarely on the SPLM. To break it down, it is President Kiir’s idiotic government; Dr Riek Machar’s inability to have a foresight and vision and the well proven incompetence of the SPLM G-10.

Who is IGAD to dictate terms and decide for a sovereign people? If this situation was reversed to the IGAD member states, would they accept it?

IGAD is only a mediator. Its role is to assist in bringing peace between the warring parties. It is not an arbiter or a judge to dictate or bully left and right. It does not have that mandate to impose decisions on South Sudanese people.

South Sudanese must realise that without a genuine lasting peace there will not be any security in the country. Thus leaving the country in the hands of a hopeless organisation (SPLM) and incompetent “leaders” who do not know the rights of a sovereign state invites abusive treatment of South Sudan as is played out in Addis Ababa by IGAD.

The state of South Sudan did not come to life without huge sacrifices. Millions have paid for it with their blood and the people endured decades of painful oppression.

For SPLM to allow the state of South Sudan to be played with by IGAD is tantamount to gross negligence. The IGAD process glaringly reveals the ignorance of the SPLM and all the supposed leaders of the various SPLM factions as people who have no idea about what a sovereign state is.

Inward looking, corrupt to the bone, and short sighted they connive with IGAD to make all the wrong decisions about fate of millions of South Sudanese people. Remember, the Troika correctly named the problem in South Sudan as “man made”.

Who are the men who made this catastrophe? Is it not President Kiir and the entire SPLM machine? Think about this.

This catastrophe is made out of a mixture of personal ambitions, tribal interest and abuse of state machinery. Was it really necessary to go to war just to settle a disagreement within the SPLM party?

As it may well be obvious to everybody at this point it is clear that this war is a result of power struggle within the SPLM and the irresponsible short sightedness of the supposed Jieng elites. If they only listened to the American friends of South Sudan in early July 2013 this tragedy would have been averted. Please access this link to see it: http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/news/press-releases/friends-of-south-sudan-warned-of-serious-consequences

SPLM is making all the wrong decisions for South Sudan and this is why the country is collapsing. South Sudan can only pull itself out of this mess if it is represented by caring, responsible, and knowledgeable people who make right decisions about its well being and welfare.

Daran Acemoglu and Jones Robinson in their book ‘Why Nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity and poverty’ convincingly point out that, “poor countries are poor because those who have power make choices that create poverty.”

This finding is highly pertinent in the case of South Sudan and it actually illuminates the bleak situation facing the country.

In spite of all the resources South Sudan is endowed with, the people are likely to perpetually remain poor because of the obvious wrong decisions made by the SPLM leaders described by Gerard Prunier as “idiots……rotten to the core” in their various shapes and forms.

The evidence is already clear. Since 2005 all the decisions made by the SPLM leaders stunted the country socially and economically. First they started by entrenching tribalism. Both President Kiir and Dr Machar ensured their tribes controlled the security sector.

They then distributed over 80 percent of the government positions to their tribesmen without any merits. After this they encouraged an alliance of convenience between the Nuer White army and the Jieng of Bor against the Murle people at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012.

All these were done while they were busy raiding the coffers of the state mercilessly. As if this was not enough they triggered a war with the Sudan over Panthou (a legitimately South Sudanese area) which they negligently left to Sudan to occupy and claim ownership.

So, right from the start the catalogues of poor and wrong decisions have ceaselessly continued up till December 2013 when it took a deadly turn.

Due to his limited capacity and with the influence of the Jieng cartels President Kiir deliberately ignited the current crisis in the country and encouraged ethnic cleansing in the belief that this would make him and the Jieng powerful, feared and a superior tribe.

This delusion of grandeur as a result has seen the country fall apart. The Jieng need to understand that they can not construct a tribal superiority by crude barbarism. They can not be what they dream on the back of other people blood.

Conventional wisdom tells us that such delusions will be resisted and eventually crashed at a certain point and that point for South Sudan is fast approaching whether they like it or not.

The jieng have the key to halt the gathering Tsunami of South Sudanese anger. The Jieng should not deceive themselves that the support the regime is receiving from IGAD will save the status quo.

The idea of a superior tribe milking everyone else as in Juba now frankly speaking is fatuous. It is unsustainable in this modern world.

While the Jieng may control the army, security, police and the economy, that is not enough in itself to ensure their safety and eternal survival. Some tribes like the Gaddafi of Libya and the Boers of South Africa tried it but it ended in tears.

South Sudan as a country is a socio-political system. All the component parts of the country work smoothly when the system is in equilibrium. What this means is that if all the people of South Sudan are happy the country becomes stable and development takes off. But if some people or tribe are unhappy the country loses stability.

Therefore, the currently destabilised socio-political system in South Sudan can not be repaired or cured by keeping it under the management of the very people and party (SPLM) responsible for its political malaise which is exactly what the IGAD mediation is doing.

The system is broken because one of its components (Jieng tribe) has embarked on a puerile project of superiority. The Jieng have become infected with tribalism and grown too big in the social arrangement that kept the system in equilibrium pre-1983.

IGAD by destroying the initially agreed principle and arrangement of bringing all the people (stakeholders) together to deliberate on a way out has just done a huge damage to the stabilisation of South Sudan.

The SPLM factions and IGAD can strike their own peace agreement without the stakeholders but they must know that their peace product is the seed for future conflict.

Therefore, the people of South Sudan need to fight back to stop this construction of future conflict by:
– Petitioning the UN and Troika about IGAD biasness and demand transfer of the talks to a neutral mediator.
– Highlight the fact that SPLM is the problem of South Sudan and it can not be handed power again after it has destroyed the country. The Interim Government should be lead by people with integrity.
– The SPLM should be held accountable for the destruction of the country and the killing of tens of thousands of innocent South Sudanese people. Principally president Kiir must account for the lawlessness and the ethnic cleansing in South Sudan.
– Highlighting the reasons for IGAD’s failure:
a) its open biasness;
b) narrowing and restricting the talks to SPLM factions only thus disenfranchising the people of South Sudan;
c) rewarding failure and criminality in South Sudan;
d) promoting interest of IGAD member states at the expense of the people of South Sudan;
e) promoting instability in South Sudan and potentially in the region.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]
Elhag Paul
elhagpaul@aol.com

Federal system of government the salvation of South Sudan

By: Jacob K. Lupai, JUBA, OCT/06/2014, SSN;

South Sudan is in crisis that could have been avoided. The crisis has brought untold sufferings to many innocent people, probably more than the sufferings endured during the bitter wars of liberation for independence of South Sudan. It is with horror that in independent South Sudan people should turn ferociously on each other in a senseless struggle for power and leadership.

There could have been a peaceful way out in winning the hearts and minds of the people for power and leadership. Unfortunately the use of guns and bullets as a shortcut to power and leadership was erroneously conceived with little or no conceptualization of the consequences. Poor calculations have resulted to unnecessary destruction and senseless loss of innocent lives notwithstanding the deep polarization of communities along ethnic lines.

The ongoing crisis in South Sudan is a litmus test of the political leadership whether they have the guts and the will to climb above partisan politics and ethnic cleavages in the national interest. There is no denial that this senseless armed struggle for power and leadership has taken ethnic dimension where members of one ethnic group in the wrong place have been brutally dealt with. The ethnic dimension of the ongoing armed struggle for power and leadership is well documented in the Interim Report on South Sudan Internal Conflict December 15, 2013 – March 15, 2014 by South Sudan Human Rights Commission.

The ethnic dimension of the ferocious conflict suggests that those who imagine that South Sudanese are one people are nothing but merely wishful thinkers. South Sudanese will never be one people even if the Son of Mary comes for the second time. What they can only be is as people of one destiny. Being of one destiny was the only unifying factor that brought independence to South Sudan.

Before and after independence of South Sudan

Before independence of South Sudan in 2011we were all people of one destiny because we were oppressed and marginalized, being forced to occupy second class citizenship in the old Sudan. As people sharing the same fate we were untied for strength to liberate ourselves from the yolk of Arab oppression and marginalization. We therefore fought as people of one destiny for equality, justice and freedom.

As people of one destiny the unity of people during the struggle transcended ethnic, religious and regional divide. South Sudanese were united in their strong desire for freedom and an independent homeland where they could live in dignity. Arab marginalization and the treatment as second class citizens were too painful that the people of South Sudan preferred to die in the battlefield for freedom and dignity.

According to the Sudan people’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) Manifesto 2012 the people of South Sudan are united by a common history of struggle against oppression, different forms of colonialism. This clearly suggests that South Sudanese are people of one destiny but not necessarily one people as the propagandists would like us to believe.

The Manifesto affirms in no uncertain terms that the people of South Sudan are forever inspired by the ideals of human rights and dignity, and by the insistence on respect for fundamental freedoms, social justice, equality, prosperity and democracy. Now the question to ask do those ideals still hold after independence of South Sudan.

After independence the fear and hatred of Arab colonization that had previously united South Sudanese as people of one destiny seemed to have vanished overnight. There was nothing much to unite people as before. The project was over and there was the lack of concepts for other projects to unite people as during the struggle. South Sudanese appeared to have become individuals, tribes or clans looking first after their own interests where national interest was taking the backseat.

The euphoria after the referendum results gave way to bitter disappointment in deficiencies in the ability of the government to deliver security and basic services as some of the most anticipated peace dividends and rewards for independence. There were also claims of corruption, nepotism, exclusion and domination of government and business by some ethnic groups. This was not in line with people’s expectations and aspirations before independence.

People had expected that in an independent South Sudan security of individual and property would have been provided. That was not the case. For example, land grabbing should not have been of concern in independent South Sudan. However, according to the International Republican Institute public opinion poll in all the 10 states of South Sudan, land grabbing is of concern but only in Equatoria.

The cries of poor victims of land grabbing in Equatoria by citizens from Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile are often ignored while the land grabbers are rewarded. For example, land grabbers terrorise legitimate landowners with guns yet these criminal land grabbers do not face the law nor are the guns collected from them as a security measure to preempt anarchy. One can only speculate as to what is going on and how is that going to promote national cohesion and unity.

Systems of government

There are many systems of government in the world. Each country adopts a system that is seen to address its unique needs, compatible with its vision. However, a system that works perfectly well in one country may not necessarily be suitable to another country. What may happen is that a country adapts a system to address issues of diversity and development. However, the system must be seen to be reducing social and regional inequalities and poverty.

A system of government adopted must be seen to be efficient in service delivery for a high standard of living of the people. The system adopted must also be a response to deep social fissures along ethnic, cultural and regional lines where a civil war may be looming. An adoption of a system of government to defuse tensions may save a country from collapsing.

Some of the systems of government are unitary, federal and confederal. A unitary system is the one with only a single, centralized, national tier of government. In the unitary system powers may be highly concentrated in the centre to the disadvantage of the peripheries. It is here that problems sometimes arise when the peripheries are ignored or starved of development to improve living standards.

In a unitary system of government a single ethnic group may consolidate its grip on power over the whole state through nepotism to the detriment of national unity. A unitary system of government can therefore be seen as inappropriate to a country full of ethnic, cultural and regional diversities.

In a federal system powers of government are divided between the national government, state and local governments. Under the federal system each level of government has sovereignty in some areas and shares powers in other areas. For example, both the national and state governments have the power to tax to generate revenue to deliver services but only the national government can declare war.

In a federation, the self-governing states as well as the division of powers between them and the national government, are constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision neither of the states nor the national government.

The confederal system is usually limited to a permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states. The closest entity to a confederation is the European Union. However, any existing federal state can be transformed into a looser confederation instead of breaking up into totally different independent nations.

Diversities in South Sudan

In the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan 2011, South Sudan is considered a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-racial entity where such diversities peacefully co-exist. However, the statement in the last part where it is asserted that “such diversities peacefully co-exist” is arguable. There are always inter and intra ethnic clashes and violence. There are also regional diversities in physical features that can provide comparative advantage in development.

In South Sudan there are mainly two modes of livelihoods. Some communities are pastoralists while others are sedentary farmers. Clashes between pastoralists and farmers are not uncommon with poor delivery of security, characteristic of a centralized system that may be hopelessly too remote to be effective.

Sometimes, arrogance and insensitivity of pastoralists to the feelings of farmers make things worse. It is common for pastoralists to drive deliberately their animals into cultivated fields for the animals to feast on food crops. This is adverse to farmers’ food security. When the farmers complain the pastoralists do not listen and hardly control their animals for a peaceful co-existence with farmers.

It is very clear that the diversities in South Sudan call for a system of government that is robust, closer and adequately responsive to peoples felt needs at the grassroots. A highly centralized system that is hopelessly remote and cannot deliver services as anticipated is not for South Sudan. South Sudan is apparently in need of a system of government that accelerates development for a high standard of living of its people.

Federalism for salvation of South Sudan

The present system of government in South Sudan is quasi federalism. It is a quasi federal system because it is midway between a centralized and a federal system with many attributes of federalism, of course, lacking. There are 10 autonomous states but are limited in powers. For example, the states have limited powers of having their own judiciary, police, prisons, wildlife and fire brigade. The states also may have limited power to tax to raise the needed revenue for development.

For the states to perform and deliver the badly needed services a federal system of government is the most appropriate because the states will then have more powers. Some people have argued that the existing 10 states show that South Sudan is already a federation. This, however, is false. This may be partly due to ignorance of what a federal system entails or it could be the case of those tunnel vision reactionary centralists who exploit and benefit the most from a centralized system of government.

A federal system of government is the most recommended because it will turn South Sudan into a strong vibrant united country where diversities are a source of strength with more powers to the states to address the current deficiencies in service delivery for development.

Conclusion

As mentioned above there are three types of system of government under consideration and they are unitary, federal and confederal. For South Sudan it is envisaged that a federal system is the most appropriate and a good compromise. Although at first it was shunned, the federal system is now widely recognized in the nation and regionally. What remains are the details. In principle federalism is already accepted.

The Sudan Tribune website on September 27, 2014 showed the Government of the Republic of South Sudan agreeing to a federal system of government.

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Protocol on Agreed Principles on Transitional Arrangements Towards Resolution of the Crisis in South Sudan, 28 August 2014, in part, stipulates that the “Transitional Government of National of Unity (TGONU) to initiate and oversee a permanent constitution-making process, during the Transitional Period, based on the principles of federalism and taking into account unity in diversity, and to devolve more power to the states”.

One wonders what will the opponents of federalism make of the government’s acceptance of a federal system and the acceptance of principles of federalism by IGAD. It is hoped the opponents of federalism are not out of touch with the reality unfolding.

In conclusion, a federal system is the only way for the salvation of South Sudan for national unity in diversity and sustainable development out of the mess and turmoil that has been unnecessarily created.

Jacob K. Lupai is the author of a new book, South Sudan, Issues in Perspective, which will shortly be launched in Juba, South Sudan.

Unnecessarily Deep-rooted Hatred, Empty Pride and Unhealthy Competitions are bringing us quickly to Doom!

By: Deng M. Koch, South Sudan, OCT/03/2014, SSN;

An Open Letter to the people of Lakes state:

Dear my people of Lakes state, first before I bring your attention into the heart of my message, kindly allow me to highlight the following story:

Once upon a time, a group of nine (9) individuals (men) set out deep into the surrounding forest near their village with the purpose of harvesting wild honey located in a hollow of a very big tree previously known to them. Not known to them however was the fact that in the very hollow in the trunk of the tree ‘resided’ a very big Viper (Snake) with deadly venom which kills instantly once it bites and injects venom (poisonous substance) into human or animal blood system.

The men arrived to their intended destination under the big tree and as is in line with the crude traditional ways of extracting honey, started a fire and a thick smoke began billowing and the men positioned themselves from top of the tree where the mouth of the hollow in the tree trunk was to under the tree on the ground.

The aim is usually to pass fire with smoke up to the tree and insert smoke into the trunk’s hollow and scare bees away from the honey-rich hive and on the other hand, extracted honey is passed down the same line of people to the last person on the ground under the tree who then packages the sweet substance into containers.

The expert “master honey extractor” on top of the tree inserted fire and smoke into the tree and the poor Bees quickly made way for his hand to grab the honey, but the Viper, alerted by smoke and movement near the hollow (kok) was already angered by the intrusion into its territory and hence was on its striking position; the poor guy’s hand was bitten by the deadly snake which he could not see because it was dark in the middle of the night.

Nonetheless, the bitten man had a bad heart and didn’t want to die alone, so he said to the one next to him, “please get hold of this fire thing and continue to harvest the Honey, something has fallen to my eye; let me go down the tree so I can wash it off.”

His unsuspecting friend quickly took up the deadly position and as he rushed his hand into the trunk of the tree, another deadly strike met his hand at the entrance! The same story of excusing oneself was done by the second man as he too realised it was a deadly snake bite and hence did not want to die alone just as the first victim of the snake did.

Number three, four, five, six and seven all followed in the same way and were all bitten and as they climbed down the tree, they all succumbed to the Viper’s venom/snake poison and died.

When it came to number eight, a man of good heart and full of love for others, he was in the same fashion, bitten in the hand and as soon as he realized it was a deadly snake bite, he shouted in agony, “Oh God, my God, why would you allow the Satanic Viper to finish my people like this!”

His crying in despair alerted the number 9, the last man who was standing; he quickly turned and inspected all those others previously bitten and found out they had all kicked the buck! Alas, bad heart and ill intentions of the first seven victims made it possible for snake to annihilate almost the entire group!

Thanks God the 8th victim was pure in heart, loving and caring for others’ welfare; his warning stopped the last member of the group from falling into the same abyss of tragedy. He dared not to approach the death trap which finished his friends! He became the sole survivor to tell the tragic tale of the honey hunters to the village people and beyond.

So, my people of Lakes state, haven’t we allowed the “Viper snake” of hatred, tribalism propelled by tribal or clannish chauvinism and hegemony with all its by-products of cattle rustling, highway banditry, targeted cold-blooded murders of innocent including sleeping victims to finish us individual by individual, clan by clan and county by county?

For far too long we have been burying our heads in the sand, pretending that the escalating violence was a “normal traditional practice of community’s rivalries over pastures and watering points for their cattle”.

Now that towns such as Cueibet, Rumbek the capital of state, Pacong, Wulu and you name them all, as well as along the Highway serving five states, the Greater Bahr El Ghazal highway from Juba – Yirol – Rumbek – Tonj – Wau – Aweil and which branches off in Rumbek to Bentiu, had been turned into human Abettors by gunmen from the very “normally rivaling community groups” in the state, hadn’t the chickens returned home to Roost?

There is nowhere is the story of single snake finishing 8 people out of 9 reflected in practical terms than in our volatile Lakes state in the Republic of South Sudan!

The South Sudanese public and the world community are reeling to absorb and comprehend the scale and frequency of death, destruction or looting of properties of innocent victims coming out in the new Country’s centrally located Lakes state on daily basis.

People there are almost psychologically resigning to the fact that their lives could easily be terminated at any time of the day and that living to see the next day, week, month or a year was a matter of privilege; a privilege granted not by the divine powers as is usually the case with humanity’s beliefs, but rather by the decision and will of criminal human hunters who initiates killing of unsuspecting innocent people at will; or act in the name of Revenging and counter-revenging their lost loved ones regardless of the circumstances leading to such loses.

None is safe anymore and age, gender, occupation, status or physical ability no longer exempts one from falling victim to the raging practice of innocent human beings elimination!

More questions than answers abounds as to how and why have the people of the once glorious province of South Sudan allowed themselves to fall so lowest.

But none including the author have the real and convincing answers to these questions, hence the search and guessing for answers to the questions and solutions to the escalating destruction of lives and properties in the volatile state is ongoing.

As the communities are confused and the core of their social fabrics in tatters, our state politicians are in disarray with no unity of purpose forged amongst themselves and “bunch of self-hating idiots” we becomes in the eyes of the South Sudanese nation.

Practically a major source of sympathy to the well-wishers and a bunch of laughing stocks in the eyes of Scorners and haters!

None in the Republic of South Sudan but the very people of Lakes state themselves can bring an end once and for all to their mini-wars and unnecessary death tolls.

The national government, already stretched thin by other more pressing national emergencies can only facilitate and where necessary, impose in collaboration with local institutions of governance and people in the state, the rule of law and Justice for the victims.

Any perception that the solution is entirely external is void of logic. We must thus put our house in order and cease idle whining and lamentation about the menacing problems.

Things are not being helped by the fact that the state Assembly, a Legislature that was tasked with formulating laws and policy direction has become nothing more than a gossip house!

They no longer know what to do nor what not to do, a vast majority of them have become Residents of Juba by choice or against their choice as talks of “threat” to their lives, real and imaginary are ripe in the corridors of lamentation and one no longer understand where the real cause or solutions lies.

If the members of the most powerful institution, people with the mandate from their electorates to change course of things in the state have become ‘roaming’ whiners and like ordinary citizens, helplessly pointing fingers of blame to one man (Caretaker Governor) and shadowy figures!

The question is then begging itself, is this one man (Caretaker Governor) the real problem or are we (people of Lakes state) spearing the shadow of unknown animal?

Didn’t we complain time and again before that the previous Governors were the problems? Were they not removed in their different times of office and did the madness of killing one another stop?

How can one person be a problem to the extent that Hundreds of Thousands of citizens in the state are helpless in finding solutions to their issues?

To me, I do think that our individual attitudes as well as collective perceptions and actions, more than anything else are to blame for the now ensuing mess which left us with nothing but shame of enormous proportion in the eyes of the nation and beyond.

When shall we come to our collective senses as people of the volatile Lakes state, isn’t our dignity and collective image not battered enough and hence the need to quickly salvage what we can before it all together become uselessly too late to do so?

There is a fundamental problem of perceptions and understanding within us as a society!

Again, there is an old adage which goes “the bigger and influential the position that one occupies in employment, the bigger the size of trousers and shirts one wears.”

This simply means people desperately want big positions in order to enrich themselves more than serving the constituents and this seems to be the trend among politicians of Lakes state.

And this may also explain why almost every politician in the state is eyeing the position of governorship, either for him/herself or his/her “Nominee” to fulfill certain interests; be they individual or collective in the case of clan or tribal politicking.

A pattern of “See nothing say nothing as long as you are in the state government cabinet; and see everything everywhere and shout the loudest as soon as you are reshuffled out,” has manifested itself ominously amongst the amateurish state politicians since the formation of government in 2005.

There is no doubt the governor, whether in the past, in the present or in the future has and will have his shortcomings just as all other human beings are, but to propagate or assume all the ongoing mess including rampant cattle rustling, robbery with violence, cold-blooded killing of innocent people and even Hyenas and dogs gone amok in killing or eating people in the state on one man or woman in position of Governor is a mockery to logic and self-defeating to say the least.

Therefore, I humbly call upon you my people in Lakes state and by extension, in all other violence prone areas in the Republic of South Sudan to rise to the challenge and stop acts of barbarianism and savagery.

It is time each citizen in the affected places of communal violence, cattle rustling and highway banditry begin to ask themselves what criminal acts brought upon them and their communities; and what their obligations to their communities, states and the country at large are.

We all ought to collectively strive to live in peace and harmony and appreciate our cultural and linguistic diversity as an invaluable asset which we must all work hand-in-hand to preserve. Multicultural society we are and differences in opinion, ways of life and religious beliefs we must accept, as long as they are not detrimental to the security and wellbeing of our country.

Our leaders too at different levels of governance need to fully understand and appreciate the needs and challenges pertaining to their constituents and constituencies; formulate clearer road maps for both short term and long term solutions to such and adopt consultative approach as opposed to unilateralism in decision making.

Decisions which affect or have the potentials to affect citizens’ lives are not a matter of clique rushing with it and excluding others, rather they deserve wider consultation and in the process create collective sense of belonging to and ownership of decision making process and hence acceptance of the outcome.

The growing culture of assigning people based on who they know more than what they know is by no mean lesser evil in the debilitating problems of Lakes state and by extension the wider country.

It is my sincere hope and prayer that my people in Lakes state will one day come to their senses and begin to seriously work to restore peace, unity and stability; and regain appreciation and respect by others in the Republic of South Sudan and beyond.

The sooner the better for all! South Sudan, a country for which you (Lakes state people) always walked in the forefront with your compatriot during the liberation struggles of various time, until the people of South Sudan achieved their full independence, need your positive input in the development of the country, not your aimless self-killing.

It is thus heart-breaking to witness the deteriorating situation of senseless killing of innocent people and the acceleration of politics of gossiping and sabotage among the political class of the state, thereby in the process leaving the needs of the citizens unattended to.

While the phenomenon of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a factor in the psychology and actions of individuals in Lakes state, it is not an excuse as it is neither a monopoly of you nor endemic (confined) in Lakes state; it affects all the post-war communities around the globe and other South Sudanese are no exception!

Therefore, let us rid ourselves of this glaring shame we finds ourselves in, my people. Dragging down with you the whole community including innocent, vulnerable and helpless children, women, elderly, physically hindered people, and all the people in the society is no noble cause for sensible and objective-oriented men.

So, to all the warring Gelweng, leave these groups of innocent people as well as innocent travelers through your land out of your self-annihilating fights and think of the future of your children, parents or partners before you act.

To local politicians, you can only be a proud leader of the living people, not of the dead; hence it is high time we all pull our acts together without allowing our individual political interests to interfere with the process of restoring peace and harmony to the lives of our people.

Great men and women in the political history are they who were selfless and who suffered in emancipation of their people.

On the other hand, the most reviled are they who were selfishly self-cantered, greedy and lustful of power; history is not and will never be so kind to them.

What legacy do we want to leave behind in our communities, state and the beloved country? I leave that for you to digest.

Seriously, I mourn all the slain victims of the senseless inter-community or inter-clan fights, particularly those very innocent victims shot dead in their homes, on the roads etc.

The great men who laid the foundation of unity and pride of the people of Lakes state, the like of great chiefs, spear masters, Christian religious leaders, wise and noble men and women of this great but now self-demoting state must be watching down on us in great agony.

But still, it is not and will never be too late to correct the mess and save the peace loving people of South Sudan and the world the heartache and headache of hearing bad news after bad news coming out of Lakes state.

Stop, stop, and stop my people stop the senseless bloodshed now!

“Glory to God in the Highest and Peace on Earth to men who are his friends,” The Friends of God according to Holy Bible, are the righteous who fear God and think of God’s instructions before they act. The instructions of God include “Do not kill” and “love your neighbour as you love yourself”.

Deng M. Koch Dengdit,
The Author is the Former Gurtong Peace Trust Correspondent for Australia and now in South Sudan. He can be reached through: deng.koch2014@gmail.com

James Gathoth Mai is an invisible Judas Iscariot of South Sudan

By: Stephen Kong, South Sudan, OCT/02/2014, SSN;

James Gathoth Mai. The invisible Judas is worse than Judas Iscariot who betrayed Jesus Christ. According to Matthew 27:5-8 when Judas realized his crime is too big to handle, “he threw the money into the temple floor and left. Then he went away and hanged himself. The chief priests picked up the coins and said, ‘It is against the law to put this into the treasury, since it is blood money.’ So they decided to use the money to buy the potter’s field as a burial place for foreigners. That is why it has been called the Field of Blood to this day.

But the former Chief of Staff of the SPLA (South Sudan National Army), James Gathoth, the invisible Judas collected his money and went for vocation in Australia where his family resides.

These two men shared a lot in common. They both hated those who love them. And in death, they are friendless. During December 15-24, 2013, Invisible Judas James Gathoth Mai could not talk to his dying relatives whom their only crime is because they are born to a Nuer mother and father.

The powerful General who claimed to have liberated South Sudan from the North, offered no help. Hung up the phone and congratulated his relatives’ killers. Judas Iscariot and an invisible James Gathoth Mai are the elements and the influences of evil. Their only differences is how they used their blood money.

Then Judas Iscariot realized his mistake stood like a man and faced the confrontation with a judgment verdict of his delusion and disappointment. He Judas Iscariot of Jews took responsibility to end his own life by hanging himself.

The invisible Judas James Gathoth of Nuer never until this day realized the crime he himself perpetrated against his own brothers, sisters and their children.

The sad fact about invisible Judas James Gathoth is, his real accomplishment in life is fighting with his Nuer tribe. But the good thing is, this time he betrayed the nation. Nuer are the tribe of South Sudan, since he was the second powerful man.

The innocent Nuer who died on December 15-24 owed him protection because they were his subjects. Invisible Judas James Gathoth, committed act of Genocide against the Nuer. He Judas Iscariot James Gathoth Mai is constitutionally responsible ruler at the time of genocide.

He chose not to protect them because he was a willing full participant. I choose the word Genocide here because it doesn’t need a lawyer or law degree to define what happened in Juba against Nuer people do constitute genocide.

It is purely a genocide. Why? Because Nuer are killed, they were singled out, sometimes by the scars on their foreheads or discovered their ethnicity based on their ID cards. They are executed to death simply because they are members of Nuer tribe.

Salva Kirr gave hate speeches on two occasions before genocide took place, James Gathoth Mai whom I suspected of being an invisible Judas Iscariot concealed behind Salva Kirr and Kuol Manyang Juuk.

The invisible Judas kept himself busy by talking on South Sudan TV, directed his messages especially to Nuer in army. On many occasions before and after Juba genocide took place, invisible Judas James Gathoth Mai was quoted by Sudan Tribune “South Sudan army chief warns against involvement in politics”.

Thank God, his goofy conspiracy backfired and failed to produce anything of value to deter Nuer sons and daughters from rescuing their own people. Invisible Judas, James Gathoth Mai is the military leader who oversaw the killing of Nuer women and children and at the same time expecting Nuer in army will bow to his plea.

My friends from Dinka Bor community argued that invisible Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai did not kill the Nuer in December of 2013. I confronted them with the question who has the power to prevent Juba massacre than invisible Judas, James Gathoth Mai?

I was blasted to hear their claims that former governor of northern Bar-Elghazal Malong Awan is the one who is responsible for killing of Nuer in Juba.

The main point here is who has the power and constitutional authority to protect the lives of innocent women and children no matter what their tribe is? No other person rather than Salva Kirr and invisible Judas James Gathoth Mai.

I cannot believe that people forget the facts, shut their eye and even contradict themselves. Current Army Chief of Staff, Paul Malong, like majority of Dinkas, killed Nuer with guarantee from Chief of Staff Judas Iscariot James Gathoth that there is no Nuer threat.

Dinka are free to kill. Malong Awan did contribute with recruitment and selection of Dutku Bany and Gwelweng (Special Dinka presidential force). With instruction of invisible Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai Nguth. This is cunning way to detached people’s is attention from present danger.

I am sorry to say the least but the plan worked, many innocent lives are lost because Nuer in particular anticipating the general chief of staff, a Nuer by birth, Judas Iscariot by alienation, will protect their innocent children from Dut-ku Bany and Guelweng.

Nuer always mentioned the conjunction word “if” (Dung MI, LAMI, and Kami) regardless of all the warning signs, Nuer forgot to say if. If they did the result could have been different. Many lives could have been saved from massacre.

If Nuer profiled Judas Iscariot James Gathoth Mai’s background from the time where the devil James started his military career, they should have seen too many red-flags, this is a general who spent all his military life independently killing and fighting with Nuer.

Nuer are blinded by the love of a country called South Sudan. They are hopeful the past is forgotten and life will continue.

That’s until when war broke out within the presidential guards, when invisible Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai, used his constitutional power of chief of general staff to protect the Dinka presidential Guard against their Nuer colleague.

This is Judas’s response to a flashback that resulted from his discrimination and violent crime against Nuer people, this is a general who is in delusion and paranoid in fighting with Nuer resistant movement known as the separatists, or Anyanya II, abbreviated as (A.2).

The simple question is, if Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai is able to protect a well equipped Salva Kirr’s Dinkas presidential Guards from their Nuer colleagues, why? And only why he never tried to stop genocides against Nuer innocent women and children from Dutku-Beny and Guelweng?

This must be a trillion dollar question. The answered is obvious, Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai and his boss (Banydit) Salva Kirr Mayardit previous blueprint, the heinous crime against Nuer people.

To South Sudanese the truth is Judas Iscariot, James Gathoth Mai’s involvement in crimes, made the entire Nuer community left with nothing but the feeling of victimization, vulnerability, fearfulness, isolation and unprotected by the law.

In the history of Nuer tribes anything that threatened the lives of Nuer women and children always leads to war-cry. The technical term in Nuer is (Wiwi) when Nuer heard the messengers of war cry there is no question asked.

It is a message that tells Nuer women and children their lives are in real danger. Thank God the four sons of Denah namely Yien, Dak, Baal, and Bany heard the war cries and answered the call according to the threats.

And they will always be the first responders to anything that threatened Nuer Homeland, whether the threats arise from Sky, Land or River, DENAI SON of Geah, and Gaawar son of Kar or Jakar will always be the first defence for the Nuer Homeland and her people’s dignity.

Judas, that is the message.

For question, concerned or comment please dropped me a line at stephenpajok@yahoo.com

Stephen Pajok Kong Kulang

Both SPLMs irresponsibility & betrayal at Addis Talks

EDITORIAL ANALYSIS, OCT/01/2014, SSN;

Clearly, whilst millions of South Sudanese citizens are perpetually and painfully languishing in despair, hunger and insecurity, the so-called stake-holders at the prolonged so-called ‘peace talks’ in Addis Ababa are engaging in endless theatrics of irresponsibility, duplicity and self-preservation.

In the latest developments, both Kiir’s government delegation and Machar’s rebels have each proposed two diametrically unworkable and inapplicable modalities of ‘Federalism,’ that’s governance by federal system.

In the first instance, Kiir government’s proposal of the Kenya’s defunct 2007 power-sharing modality between the majority Kikuyu tribal clique of President Mwai Kibaki and the second largest Luo tribe of his political rival Raila Odinga, can’t even be qualified as ‘federalism’ and as such is utterly inconceivable in the context of South Sudan.

In the aftermath of the bitterly disputed presidential elections in which thousands of citizens were needlessly butchered, the Kenyans were forced into power-sharing arrangement which was to placate and accommodate the two majority tribes as a way to achieve some healing and reconciliation among them.

The messy arrangement created the positions of the president, two vice-presidents, the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers.

However, even though the prime minister had the authority to coordinate and supervise the execution of functions and affairs of the government of Kenya, he was obviously eclipsed by the more powerful executive president and his two vices.

In the end, the system was a total disaster, the Kikuyus emerged as expected the ever dominant ruling tribe till today and the Luo, unfortunately, remained forever marginalized and circumscribed from central political power.

Therefore, in our current context, this system is a dead end. Kiir’s support for such a proposal is to perpetually entrench Jieng hegemony and cynically ensure Naath (Nuer) political marginalization akin to their Kenyan Luo cousins!

Machar’s proposal of the Ethiopian federal parliamentary republic system is again a non-starter in the context of the peculiarities and particularities of South Sudan tribal dominance politics.

Ethiopia, with a population of 100 million (2015 prediction), and a longer history of atrocious and deadly rivalries between several much larger ethnic groups, has structured a political system based on 9 ethnically-based administrative areas in addition to the two self-governing Capital City of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.

Furthermore, the Ethiopian president is a figure head though elected by the House of Peoples representatives for a six-year term, whereas, the Prime Minister is the head of government with executive power and a parliament with the legislative powers.

The prime minister obviously comes from the party with the majority following the legislative elections.

All in all, the Ethiopian modality of governance is completely premised on their bitter experiences of the long history of ethnic antagonisms and diversity, but more importantly, on the long imperial rule by the Amharic emperors and the military rule of Mengistu which fatally exacerbated the conflagration of ethnic wars.

Seriously, in contextualizing our current predicament, what we, South Sudanese, are looking forward to is a political system that is not monopolized by either the Dinka or Nuer, and that political modality must be based on equality and justice for all.

Therefore, what those of Kiir and Machar representatives are deliberating in Addis is a concoction of a corrupted modality of ‘Federalism’ that will best satisfy only their separate tribal imperial ambitions of domination and power greediness.

It’s even more mind-boggling to learn that the All-SPLM delegates have worked out a system whereby one person from each of these three All-SPLM groups now assumes the chairmanship of the sessions on daily basis.

They are all clones of that most corrupted system that led our new nation to bleed so badly in this current All-SPLM exacerbated power and ethnic war. Why the hell did they fight against one another in the first place on that fateful day of December 15th, 2013?

Since already proven above that neither the Ethiopian nor the Kenyan modality of ‘federalism’ is acceptable to either groups, why not look further into the more civilized Western world like America, Germany and Canada, for better modalities?

Basically, our primary problem in the ‘new’ South Sudan is the SPLM/A, which has proven itself since coming to power in 2005 as the most FAILED POLITICAL ORGANIZATION ever seen in Africa, with the worst and incompetent so-called ‘leaders,’ with the worst ‘POLITICAL SYSTEM,’ and the most hopeless and sycophantic ‘FOLLOWERS AND SUPPORTERS’ of that failed system and its leader.

Be it inept president Kiir or rebel Machar, and all the G-11s and the Lam Akol’s, all are morbidly tainted and corrupted with that failed SPLM/A contagion, including the uncouth, uneducated SPLA military generals, who remorselessly kill each other and yet the next day, have the temerity to hug each other as if the dead they just murdered were just some dead cows!

These SPLM/A adherents, who within the shortest time in history unimaginable, have utterly devastated the soul of the nation, as evidenced by their shameless prostration and pretence at the Addis talks.

Whilst they are being so graciously and luxuriously supplicated by IGAD, the real South Sudanese on the ground are needlessly being tortured, bullied and eviscerated by their undisciplined military foot soldiers down across the nation.

Since coming to power, the SPLM/A monstrosity of so-called leadership in collusion with foreign interests, robbed all the rich resources our nation is endowed with and then built a violent and extractive political order which has subsequently led to the current crisis.

To conclude, what is advisedly prudent for those in the All-SPLM talks in Addis Ababa is to draft a new political modality based on federalism that is fair, workable and acceptable to all sections of the country and its various nationalities.

Advisedly, the federalism proposed by the Equatorians, which can be further improved upon, looks more truly accommodating to all the various ethnic and sectarian interests across the country, except that a new clause be included that leaves room for any community to opt out or into the proposed ‘states.’

As regards to the national or central authority, there will be a national head of state with limited powers, and perhaps with that post being rotated among the various states or nationalities.

Finally, instead of solely relying and depending on those dead-brained and soul-less SPLM/A delegates now faking as unrepentant peace-brokers, we should seek better learned legal and constitutional brains from the real civilized world to help in drafting the new political modality being proposed at Addis.

Surely, an ALL-SPLM monstrosity that’s truly ‘TOO DEFORMED TO BE REFORMED’ can’t be solely relied upon to draft any document that’s most certainly bound to fail, disappoint and to let us down again.

Spare us from further humiliation & put the damn expat expulsion circular on the shelf

BY: AGOK TAKPING, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, SEP/25/2014, SSN;

The minister of labour Mr Ngor Kolong Ngor in the government of South Sudan issued a circular last week demanding that NGOs and other private businesses in the country must expel those expatriates who are doing jobs that can easily be done by the host country’S nationals (HCNs) by 15 October 2014 and fill those vacant positions with South Sudanese nationals.

This sparked an overly malicious outcry from our neighbours particularly Kenyans and Ugandans with some media outlets in those countries going as far as calling South Sudan a “kid who doesn’t know how to appreciate” and or a “person who bites the hand that feed him.”

In addition, some individuals in social media from the aforementioned countries called South Sudanese as primitives and monkeys.

However, by looking at the current Kenyan president, his vice president and two former presidents and not to mention the influential opposition leader, Mr Raila Odinga, I see myself (black South Sudanese) not so different from Kenyans in term of colour. Thus the monkey-like insult is simply misplaced and phony.

Calling us “people who don’t appreciate” is also hypocritical, because if I sit down and try to reflect on what Kenyan people have done to South Sudanese during our 21 years civil war, I will not come up with a single good experience.

Kenyans have never been hospitable to South Sudanese despite the fact that the exponential growth of their economy in the last decade or so can be directly or indirectly attributed to South Sudanese.

In 1990’s UNHCR opened up a refugee camp in the middle of the most inhospitable part of Kenya (Kakuma) for South Sudanese refugees. Kakuma became the largest refugee camp in the world which created thousands of jobs for Kenyans.

The same UN turned Lokichoggio (a remote town in northern Kenya) into a coordination centre for South Sudan relief. Again thousands of Kenyans were employed, many small businesses including brothels were booming and Lokichoggio became a thriving major economic centre in Turkana district overtaking Lodwar.

Furthermore other better-off South Sudanese flocked to “down country” including Nairobi, Eldoret, Kitale…etc. and rented thousands of houses, they also took their kids to schools and paid schools fees.

Nevertheless, without appreciating the fortune which South Sudanese brought to Kenya, South Sudanese were openly subjected to some despicable harassments and police brutality.

For South Sudanese, walking down on a street in Nairobi became a warrant for a kidnap-like arrest and to be released one must pay ransom/bribe to the police, it became a way of life for South Sudanese living in Kenya.

It was only after the signing of the CPA in 2005 when Kenyans began to treat us like brothers and sisters. The change of behaviour came about because Kenyans saw the opportunity to exploit South Sudanese, it works.

The exodus to South Sudan has begun, vendors, “professionals” with faked certificates, thieves, prostitutes, you name it, flocked to South Sudan in search for wealth. You could hear them saying, “look at these stupid South Sudanese, we are sucking them up, kabitha, and they don’t see it,” “Hahah” and they laughed.

But can we blame them? We led ourselves down in the last nine years of combined autonomy and independence.

Had we built at least three major cross-country highways, had we built at least one major dam for both water and electricity, had we upgraded at least two major universities to the level of modern universities, had we at least laid down a foundation for modern farming, had we at least built one major food processing centre.

More importantly, if we had been loving and treating ourselves with respect, Kenyans would have at least showed us some respect.

However, at the moment they don’t see themselves in equal terms with us, our government may think there exists bilateral relation between Kenya and South Sudan based on mutual respect but in real sense there is nothing like that.

Kenyans know whatever we import from them including goods, health, education, and holidays is a result of desperation and not that we prefer them over other countries. This perception will continue until the time they see us producing 50% of the things we normally import.

We must, however, give credit where it is due, Ugandans were the only people who treated us with respect when we had nothing. No one was ever arrested on the street in Kampala because he/she was a South Sudanese, we were given the same right that Ugandan citizens have.

Therefore, they are the only people who have a very right to get angry with us if they feel they are being targeted or mistreated in South Sudan.

Back to the circular, the intention of the minister of labour was good, South Sudanese are loitering in Juba doing nothing while all the jobs are taken up by the foreigners.

No government in any country in any continent that would tolerate what is happening in South Sudan where the percentage of expatriates in the entire workforce is higher than that of the HCNs.

However as usual, the minister of labour like many of his colleagues in ROSS just woke up in the morning and begun issuing the circular without thinking it through. The circular was poorly planned and badly written which subjected it to multiple interpretations, assumptions and misconceptions.

Firstly, jobs that the minister would want to be reserved or vacated for South Sudanese should have been precisely defined. The continuous attempt by the foreign minister to clarify the circular make it even more confusing.

For example, the foreign minister in his effort to clarify the circular explained that “by executive directors, we mean executive secretaries and secretaries, and by public relations positions, the circular meant receptionists and other front desk workers, as well as protocol officers” (www.sudantribune.com).

This is embarrassing, where on earth can EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR mean EXECUTIVE SECRETARY? Yes English language is not our language and nobody expects us to speak it like the English people do but in writing, the errors we are expected to make would be grammatical but not writing different words with entirely different meanings and expect people to know what you mean which is totally different.

Executive director is the very top person who is responsible for steering the company, he/she is the one who makes decisions. Executive Secretary on the other hand is a person who keep the executive director’s briefcase (office manager).

Mixing or confusing the two positions indicates the lack of deliberation on the circular and that should be enough to discontinue it.

Secondly, the circular should have never been retrospective, that is, it needs not to apply to those foreigners who are already employed. The process of employing a new employee and training him/her takes a minimum of six months before he/she can do the job independently with confidence.

Thus giving businesses and NGOs one month to terminate their existing workers and hire new workers is dreadful. It will send a very bad message to businesses and that can simply scare away potential businesses from investing in South Sudan.

If the labour minister and the government led by president Kiir is genuinely caring about the rampant unemployment among South Sudanese and they want to tackle it retrospectively, here is what needs to happen:

— the government needs to introduce graduate program. To eliminate the chronic nepotism, the government can hire internationally renowned companies like Deloitte which is already in Juba to run the graduate program; or if the money is an issue, they can also ask UN or its affiliate like USAID to help in running the graduate program.

— The government will need to enter an agreement with all NGOs and private businesses in regard to how the graduate will be employed. In the agreement, businesses and NGOs will have to give the government the list of the positions which are currently occupied by expatriates’ employees, the government will then take the list to the graduate program coordinator.

— The graduate program coordinator who must not be South Sudanese will then advertise the positions and conduct all the employment process. The only graduate needed to apply will be South Sudanese, both at home and in diaspora.

— These graduates will then be taken by NGOs and private businesses and assigned the very person (expatriate) who is holding the position to train and make the transition as smooth as possible. This apprenticeship like training will need to continue for one year and after that the expatriate will need to be redundant and get his/her payout.

— While in training with the business or NGO, the government needs to pay this graduate for one year until he/she takes over from the expatriate. Businesses or NGOs must not be compelled to pay the wages of South Sudanese graduates while in training because the whole thing is not their initiative.

— To prevent private businesses and NGOs from exploiting such a system, any position that has become vacant must be advertised separately, it needs not be included into graduate program although it must as well be given to South Sudanese nationals.

— The aim of the graduate program would be to find competent South Sudanese who would replace expatriates in private businesses and NGOs, it would continue until there are no more expatriates holding common positions (positions other executive director) in those private businesses and NGOs which are operating in South Sudan.

— As with other expatriates who are holding nonprofessional positions, the government can just sit back and wait for each one of those expatriates to have his/her work permit expire and then refuse to renew it again.

Disclaimer: views expressed in this article are the opinions of the author. Agok Takpiny is a concerned South Sudanese in Melbourne Australia. He can be reached on agoktakpiny@ymail.com

Targeting of Ma’di business & community leaders by Dinka security: Where’s Minister Obutu Mamur?

From: David Aju Kanyara, JUBA, SEP/24/2014, SSN;

As the war enters its tenth month, South Sudanese undercover security dogs have caused significant miseries to the ordinary law abiding citizens of this great nation from North to South and from west to east. In the Ma’di corridor, this had started even before the outbreak of the Juba Massacre, Our Head Chief in Nimule was gunned down and as is the hallmark of the Juba government, this was a blackmail, they then twisted the stories leading to humiliating, jailing and torturing of our leaders including the supreme leader of the Ma’di people.

The horror has now returned in full swing hanging over the Madi people. The lawless security apparatus have now intensified their unlawful targeted arrests of Ma’di young people, men in general and business community in particular.

I wish to bring to the attention of the South Sudanese people, the number of our community members disappearing is alarming, this includes members of the business community, opinion and community leaders.

Many of the Ma’di business community in particular have been targeted, tortured, arrested, bullied, intimidated by Kiir security dogs operating in the peaceful Ma’diland where there are no rebel activities reported.

Since the beginning of August till September 12 -2014, there have been more than 7 high profile arrests of Ma’di businessmen, some have been detained in secret security locations for unknown reasons, families have not been informed neither are they given explanations.

Others have been snatched in bright daylight from their homes, taken to unknown location, interrogated by security forces for reasons never revealed to them, while others were harassed, beaten and made to pay high ransoms for their freedoms.

This is happening while the local offices of chiefs were not notified; some were hunted on their ways from their business locations back to their residential areas. The most recent alarming case has set the community in high alert and anger and since then no government representative nor the police in the areas came to inform the family about the disappearance of a prominent business man by name Bosco Wayi who has residence both in Nimule, Loa, and has businesses in Nimule and Elegu.

On Friday the 12th September 2014, in early evening, Mr Bosco Wayi, a well-known, respected Ma’di businessman since 1980’s and a law abiding citizen, who never hold any grudge with anyone nor with the security officers in the areas, was returning from Nimule where his main business is based, and while passing the Aswa River, a journey he repeated every morning and every evening for the last 7 years or so without having problems with traffic police.

On 12 September after passing the traffic police at Aswa river station as usual, this time it was reported that he was followed by men who according to eye witnesses dressed in traffic police uniforms.

The men in traffic police uniforms according to eyewitnesses followed Bosco Wayi up to Orobe village a distant of about 4 kilometer from Aswa River police station. The eyes witnesses have reported seeing the men in traffic police uniform stopping Bosco, and proceeded to beat him until he was unconscious.

They threw him and his motor bike into a white Toyota Pickup which arrived at the scene 15 minutes after the men in white police traffic uniform had stopped Mr. Bosco. After bundling him into the pickup they then headed back to the direction of Nimule.

The men in white traffic police uniforms were heard by the eye witnesses speaking in both Dinka and Arabic.

A woman who was passing by, coming from fetching water from nearby borehole heard Bosco crying in Ma’di “why are you killing me?” and “what have I done wrong to be tortured?”

According the woman who doesn’t want her name to be made public due to fear of repression, she said Bosco did not resist but he was pleading to be brought to Loa chief if there is anything he did wrong, but after the men in uniforms had cocked their guns and pointed it to Bosco’s head.

The cry subsided and at that point she said she too ran quickly to avoid being noticed and beaten by the men.

Since 12 September an attempt to look for Bosco through the public police office in Nimule did not yield any result, as the police there said they have no record nor a name of such individual in their custody.

This raised severe concerns about the security detention center where Bosco could be kept, and the question that begged to be answered is why traffic police are arresting and torturing people? Why traffic police are arresting someone passing the same route without breaking traffic law?

Since 12 September the people of the area and specially the family members of Bosco and his business associates are living in fear and they are worried that something bad has happened to their son, since the police in Nimule denied that Mr. Bosco Wayi has been brought to their custody, and they couldn’t confirm anyone arrested by their police on Nimule–Loa road.

The fact that these arbitrary arrests and tortures are happening exactly one year after the paramount chief of Nimule was gunned down cold blooded that fateful night of 8 September, whose death was blamed on Ma’di community elders by both governments in Juba and Torit, and since then innocent Ma’di Supreme leader, the ‘Lopirigo” Yaba Ret Ambassador Vugo and his deputy Lagu Jabakana and many other community leaders were falsely blackmailed by Juba Security with the help of Dr Anna Itto Leonardo and Amb. John Andruga Duku.

After months of nightmares in Torit prison the leaders were one by one released without any charges and there were no compensation by the government for the tortures inflicted on them by the prison ward while in Torit in particular. This was done to humiliate the Madi leaders to passiveness and their goal has been achieved!

The fact that this unlawful and targeted arrests are happening again, coinciding with the event of killing of late chief has raised serious concerns and furor, and perhaps the hard question that needs to be answered is what does the government gain by torturing Ma’di people who so far have been peaceful and have accommodated the Dinka internally displaced persons without violence despite the constant humiliations of the Madi people by the Dinkas in our ancestral land?

What is the objective of this Dinka led government towards the existence of minority tribes in South Sudan, but the Ma’di people in particular? Could it be that they are preparing another blackmailing in order to jail more of our people as they did last year, could it be they are provoking the Madi people to anger so as to give the Dinkas the excuse to massacre the Madi people as they massacred the Nuer in Juba?

We want our fellow countrymen to be informed about this evil the Dinkas are doing and planning in the Madi land.

Until the security officers who snatched Bosco on his motor bike brings him back unhurt and alive, we the Ma’di community will hold the Commander in Chief accountable for his indifference to the suffering of the Madi people who unanimously voted for him during 2010 presidential election.

President kiir is deaf and blind when it comes to Madi issues, hundreds of letters were sent to his office in regards to IDP roaming with their animals and AK47s in agricultural lands and in market places in Nimule, from the day the late Chief Ajugo was killed, to the forceful imposition of Nimule Town council designed to license and legitimize his Dinka cattle kraal to illegally remain in Nimule now 9 years after CPA and three year after south Sudan gained its independence.

Until now several people have been tortured and Bosco Wayi snatched on his motorbike by none other than Dinka security operatives in Nimule, while they, these Dinkas are unable to control insecurity in Warrap, Lakes state and the violent states of Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile.

Why are they importing their insecurity in all parts of South Sudan?

These abusive security personnel in Nimule and other Ma’di areas being paid by public money, have also targeted the people who contributed money to help the widow and the children of late chief Ajugo.

The question is why the government is targeting the individuals for helping a widow, while the government should have been the one looking after the family of the late because he was killed while on duty for this government.

Doesn’t this make it plain that the government was the one that gunned down late Ajugo for renouncing the bloody dirty game created by then deputy interior Minister Salva Matok?

We the community want to summon all the Ma’di politicians, Ma’di MPs both from Torit and Juba to press the security personnel and minister for the security of our people and all those that have disappeared.

We ask Mr. Obote Mamur to find out why the Dinka Security men grabbed Bosco and his whereabouts? What happened to him and others like him? Who ordered his arrest? What kinds of charges are brought against him… etc?

Until these are done in a constitutional manner, we will hold the police traffic at Aswa River station accountable, we will not cease until justice is done and Bosco is given back to us in healthy condition and we want the government to guarantee his security after his return.

Furthermore, we want anyone who is found guilty of carrying out these unlawful targeted arrests, tortures and intimidation on high profile Ma’di businessmen should be brought to face justice, and the government to stop repressions going on in Ma’di corridor against our business community and opinion leaders across the Ma’di land.

The Voice for the voiceless
David Aju Kanyara,
Juba, South Sudan

Threat by Juba to expel foreign workers may be myopic, but isn’t surprising

By DANIEL K. KALINAKI, Daily Nation, SEPT/19/2014, SSN;

The threat by the Government of South Sudan to expel foreign workers is disappointing but not surprising.

Not surprising, because this is the third time in three years that authorities in Juba are threatening to expel expatriates. Although the government appears to have pulled back on its threat, who is to say when the next such edict will be issued?

Disappointing, because it is a dark reminder of how far GOSS has to go to learn the art of statecraft, and how vulnerable the process of nation-building in the country remains to populist politics and tunnel vision.

We can only assume that GOSS wants the best for its people. One can understand the frustration of fighting for independence for almost three decades only for it to arrive without jobs or basic services like health and education for the citizens.

It is a problem most newly-independent states encounter, and one that many in Africa continue to struggle with 50 years later. It appears that South Sudan is tempted to follow the disastrous route of Idi Amin in Uganda where, in trying to redress the genuine economic imbalance, the military regime destroyed the economy in a maddening stampede of xenophobia.

For all its imperfections, the Black Economic Empowerment programme in South Africa offers a better model for South Sudan to emulate. For it to work, however, the rulers of South Sudan are going to have to do something they haven’t done in many years – lead their people and invest in them.

When autonomy, and later independence, came to South Sudan, the leaders of SPLA/M had so much goodwill from the rest of the world and enough examples of countries in Africa whose paths to steer clear of, with their thorny bushes of tribalism, corruption, nepotism, greed and impunity.

Yet far from charting a new course, independence and the new streams of money brought a frenzy of consumption as generals locked horns with generals at the feeding trough, grabbing as much as they could so that they could buy houses in Nairobi and Kampala and take holidays in Dubai.

Corruption is inherently inefficient and before long, the contest between those who were eating and those who wanted a turn at the trough had forced a contest within the SPLA/M that broke out into civil war last December.

POWER SHARING AGREEMENT

To lead the people it rules, GOSS has to first deal with its structural problems. First, it must demilitarise the fight within the SPLA/M by fully implementing the cessation of hostilities agreement and instituting a power-sharing agreement to bring the warring parties back under one tent.

GOSS must then deal with the corruption and impunity among its senior political and military ranks that is undermining, not just its unity, but also its ability to deliver basic services to its citizens.

South Sudan’s per capita income of $1,800 hides a few hard truths: one in two people live on less than a dollar a day; half the population is malnourished; and the country is the second most-dangerous place for women to have babies.

It is all very well to ask companies to employ local staff. Even the most hard-nosed businessman will tell you its benefits; local staff are cheaper and bring valuable local knowledge.

However, this can’t happen overnight. Many young South Sudanese are frustrated at the lack of opportunity, and rightly so, but most of them do not have any skills or formal education thanks to the legacy of war. This is a country where three out of four people can’t read or write.

These angry young men need skills and training for which more investment must be made in education and apprenticeships.

Yet in its budget for last year – before the fighting broke out – GOSS planned to spend 57 per cent on security and less than one per cent on agriculture and job-creation. GOSS did not build a single school using its own money in the first two years of independence, critics allege.

South Sudan needs investment, skills, and support from the rest of the world, not populist politics and dangerous xenophobia. Those in power should know this, seeing as the country is precariously held together by Ugandan troops.

In Summary
To lead the people it rules, GOSS has to first deal with its structural problems. First, it must demilitarise the fight within the SPLA/M by fully implementing the cessation of hostilities agreement and instituting a power-sharing agreement to bring the warring parties back under one tent.
Yet far from charting a new course, independence and the new streams of money brought a frenzy of consumption as generals locked horns with generals at the feeding trough, grabbing as much as they could so that they could buy houses in Nairobi and Kampala and take holidays in Dubai.
For all its imperfections, the Black Economic Empowerment programme in South Africa offers a better model for South Sudan to emulate. For it to work, however, the rulers of South Sudan are going to have to do something they haven’t done in many years – lead their people and invest in them.

Mr Kalinaki is managing editor for regional content at Nation Media Group.
Twitter: @kalinaki

SPLM former political detainees & Civil Society shouldn’t be in Transitional Govt of Nat. Unity

BY: Juma Mabor Marial, JUBA, SEPT/15/2014, SSN;

As peace talks in Addis Ababa resumes today Monday, September 15, 2013, the attention will be drawn to transitional arrangement with formation of the transitional government of national unity topping the agenda.

As already is the case, the IGAD intention is to form an all-inclusive and a broad-based government that would include the two warring parties, other political parties, other stakeholders and of course, the SPLM Leaders Former Political Detainees (LFPD).

The intention here is to ensure that inclusivity, meaning collective involvement and responsibility by all the south Sudanese stakeholders to implement the reform agenda that would be framed in order to circumvent future crisis.

Now here comes the question of eligibility of who and who is not suitable to participate in the transitional government of national unity (TGONU)?

For me, the intention of IGAD to include all the stakeholders in the TGONU arrangement is a brilliant and comfortable idea because, national affairs have to be collectively addressed with stewardship of all members of the society.

It is because of this reason that I am buying the idea of all, except SPLM Leaders former political detainees and members of the Civil Society participating in the transitional government of national unity (TGONU).

I have therefore in my opinion, accepted that, both the warring parties i.e. the government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) and SPLM/A in the opposition (SPLM-IO) must participate in the government of national unity on equal percentage no matter how small; the political parties must also participate in the TGONU, the youth, disabled and women must be represented in the TGONU.

But the SPLM leaders former political detainees and the members of the civil society should not participate in the transitional government of national unity, why?

Here comes the reason, one, I object to the participation of the SPLM former detainees in the TGONU because of the personal analysis of the status of these so-called former political detainees and my case against these guys is comprehensive.

However if I were to give lengthy details about the short comings of each one of them, some of them would take it personal and I wouldn’t want national issues to take that trend as my intention has always been to contribute to the welfare of this country without any baggage of personal grudge.

That said, the reasons why I wouldn’t want the former political detainees to participate in the forthcoming government are simple:

First, these people are of course veteran soldiers turned politicians and their contribution have made great positive impacts in this country including the achievement of independence, they are as well the contemporary politicians that this country has and their participation in the country’s affairs cannot be easily downgraded.

It is by virtue of their contribution to the freedom struggle that successively enabled them to form part of the government both in the government of national unity in Khartoum and government of southern Sudan since the inception of the comprehensive peace agreement in 2005.

But it is also because of their consistent salvage in the government that has enabled them show their true colours to the people of south Sudan by looting the meager resources from the people of south Sudan and establishing their empires here and abroad.

The former detainees, if I am not wrong and with the exception of the one former governor that is with them, were among the 75 government officials that were alleged to have squandered 400 million dollars from the citizens of south Sudan.

Other corruption scandals like the most recent Fire Safe Scandal were perpetuated by and had benefited some with them now, the cases of corruption are just a tip of an iceberg.

The other case I have against these former political detainees is their role in the on-going crisis, when they were arrested here in Juba and some of them charged with treason.

The sentiments in the streets of Juba as to their fate varied from one group of citizens to another, some said they were guilty as charged, others said they were innocent.

Others said they should be killed while others felt they should be castrated for having looted the country and lit the fire to kill the innocent civilians while they had hidden their families far away in foreign countries.

Some of us who went to schools and learnt the rules of analysis said everything should be left to the law to take its own course and we also added personal views that these are our brothers who had sacrificed their lives to bring this country to where it is today.

Therefore, castrating, killing or even convicting them should be replaced with their release and forgiveness, our voices, although in the minority ultimately took precedence over all other wild voices.

But little did we knew that their numbers would turned into a political party (G-11) or famously known now as (SPLM leaders former political detainees).

The now SPLM/A in the opposition plus the members of international community where these guys had connections also gave the government sleepless nights by pressurizing it to release the detainees.

Unlike south Sudanese (some of us) who had wanted these guys released because of their past good deeds, members of the international community who wanted the guys released thought that the arrest was not because of the alleged attempted coup but was entirely an attempt by the government to slab democracy.

Therefore, their detention was a straight forward case of war against democracy in Africa, the SPLM/A in opposition on the other hand were of the view that their comrades were put behind bars by a dictatorial government and considering them heavyweights in their opinion, the detained leaders have to be released as a precondition to start peace talks since their presence on their side would add both national and international backing to their claim.

Although with lesser hope of being good old friends again, the government had also thought that by releasing these guys, it would groove two or even three important points.

One, it would bargain the international community to its side that, yes, I can listen and therefore, I have to be applauded for being a good listener.

Two, I can morsel and therefore, anybody who thinks they can do anything and abscond will not do it unless I have consented, this was particularly to the detainees.

Thirdly, the government had hoped that these guys would be more appreciative and ask the government to allow them back to its side after they have been missed by a whisker.

All these hopes and desires whether from the citizens like us who had thought after their release, the guys would be remorseful to the people of south Sudan and ask for forgiveness and be good boys.

And to the international community which had thought after their release, the boys would be the champions of democracy in the country.

And to the SPLM/A in opposition which had thought the guys would join them and make them strong through their Political constituencies in the country and the international connections or even the government which had thought, the guys would come back and say thank you for forgiving us after the sins we committed against you were all wrong.

Instead, the guys went out and attempted to outsmart the citizens, the international community, the SPLM/A in opposition and the government by declaring themselves a neutral group.

The international community and IGAD bought into their idea because they thought this intention had been made in good faith, but the three groups, us the citizens, the SPLM/A in opposition and the government, felt that this was a first signature in the divorce papers between all of us and the so-called SPLM/A leaders former political detainees.

The reason the three groups accepted to sign these divorce papers is because the political detainees thought they are the only gifted people in this country by first looting the country, agreeing with some in the SPLM/A in opposition to overthrow the government, remain behind after the coup failed and when arrested and released, betrayed their brothers in the opposition, failed to appreciate the government that released them and failed to show-case to the international community that advocated for their release that they are now part of the solution.

They instead put themselves as the “clean people in all the crises that have engulfed the country.”

The intention here as is now realized by all the groups is that these people that have hurt everyone think the leader of the transitional government of national unity should come out of their group.

This is not my own assumption, you would all recall and agree with me that soon after their arrival in Addis Ababa for peace talks, the group convened a press conference and declared their position as being neutral and wanted to be considered as a third block in the talks.

This pronouncement derailed talks for sometimes until their case was resolved and they were accepted as third party to the peace talks.

It is because of their insistence that opened the flood-gates for multi-stakeholders style of the talks as IGAD wanted to provide a win-win situation for all south Sudanese stakeholders.

Secondly, Pagan Amum out of his own desire and volatility came out with a paper that was also published in the public media outlining how he would resolve the crisis between the warring parties.

His intention was quickly interpreted by some of the citizens that responded to his paper as being intended to putting himself as the interim president if and when the TGONU is formed.

Not only these, recently….and this is what has provoked me to share this opinion with the citizens, the SPLM leaders former political detainees published a forty three (43) page position paper, a paper that I named ‘SPLM Leaders Former Political Detainees Manifesto’ outlining or rather copy pasting the transitional constitution and other laws of south Sudan to tell people that whatever they had written is what should be done when and if the transitional government of national unity is formed.

The language used there is a straight forward indicator of the fact that SPLM leaders former political detainees want to head the transitional government of national unity.

Something they seem to express better in forty three (43) page position paper than at the round table at the peace talks in Addis Ababa.

The reason why some of us are convinced they want to lead the transitional government of national unity is that, throughout their statements in their forty three (43) page position paper, they have this common phrase of ‘WE’ will do this and that.

When you put this paper together with that of Pagan Amum and shuttle diplomacy that they are undertaking, then you would immediately know that they are the ones who want to be given the TGONU.

The question then that quickly comes to mind is, where were they for the last 10 years, of course some of them were governors, others prime ministers (cabinet affairs minister), all of them ministers, why didn’t they do all these things they think they can do now?

What will be the magic to bring ‘We will do’, or was their first phase for corruption and establishing dynasties and now if given a second phase, they will do this and that for the people of south Sudan?

I still haven’t gotten better answers for their “We will do” slogan and I need some help in that.

Again, recently when President Kiir and other IGAD head of states signed the protocol on transitional arrangement and Dr. Riek refused to sign the agreement, the group of eleven condemned in the strongest terms possible the unfairness of the protocol and made their grievances similar to those of the SPM/A in opposition.

Again, this takes us back to the drawing board of asking ourselves, if they (SPLM leaders former political detainees) have one reasoning or position with the SPLM/A in opposition, then why are they not joining hands and working together?

The only impression one expected they should have made was to suggest solutions on how the stalemate on the protocol would be resolved instead of repeating the same argument as put forward by the SPLM/A in opposition.

Let’s finalize our argument about these guys later on in the conclusion.

Now why should the civil society not be part of the transitional government of national unity?

Simple again, although I know most of the people see civil society as a gateway to politics, we have to be mindful of the future of this country.

It is not strange that some few self-centered characters started as civil society activists but as soon as they are appointed to political posts, they immediately toss out the advocacy clothes and swear never to represent the voiceless.

However, a border must be drawn here and now, the members of the civil society that are participating in the peace talks in Addis Ababa and those here in the country should not participate in the TGONU.

This is because the TGONU is not going to be business as usual, the politicians will head and manage it, yes, but it also needs a strong, independent and viable civil society to act as watchdog in the implementation of the reform agenda that shall be given to TGONU as a blueprint.

The civil society should be there to correct and supervise those who think looting the resources is what only replaces violence.

They, the civil society, should be there to ensure that the TGONU delivers the basic services that the people of south Sudan have been denied for quite too long.

The civil society should be there to ensure that all south Sudanese have the right to live and enjoy the fruits of independence of this country.

In conclusion, the SPLM leaders Former Political detainees have not captivated anybody with their tricks to come to power through the backdoor.

Yes, their contribution to the freedom of this country is acknowledged, their reigns and political strength are known, their intellectualism and generational ability are also known.

But it is also fresh in everyone’s mind that they have been in the government of this country since its inception, they have also looted enough from the citizens at the expense of development and service delivery;
— they have mismanaged the affairs of this country through omission and/or commission;
— they have not repented and said sorry to the citizens that die because of their political ambitions in this country;
— they have failed to meet the expectations of the SPLM/A in opposition;
— they have disappointed the international community and they have declare useless the government that released them from prison.

Here they are, thinking that they know everything out of all these groups yet they have betrayed everybody that has done everything to ensure their release.

Yes, they are south Sudanese, they are still prominent politicians and they are still connected but no, they cannot be part of the transitional government of national unity because I am afraid, should they be returned to the government, it will be business as usual.

They will go back to their old quarters and do what they are known of doing best. These people should be left like any other ordinary citizen.

Let them go back to their people and ask for a fresh mandate and come elections, they shall have the right to contest and if they win, then, they can come back to politics.

SPLM Leaders Former political detainees were supposed to bring solutions to these crises but did they do that, no!

They are busy scheming on how the mediators and international community should get rid of everybody and make them the caretakers of the transitional government of national unity.

This is why I think their conspiracy has now become crystal clear and therefore, they should not be allowed to be part of the TGONU which is now the only hope for south Sudanese to bring the long awaited and lasting reforms. END

Juma Mabor Marial is a Trainee Advocate in Juba & Reachable at: jummabor@gmail.com