Category: More Views

Will Star Shine for South Sudan? Scrutinising South Sudan’s first post-independence oil deal

GLOBAL WITNESS, 27th October 2014
For immediate release: 27 Oct 2014;

South Sudan’s first post-independence oil deal is high-risk and in urgent need of further scrutiny, according to a new Global Witness report released today. The seven month investigation into the deal between the South Sudanese government and the Spanish-owned oil company Star Petroleum for two of the country’s last remaining oil blocks, uncovered that:

*the company is closely connected to a businessman convicted of a million euro fraud;

*no information about who owns Star Petroleum is available to the public. Instead the company’s shareholders are all other companies registered in tax havens or unknown jurisdictions;

*the company isn’t producing oil anywhere else in the world;

*the deal is being negotiated behind closed doors, and through a loophole in the law, which means that Star has faced no competition from other companies in its negotiations for the concession.

“The block E concession covers 45,000 square km in four states (Northern Bahr el Ghazel, Western Bahr el Ghazel, Lakes and Warrap—- and includes South Darfur in North Sudan)- that’s a lot of ordinary people’s farms and grazing land,” said Emma Vickers, Global Witness’ South Sudan campaigner.

“The government has to prove that this deal will help, not harm, those farmers and cattle herders by being open about who the company is, what kind of a contract they’re giving it, and what kind of rewards citizens can expect. From our research, it’s not clear that doing a deal with this company will benefit ordinary people. Without showing people that it will, the government risks fuelling mistrust among a vulnerable population who have often associated oil with conflict.”

The deal is being done at a time of crisis in South Sudan. The ongoing conflict has sparked a humanitarian calamity and left 1.7 million people displaced.

South Sudan’s oil dependent economy is in trouble: oil production has been halved by the instability and international oil prices have fallen in recent months, depleting government income.

The government has repeatedly stated that it will use oil money to bring development to its people and to broaden the economy away from oil but, this year, a third will be spent on army salaries.

Not only is the company an unknown, and the country is in turmoil, but the benefits of developing South Sudan’s oil industry both to the economy and to ordinary people, have yet to be proven.

“One of the fundamental problems with this deal is that the public know very little about it,” Vickers added. “Politicians have promised their citizens transparency and yet they’re negotiating behind closed doors. It’s time for them to lift the lid on who Star is and why they are negotiating with the company.”

South Sudanese law makers have already gone a long way to making sure this type of information is available to the public by putting strong transparency provisions in their oil laws.

Global Witness’ research has discovered that the Ministry of Petroleum has activated those provisions and asked Star for documentation. Star Petroleum reports that it has provided a list of who the company’s owners are, evidence of its technical expertise, and an assessment of the possible environment impact of oil exploration.

This is a positive step. The government must now take the next step and allow parliamentarians to review the deal and the documentation before it is signed. Star should also make this information publically available and easily accessible. When the contract is agreed, this must be made public too.

Global Witness put its concerns about the company and the deal to Star Petroleum. In its response, the company stated that it is “doing its business in compliance with local and European laws and all business ethical standards with full[y] transparency”.

/ Ends

Contact: Emma Vickers, South Sudan Campaigner +44 (0)7715 076 548 or +44 (0) 207 492 5838 or Sarah Morrison, Senior Communications Advisor +44 (0)207 492 5840.

Notes to editors:

1. Global Witness’ report ‘Will Star Shine for South Sudan?’ is available here.

2. Before publication, Global Witness sent questions to Star Petroleum on 18 September 2014. Star responded to Global Witness on 22 September 2014 in an email the text of which is available here. Global Witness sent Star Petroleum further clarification questions on 2 Oct 2014. Star Petroleum responded in a letter on 3 October 2014 available here.


Dear Mrs. Vickers,

Reference to the publication by Global Witness of the report “Scrutinizing South Sudan’s First Post-Independence Oil Deal”, dated 27th October 2014, STAR PETROLEUM would like to make the following statements:

· Again, we reiterate that we highly appreciate the role of Global Witness and other non-governmental organizations that investigates and campaigns to prevent natural resources-related conflicts and corruption and associated environmental and human rights abuses. We fully share those values.

Since the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan, STAR PETROLEUM, always, has been confident about the future of the country. It has always trusted its Legal System and its Public Administration.

STAR PETROLEUM, since its incorporation in 2005, and since the beginning of its activities in the Republic of Sudan, and after independence, in the new Republic of South Sudan, proved to be a serious and responsible investor, and has fulfilled fully its financial, technical and legal obligations required by laws and regulations. All proofs required by the Government of South Sudan have been already provided. Additionally, it is fair and important to mention that Star Petroleum always believed in the future of the independent Republic of South Sudan. We have been present in the country (first in Khartoum, before the separation, and afterwards in Juba) since 2008, and we have invested during all these years, having local presence and professional team.

ü The following statements of your Report are not correct:

· “The Company is closely connected to a businessman convicted of a million Euro fraud”:

§ Mr. Merino is the beneficial owner of a small minority current participation interest (around 3%) in the Company and was a Director during a short period of time. He presented his voluntary dismissal and now he has no role in any Company activity. According to Court´s public information, presumably committed the illegal conduct in period of time in which he did not have any responsibility in Star Petroleum as Director.

§ The Court accusation against Mr. Merino doesn’t have any relation, directly or indirectly, with Star Petroleum or derived from his position as minority shareholder or former Director.

§ Mr. Merino is not a convicted as the Spanish Court has not still given a definitive resolution.

· “The ultimate ownership of STAR PETROLEUM itself is opaque”.

§ The ownership of STAR PETROLEUM as shown on page 3 of the Report is not correct in 2014.

§ International Public Authorities and STAR PETROLEUM’S Compliance Department are fully aware of the identity of all beneficial shareholders of the Company in compliance with all European Union Directives and especially to 2005/60/CE and 2006/70/CE as well as the GAFI recommendations. STAR PETROLEUM is implementing international global standards against money laundering, corruption and terrorist financing, therefore, increasing transparency and enable STAR PETROLEUM to successfully take action against illicit use of financial or corporative instruments. As per the request of the Government of the Republic of South Sudan, a list of ultimate beneficial shareholders was provided recently to them.

§ Disclosure of beneficial shareholders identity to citizens in a private Company is a matter of confidentiality as such information is irrelevant to them.

· “The deal is being negotiated behind closed doors, and through a loophole in the law, which means that Star Petroleum has faced no competition from other companies in its negotiations for the concession”.

§ STAR PETROLEUM currently has valid legal title of a working interest in Blocks E and B, of the Republic of South Sudan. Block E: STAR PETROLELUM signed a perfectly valid EPSA on the 6th August of 2010 in Khartoum for Block E. This EPSA was agreed fulfilling entirely with the legislation of Sudan and approved at the time by the National Petroleum Commission. Currently STAR PETROLEUM is in negotiations with the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining of the Republic of South Sudan, to adapt the above mentioned EPSA, into the new Republic of South Sudan’s Legislation (Petroleum Act 2012), implying the signature of a new EPSA for Blocks E. Block B: Following that, parties involved are expected to sign a new EPSA for Block B.

§ STAR PETROLEUM participated in a competitive process and we were able to become successful.

§ International prestigious Law Firms have been involved advising during the negotiation process both the Government of South Sudan and STAR PETROLEUM.

· “The company isn´t producing oil anywhere else in the world”.

§ STAR PETROLEUM’s Oil & Gas Management Team is highly qualified and has large experience and track-record in the sector. They lead and participated in all technical, legal and commercial negotiations and meetings with highly qualified teams of Government of Sudan, and the Independent Government of the Republic of South Sudan. The Technical Team of Star Petroleum is particularly strong on the upstream business, in which the great experience accumulated by former senior Repsol’s International and African Oil & Gas executives (including Star Petroleum’s COO, a top executive with 35 years in Repsol, of which 18 years as No. 2 Executive of the Company- Repsol’s Vice Chairman- and Head of E&P).

§ This Team is strengthened with engineers and professionals of other areas of expertise (professionals with expertise in Natural Resources, Consulting, Finance, Equity and Debt Capital Markets). All the CVs and personal data of the Management Team has been fully provided to the Government of the Republic of South Sudan. Star Petroleum´s Technical Team, throughout their professional carriers, has the following aggregated experience in the international up-stream sector:

• Experience in a variety of up-steam environments (including complex on-shore and off-shore blocks and marginal blocks)

• Responsible for more than 1,200 exploration blocks

• Managed Annual Up-Stream exploration budgets of more than $9,000m

• Discovered more than 6bn Boe

• Generating production of more than 1,04m boepd

• Operated in more than 30 different countries (in all continents), among others: Congo Brazzaville; Kazakhstan; Australia; Kurdistan; Colombia; Brazil; Uganda; Tanzania; Argentina; Algeria; Libya; Bolivia; Peru; Venezuela; Trinidad & Tobago; United States; Russia; Canada; and Nicaragua;

§ In addition, we would like to mention:

• STAR PETROLEUM commissioned, to an international consultant, a full study on the environmental impact regarding exploration activities in Block E, and will be executing its activity according to best international practices and the South Sudanese 2012 Petroleum Act in force. STAR PETROLEUM will take full care not to cause any risk to the environment and local communities in the concessions’ areas. The Government of the Republic of South Sudan has a copy of said report.

· Financially STAR PETROLEUM is a solid Company since its incorporation in 2005, having a paid-up share capital of 229,736,784 Euros and is not having any debts with banks or any financial liabilities to third parties. All company’s costs and expenses are self-financed through the bid up capital and shareholders’ loans. Star Petroleum is ready to finance its further investments in the Republic of South Sudan (Capex and Opex) as it has been proved to the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining of the Republic of South Sudan.

Accordingly, STAR PETROLEUM will not accept any accusations based on rumors, jealousy and unfounded facts that may affect the reputation and activities of the company.

The Ministry of Petroleum and Mining of the Republic of South Sudan is copied to prevent any damages that could affect also to the reputation and image of the Ministry of Petroleum and Mining and the Government of the country.

I would appreciate if you could make public this information in order to clarify and make your report more rigorous and professional.

Sincerely yours,

Ignacio Lacasa
Head of Legal & Compliance


application/pdf iconWill star shine for south sudan e.pdf
application/pdf iconGW letter to Star Petroleum 180914.pdf
application/pdf iconResponse from Star Petroleum to Global Witness 220914.pdf
application/pdf iconClarification questions to Star Petroleum 021014.pdf
application/pdf iconStar Petroleum response to GW 231014.pdf
South Sudan and Sudan Oil Gas and Mining Report

Upper Nile diary: Atrocities, federalism & the Shilluk

BY: JAMES COPNALL, AfricanArgumentsEditor, OCT/18/2014, SSN;

Even in a war of rapidly fluctuating military fortunes, Malakal stands out: the capital of Upper Nile state changed hands six times between December and March. And even in a war characterised by massive atrocities, Malakal has been hit particularly hard: the number of civilians killed by both sides may never be known, but it is clear that patients were shot in their hospital beds, among numerous other human rights violations.

Malakal is now a shrunken shadow of its former self, a distressing sight for anyone who knew the town before. Market stalls are shuttered, where the doors haven’t been bashed in, or burnt. Some abandoned residential areas, which bore the brunt of the fighting, are now over-run by foliage, the town returning to the bush; the UN estimates that 22% of the town was destroyed.

Now Malakal is populated mainly by soldiers, with large houses and NGO offices requisitioned for the war effort. Most civilians have fled. More than six months after the government regained control of the town, over 17,000 people still live in the grotesquely swollen UN base a 10 minute drive from the main urban area, coping as best they can with their temporary shelters, the lack of hygiene, and the reality of their newly reduced circumstances.

Some of the displaced cautiously make their way into town during the day, to sell goods in the market, or check on what is left of their houses. Most believe it is still too dangerous to leave the camp.

Those now living in muddy squalor in the UN base are, like the population of Upper Nile state itself, mainly Nuer, Dinka and Shilluk. Their interactions inside and outside the UN base mirror the shifting dynamics of politics in the state.

In the years before independence, there was considerable frustration in the Shilluk kingdom, which borders the White Nile around Malakal. Many complained that their land had been stolen by the Dinka, with the support of the ‘Dinka-dominated’ SPLA. Several Shilluk self-defence groups sprang up.

Tensions increased during the 2010 elections. South Sudan’s major opposition leader, Lam Akol, is a Shilluk, and received considerable support from his home region, increasing the perception within the SPLM/A that the area and its people represented trouble. Shilluk politicians within the SPLM, including Pa’gan Amum, then the Secretary General of the party, lost popularity at home because of their apparent inability to help ‘their’ people in a time of need.

Armed resistance grew. In March 2011, in the run-up to independence, a Shilluk militia leader, Johnson Olony, attacked Malakal town. He eventually joined the South Sudan Democratic Movemement/Army (SSDM/A), a loose coalition of rebel groups backed by Khartoum, and became its leader after the death of George Athor. However, in June 2013, Olony accepted a presidential amnesty, reportedly after receiving an ultimatum from the Shilluk king.

Six months later, South Sudan slid into civil war. As thousands of SPLA soldiers (predominantly Nuer) defected to him, Riek Machar could have been forgiven for hoping for significant reinforcements from among the Shilluk.

They, too, had many grievances with President Salva Kiir’s government. If sizable Shilluk forces, perhaps led by Olony, had turned on the government, Machar’s chances of hanging on to Malakal, and over-running the Paloich oilfields to the north, would have increased considerably. This did not happen.

Shilluk chiefs, elders and others told me that things could have been very different if Machar’s forces had stopped their bloody march at Malakal in the early days of the war. Instead, the rebels attacked several Shilluk villages, on both banks of the White Nile.

“We were surprised when the Nuer came and killed our people,” says Jok Wanh Adiang, a sub-chief in the small town of Wau Shilluk, a 20 minute boat raid north of Malakal, which is now home to thousands of Shilluk displaced. “It’s very bad.” The chief of Wau Shilluk, Obieny Jako Adhok, says that “when the Nuer came, we thought it was to fight Dinka. But when they arrived, they came and killed Shilluk and looted property. So that’s why the Shilluk didn’t join the rebels.”

Instead, Olony’s forces played a major role in the government campaigns to regain control of Malakal. At the otherwise muted Independence Day celebrations in July, Olony, a giant man, received warm cheers. He told the crowds that he had a “doctorate in fighting”, both a boast about his military prowess, and a rebuke to the academically-qualified Shilluk politicians who have not protected and developed the area.

According to the chiefs, Olony is actively recruiting Shilluk into his forces. The men are given ‘the price of soap’, small incentives, rather than a salary. They are seen not as a component of the SPLA, but as a ‘Shilluk self-defence force’, the chiefs say. As elsewhere in South Sudan, the creation of ethnic militias, while an understandable counter-insurgency strategy, is deeply damaging to the cohesion of the nation.

The politicians in Juba and Addis Ababa usually say that ethnicity is not a driving factor in the conflict. Although this may have been true at the very outset, a succession of atrocities targeting one ethnic group or another, in Juba, Bentiu, Bor, Malakal and elsewhere, make it harder and harder to deny that ethnicity is at least part of the equation.

And very often, lower-ranking officials, civilians and traditional authorities identify ethnic animosity or community self-preservation as the key motivation for the fighting.

Some of those tensions are felt inside the UN base. Nuer camp dwellers in general are too scared to go into town, which is controlled by the SPLA and Olony’s forces. They also know they are mistrusted by the other displaced people: “because I am from Nassir, they think I am with the rebels”, says one.

In February, several people were killed as fighting outside the camp brought skirmishes within. Since then, the divisions have largely been kept under control. The end of the rainy season is likely to bring more conflict in Upper Nile state, and may raise the temperature within the camp too.

The fighting has also strengthened the desire of many Shilluk to call for greater autonomy, a wish that, ironically, is also the ideology of the federal system demanded by Riek Machar.

Sitting on a plastic chair outside a makeshift shelter in the UN camp, a social worker and respected elder, Stanislas Obul, tells the story of the Hyena, the Leopard, the Lion and the Snake, who end up killing each other. “These are the animals that cannot live together”, he says, before referring explicitly to the Nuer and the Dinka.

Obul, like the chiefs in Wau Shilluk, and others in Upper Nile state, argues for greater independence for the Shilluk and by extension everyone else in South Sudan – a larger terrain in which the dangerous animals will not have to mingle. This may not happen – and it may not be desirable, given the danger of creating ‘tribal islands’ which would dilute any sense of a strong national identity. But certainties in South Sudan are being swept away by the day.

James Copnall is a journalist and author of ‘A Poisonous Thorn in Our Hearts: Sudan and South Sudan’s Bitter and Incomplete Divorce’. He is editor of ‘Making Sense of the Sudans’.

Cattle camps are far more organized & suitable for living than current Kiir’s Rep. of South Sudan

BY: Chuol C. Puoch, South Sudanese, KAMPALA, OCT/12/2014, SSN;

In spite all the hardships and difficulties that are common in cattle camps, because the objective of moving to those cattle camps is not for making a good life for people, it’s all about grazing the cattle; you must believe me that those cattle camps are, in anyway, better than the current South Sudan in the hands of Salva Kirr Mayardit.

I am very sure, for those of you who may have witnessed or lived the life in cattle camps and especially during the first months of migration, there isn’t doubt that you’ll extraordinarily agree with me. Presence of unusual fattened female mosquitoes carrying malaria in their mouths is rampant; shocking movement of some poisonous snakes and insects is unquestionable, omnivores animal looking for human beings to eat are so much and hungry crocodiles waiting for human with their mouth opened wider; unfriendly grasses and bushes all over, strange sound of wild birds and reptiles is constant, just to mention a few, are all examples of how the life is in cattle camps.

For those of you who never been to cattle camps, I guess with an imagination of all the above mentioned and many more, you will, perhaps, really feel how that life would be. It is with no argument that people live between death and life in those cattle camps.

However, putting in to consideration all the above mentioned difficulties, you would promptly choose to live in cattle camps instead of Juba and other places under the government of Salva Kirr Mayardit.

If you ask me why, I will answer you that I mean it. Juba has turned to a new Sodom and Gomorrah of the 21st Century in the history of the world.

Innocent civilians gets disappeared every single hour, the security organs accuse them of having link with the Country’s rebels, the SPLM/A-in-opposition. It has been understood that there is no prison for those innocently accused civilians as they are taken directly from their houses to mass graves in the outskirts of Juba city.

Women in Juba are silently being raped and threatened to never disclose the fact as they are promised to be slaughtered should they do so. The SPLA-Juba forces are believed to be the mostly involved group in this activity because they say that they have left their wives for the protection and defense of the land and the government under Gen. Salva Kirr Mayardit.

Another thing they (SPLA-Juba) do is a “night robbing operation” in Juba city in the NGOs and private companies’ premises asking for money forcefully; journalists are aware of how they will be tortured and killed should any of them report those acts at night.

The loitering youths and soldiers of Bahr el Gazel who have hugely migrated from their region to Juba are currently involved in a very unhealthy activity: With assistance of language from their brothers in the town, they bring those prostitutes from the market and sleep with them one after the other, where they never pay the lady even at the end.

Do not inquire whether they use condoms or not – No Condoms. All of them, and probably the whole of Bahr el Gazel and South Sudan (God forbid) will be HIV positive. According to them, the tactics of bringing only one lady by one person to be used by all of them is to avoid being recognized by the ladies in the market if all of them could be going at once as they don’t pay the ladies enormously.

As witnessed and confirmed by the United Nations Special Representative of The Secretary General on Sexual Violence in the Post Conflict, Zeinab Banguru, women in the three states of greater Upper Nile are subjected to constant sexual exploitation by the armed men.

A woman never goes to look for firewood and gets back clean and not raped. Most of the time, they never report to the NGOs or UN as the culture advice and influence them not to do so.

In Malakal town, the night is always busy with the few Shilluk/Chollo ladies who insist staying in Malakal town. I was told that they have a timetable of “when-to-who” among the officers of the SPLA forces in the town and only cash and bullet speak.

I didn’t believe it, for God’s sake, that we may succumb to engage our very own people – mothers and sisters – in those unlawful and crazy practices

In Bentiu, the SPLA-Juba troops hide behind the roads and the fence of UNMISS waiting for women who collect firewood and then rape them. It has even let the women stop going out for firewood around the UNMISS base in Bentiu as it’s not only risky, but it also involves some inhumane night mare.

Why putting our Country and its people into these atrocities which they don’t deserve? Don’t we feel ashamed and accountable for all that has happened and happening to them?

Does this government qualify and deserve any support from a sound minded human being, looking at all that they have done?

The Country has become messily disorganized and has lost its suitability for living. South Sudanese are constantly suffering inside and outside the Country in terms of all the basic human needs, but the government of Salva Kirr is putting up closed eyes and deaf ears on that perspective.

The followers of Salva Kirr’s government, and especially the Nuer members, believe that they have defeated their Nuer fellows in politics. They see this era of confusion, atrocities, mismanagement and Bahr el Gazelized system as a source of getting wealth and satisfying their needs.

They have gone as far as bribing people to support the system that kills, a government that humiliates and assassinates its people; A government that has no vision and objectives to the country and its citizen. Why?

You will believe me; it’s now better to live in the EBOLA affected Countries in West Africa than to live in Juba or South Sudan, unless you choose to be part of the system and start your atrocities or support them in assassinating and kidnapping people.

The New Sodom and Gomorrah needs a lot of work to be done to clean it and bring back its value and pride. The atrocities are now being fueled by making them legal through the fake parliament.

The recent security bill that was passed by the less than quarter loyalists and supporters of murder and assassination in the National Parliament is a clear indication that things will certainly even be worse than the Old Sodom and Gomorrah, not to talk of cattle camps.

We will not only hear it this time round, we will strangely see it and feel it unavoidably, believe me.

Chuol C. Puoch is a South Sudanese living in South Sudan; (But currently in Kampala in time of writing this piece) he can be added/follow on Facebook with his name mentioned above, on twitter @ChuolChot and via email: . You can also access and follow his words on

IGAD: Insolent Group Acting on Disintegration (IGAD), Not Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) anymore

BY: Chuol C. Puoch, KAMPALA, UGANDA, OCT/09/2014, SSN;

First and foremost, we would better study the political background and status of the members states owning the organization and more specifically Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan who are currently leading the peace negotiations between the South Sudanese warring parties in Ethiopia. Let’s try and make some highlights on their various political status and background, which perhaps, would qualify or disqualify them to be mediators of any human conflict.

Not everyone can be a mediator and not every Country can mediate between other Countries. It depend on the political honesty and transparency of that state to be able to mediate between others, regardless of whether the conflict is social, economical or political.

By the way, are the IGAD member states transparent and honest to mediate and bring a meaningful and lasting peace to any of their Member State at this time? This question is subjected to individual observation and analysis as we will discuss those IGAD members state in this article.

To be very clear with you, the political transparency of a given state, especially in Africa, depends entirely on the capabilities and transparency of its leaders. It has not much to do with its historical background as most of the African leaders takes the laws into their own hands and can direct the Country toward achieving their personal interest and objectives, and leave behind the Country’s historical status.

For example, If Meles Zenawe (R.I.P) of Ethiopia was a man of democracy, development and nationhood; if he was capable and honest person to solve the internal and regional conflict, the Ethiopian politics and governance had to be rated with transparency and capabilities at that time.

However, the current Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailimariam Desalegn may not exactly be the same as Meles. He may have his own interest, objectives and leadership vision and wisdom. If he is not transparent and capable, the Ethiopian politics and governance could change in a single day period from transparency to some horrible circumstances humiliating the political status and transparency of Ethiopia, which was put in place by the former Prime Minister.

That is exactly the case with IGAD member states; probably, and surely IGAD was founded in the hands of some capable and transparent leaders, but has unfortunately fallen into wrong hands at this time of history and has not only dwindle but has also lost its legitimacy and political character to manage any human conflict in this universe.


In relation to South Sudan, Kenya is one of the Countries that have hosted a huge number of South Sudanese refugees during the struggle for independence till now. The country is currently led by the son of its founder, Uhuru Kenyetta who ascended to power in 2013 after he massacred innocent lives in 2007-2008 election which put the Country to almost a state of failure where citizens were maimed as chickens by none other than himself especially in Nakuru and Naivasha, a person who dreams of leading Kenyans.

Uhuru, after taking up the leadership of the Country, has fully adopted the dictatorial leadership style where most of the Kenyan politicians are his enemies and he owes them nothing other than murder and death; people are living in hiding and dissatisfaction from freedom of expression and freedom of political engagement.

It’s worth mentioning that Uhuru never been an able political figure in Kenyan politics. His interest and hobbies are much more associated with his family business. After losing the election in which he contested for his constituency seat in the national parliament, Uhuru decided to quit politics and run his family’s business. It took President Moi Kibaki some more efforts to bring Uhuru back to politics not knowing that Uhuru would be a threat to the Country’s politics.

Uhuru, as an educated person who grew up in political family and had been dedicated to be a leader in Kenya by his father (Jomo Kenyetta) who is the founder of Kenya and its first president, he sometimes comes out and speaks some words and deliver some empty promises during the day hours, which usually get disappeared at night while torturing and threatening the lives of Kenyan politicians and statesmen.

Uhuru Kenyatta is a fellow counting down his days as the ICC is just at his door. With no doubt, he will be hanged and Kenyans will probably get their freedom back and move their Country forward in peace and harmony.

Can a person awaiting death, in which he doesn’t wish, be able to manage another person’s problem? US, UN, UK and other International Community know that, Uhuru is a man awaiting his death.

What makes them think that he can be a part of a solution to South Sudan conflict? Perhaps, he may only applied some delaying and situation-worsening techniques to get some fellow go to The Hague with him, and especially Salva Kirr who is awaiting a call from The Hague anytime soon.


A country aspiring to annex South Sudan politically and economically; Uganda succeeded in annexing South Sudan economically and still in the process to succeed in the political aspect of its plan. The Country is led by the most well-known dictator, Gen. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni who ascended to power by military means in 1986 after defeating Iddi Amin.

Museveni has been in power for 28 years. Elections have always been taking place but get rigged and Museveni always wins with surprising number of voters. During the election times, he always makes sure that the UPDF is well paid, well deployed and well directed toward achieving the rigging plan.

The rebels of LRA are still in the bush as we speak. Ugandans are people who focus much on making a living rather that dedicating their efforts on shaping a bright future for the people of Ugandan.

That very character has even increased the chances of Yoweri Kagutta to decide the present and future of Uganda in his house at night together with his family. Where in this world can the wife of the president serve as a national minister during the reign of her husband?

Janet Museveni is the minister for Karamoja affairs appointed by her husband Yoweri Kagutta Museveni. Her son Muhoozi Kainerugaba serve as the commander of the Presidential Guard Brigade providing security for his father. That is to say, the country is being run by a family.

Museveni deployed UPDF to South Sudan early 2013 after he managed to influence the South Sudan president to get rid of his potential political rivals, which included the then Vice President of South Sudan.

I don’t even see the reason to why the Ugandans government should participate in the peace process as a member of the mediating team and people expect transparency at the peace process.

Uganda is the leader and masterminding Country of Insolent Group Acting on Disintegration (IGAD). Uganda cannot be an active front line partisan and claims the mediation role of the same conflict, never.


A country left in the hands of a brainless follower of Meles Zenawe. Meles appointed Desalegn because he knew that Desalegn is a submissive fellow who didn’t learn the word NO since he was a child.

He had to act as bodyguard of Zenawe simply because he didn’t have the vision, the wisdom and the capability to lead the people of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Now, Desalegn is acting on his YES behavior toward finding peace in South Sudan based on the decisions and ideas given by Yoweri Kagutta Museveni of Uganda.

Comrade Meles Zenawe couldn’t act like this. He couldn’t accept the massacre of innocent Nuer civilians and reward their killer with continuity in power. God Rest his Soul in Eternal Peace.


After the independence of the South Sudan from Sudan, the two Countries’ relation has been associated with oil and other pending CPA agreement which includes the issue of Abyei. The two Countries have been accusing each other of supporting each country’s rebels militarily.

There are currently so many rebel movements in Sudan in which the SPLAM/A-North is one of the bigger rebel moment in the Country. SPLM/A-N has been a part of the ruling South Sudan party, the SPLM during the struggle and before the independence of the South Sudan. And without any reasonably doubt, the rebel movement in Sudan and the ruling party of South Sudan are comrades.

The South Sudan ruling party, The Sudan People’s Liberation Moment (SPLM) was formed to transform Sudan but the loose end outcome of the moment has favored the independence, but the movement, with its name, remains as Sudanese Liberation Moment despite the fact that the movement is a ruling party of other independence Country, The Republic of South Sudan. Something which the Sudanese government should question and get clarification from the Juba SPLM regime under the leadership of Gen. Salva Kirr Mayardit.

The two Countries (Sudan and South Sudan) are such conflicting countries that cannot necessary be part of each other’s solution to problem. Each of them would support the idea of disintegrating and seeing each other failing.

The Arab Sudanese in the North [Sudan] have been saying that the South could not manage to govern itself; however, in this sense, they would work on anything that makes the South Sudan a failing state to prove their claim – they are almost succeeding. Can such a Country be part of the solution to South Sudan conflict?

In conclusion:-

The world has to understand that a person who supports and favors the conflict is worse and even dangerous than the one who made it. IGAD is not the right body to bring a meaningful and lasting peace to the people of South Sudan; the moment they are given huge amount by the international community, they, instead, pursue their delaying and contradicting tactics of prolonging the peace process while the innocent South Sudanese are hopelessly and helplessly suffering, dying and crying daily.

The international community must and should always try to be fair in supporting people; sometime their support may only fuel and prolong the conflict. Imagine, had it not been their support to IGAD mediators in Ethiopia, the IGAD member states would have quit the mediating role and the following would have happened:

IGAD would have abandoned the mediating roles and leave the South Sudanese solve their conflict alone without fueling it. UPDF would have been forced to leave by other higher institution like AU or UN should they have been allowed to intervene African Union would have not been blocked by IGAD to try and mediate the conflict.

The UN would’ve not only seen the committed human rights atrocities by the parties in the conflict, but also the reasons and secrets of IGAD to use this conflict as a project.

The Peace process would have not taken 9 month to come to an agreement; and South Sudan would have been rewarded with accountability to those who committed some grave atrocities against them and their properties.

Chuol C. Puoch is a South Sudanese living in South Sudan; (But currently in Kampala in time of writing this piece) he can be added/followed on Facebook with his name mentioned above, on twitter @ChuolChot and via email: . You can also access and follow his words on

Michael Makuey Lueth’s uncivilized politics: A setback to achieving peace in South Sudan

BY: Chuol C. Puoch, KAMPALA, UGANDA, OCT/06/2014, SSN;

This may not be the first time South Sudanese get surprised by the political behavior of Michael Makuey Lueth, the information minister and government spokesperson, in South Sudan. His political manifesto is associated with legal speaking style (but purely lying) and as well as military commanding strategy which he added into his lifestyle during the struggle.

I think it’s difficult for Makuey to ever adjust his political behavior that would make him charming and inspiring rather than aggressive and divisive propagandist.

To me, Michael Makuey has lost his status as “Honorable Minister” and has become a “Horror-able Minister”. That is how I can address him. If Makuey Lueth can behave like an angry Lioness at ordinary civilians and the media, how then has he been behaving in peace talks on those he really calls enemy? Someone at the peace talk could accurately tell us about this.

I have come to learn that there is a behavior derived from the politics of Sudan with the Arab and being practiced unknowingly at this time of history in our Country: The Mistrust.

It was very difficult to trust an Arab man and even his words, no matter how sweet and friendly they sound. Our unique belief was that, the Arabs are not our people and we shouldn’t be with them.

That very belief had even increased the portion of mistrust behavior to a total and permanent mistrust on the Arab of the North Sudan and had let us finally to our independence, something we should be proud of as an outcome of our struggle.

However, the negative outcome of that behavior is the fact that it has not been washed away in the heart and attitude of our people and especially, the politicians. Well, you may not cross a muddy environment and expect your feet to be clean after crossing; you have to wash them first after crossing and from there, you will see their cleanliness and free from mud.

If you don’t wash and only continue your journey ahead, it’s obvious that the mud will only dry off on your feet and you will carry it to your final destination. To say the least, you are dirty and people will definitely see you as such. That is what exactly happening to some of us, especially those in politics and governance.

Most of our politicians in The Republic of South Sudan didn’t wash their feet after crossing the muddy environment which took us some 49 years to cross – they are still carrying with them the mistrust behavior on anyone.

You can imagine that the mud was too much, and too long to walk through and it was not only on the feet, but I think it went to neck and head.

One of the most affected fellows by this scenario is Horror-able Michael Makuey Lueth. It’s only in Salva Kirr’s regime to appoint such an anti-civilians person to the most civil engagement ministry, the ministry of information and communication.

It was not even by career because Makuey is a Law graduate and previous judge who has nothing to do with information and communication.

Unverified information has leaked out that Makuey doesn’t pray. The time he prayed the other day was all about asking God to kill for him Taban Deng Gai. A member of his family has revealed as they were chatting in their hotel in Nairobi recently. I believed this information and have rated it with absolute reality based on my observation on Makuey Lueth.

Michael believes that he can and will defeat the SPLM/A-IO in the shortest time possible. He thinks that those in the opposition are his permanent enemies, they can never be one again and he can never and would never trust any of them in times to come.

His wish remains to be the idea of defeating the SPLM-IO and not to negotiate with them and find a peaceful solution to address their differences and bring the lost peace back to the people of South Sudan.

You would believe all those aforementioned once you closely monitor the behavior of Makuey Lueth during the peace talks: When people are likely heading toward peace direction, Makuey adopts the behavior of stupidity and confusion as it’s not his dream and interest.

When people are stuck during the peace process, Makuey adopts the behavior of aggression, total mistrust on those involved in the peace talks and pursues his bloody divisive propaganda.

He sees the moment of constrain in peace process as his opportunity to pursue his dream of defeating the SPLM-IO and not thinking of finding ways and means to bringing peace and stability back to the people of South Sudan.

The recent statements he made in a press conference in Nairobi after the adjournment of peace talks by IGAD mediators is a simple prove to my observation. Honestly, sometimes he speaks statements which I don’t understand!

That behavior of Michael Makuey can absolutely be called “uncivilized politics”. It’s in contradiction to the modern politics of inspiring people. Michael Makuey believes that they (Him and his crooks) are ruling and forcefully controlling us.

But something must be clarified to Michael; we, the South Sudanese, and more specifically the Dinka and the Nuer, can never be ruled or forcefully controlled. We didn’t succumb to a kingdom formation as we value every man to be the same to other men.

We couldn’t manage to live under a kingdom that time and we will never live under it forever. We will never live our life under oppressor, aggressor etc.

We would militarily, politically, socially and diplomatically fight you to your end, and not our end. Think about this in the social and political aspect of it, please.

The SPLM/A–IO has already been established. Its ideologies have been introduced; they are there and will forever be there. If you don’t like federalism, it has already been introduced, accepted and will forever be there.

If you don’t like those politicians in the SPLM-IO, please quit the politics of South Sudan and do not make it tasteless. If you choose to be an anti-civilian person, please quit the politics as well and go home.

This fighting, to be honest, is by South Sudanese, for South Sudanese and with South Sudanese. It will and can be stopped anytime soon but people of your kind will still be pursued by the spirit of dead South Sudanese and will appear at night to them as ghosts and you will feel the pain at last.

You better understand this or otherwise, you have the mandate to bring peace to South Sudanese and should negotiate in good faith before things are out of hands.

You must cease speaking divisive propaganda toward the ordinary civilians; try and adjust your political behavior and pursue the politics of inspiration because you are not a puppet of Salva Kirr; are you?

You are a politician still with potential of saving not only greater Bor as an MP but also as any other public office including the presidency. Are you not capable, Horror-able Makuey?

Chuol C. Puoch is a South Sudanese living in South Sudan; (But currently in Kampala in time of writing this piece) he can be added/follow on Facebook with his name mentioned above, on twitter @ChuolChot and via email: . You can also access and follow his words on

South Sudanese: The time is up for Kiir & his gormandizers

BY: YIEN LAM, South Sudan, OCT/05/2014, SSN;

I may be cynical to title it as such. But it is my own view of the regime and its sympathizers who may cheaply think as such in the problem that killed hundreds of thousands who have no idea about faked coup, and in fact were the folks who voted Kiir into power in 2011. In this regard, I am always irritated when I see Mr. President uses the word “legitimate” in every speech.

This may well sounds right on his lip. But the word has been used wrongly by him if I am not mistaken. I say this because if he thinks as such, why would a president who was elected by his people kill the very folks who were giving him that legitimacy?

Would a president like that deserve to call himself as such? Be judicious if you are sincere and not blindfolded by the blood money of Kiir and his likes.

To me, I discredit his legitimacy. It is so because it does not apply to him as the person as well as the system that he leads. The word “legitimate” come from lawful system which does not apply to kiir’s system of governing.

To be candid about this though, the laws of the country are being owned by him and only him alone. How in the world should he be constantly insisted on the word as such while he already turned blind eyes on the core meaning of it?

This is preposterous and I don’t know if the regime forgot what it was elected for. If we think critically however, does the president have a right to say so? I don’t think so if you are rational as I do.

This does not need prescribable glasses on. It is as purely as it is, and does not need your glasses on unless you are one of the gluttons in the mist. If I were Mr. President, I would have not used the word legitimate brazenly as he usually does because there is no really meaning of it in this context while the givers were victimized by the system that he has been the leader of. As the argument perse, it would be pointless on the eyes of many if not most in South Sudan to say at least.

As the matter of fact, I have seen and heard kiir and his cronies still insisting that the December 15 was the coup that the whole world had denied and still so. What a hell is going on with this regime? Is this regime listening to itself and only itself alone?

Who else does the regime still educate with this widely known issue around the world? People, this is laughable if not impossible to do. In contrary, however, it is good for the world to know exactly how loggerheaded the regime may have been in term of being mendacious on any issue in South Sudan.

This is a very example that will certify the doubters If there are some out there. The issue of coup had been dismissed by international community as well as the military officers with in his government. Beside that, this issue let out the 11 detainees from the juba to Kenya. If that was the case as most knew it, what is being new about it now? Is the regime being rational as other do or what?

In addition, I will not say anything different than saying this: Anyone who is believing in this regime should believe not in it.This regime days are over. Whether you like it or not. Their days, Months and years are numbered if any. The regime may bluff some who are so naive in model world politics. But not many out there. Majority of South Sudanese now understand the genesis of it than before. Now, it is a time for South Sudanese to say no to dictatorship.

Moreover, it may sound decent for the meetings and conferences that may be held on the hotels and halls by Kiir’s cronies. But the time for them is gone. People may do whatever they want to do in the quest to cling on the power. But it is too late to materialize. This will not yield fruits. It will not be as such because people of South Sudan are so sick of this regime and loss trust in it.

If the regime does not deliver the services that the people need, why should people awareness be impaired and accept the kick back for the government that does not even build single school in other part of the country rather than its leader state.

Folks, let us not be deceived by people whose thinking is being impaired by the blood money. Believe me people, South Sudan will not be the same again unless kiir is gone and the route for few who still doing the murky work will be the road of nowhere.

Take my words for real. All of these were Prophecies and proved to be so in the years if not months to come.You hold or toss it, it is a reality. Hanging on with this regime that has no credibility will not only fail you as an individual, it will in fact, affect your children as well.

History does not forget. But can forgive. Takes my words. The things that we are doing now will go on the books in the years to come without a doubt. Now, it is your chance and choice to make for your life and children’s. If you want your children to be known differently, it is not too late to do so. You can do that on their behave. It is absolutely yours. It won’t be late to do such a thing for them and your Country’s future.

In this regard, you may or not believe me on this, the time for the regime is concluded. This will dramatically change. If you still think to use money on the government that is on the life-support than your credibility.

Be it! But I believe your money and your indecency will backfire in some years if not months to come. Drop it or not, that is how it will be for the indecisive people in South Sudan who favorite their pockets than tranquility, peace and harmony of their country’s future.

It is good for the person of his/her character to think as the patriotic in the country we all love. This is the facts. It is not a joke. If you’re still indecisive as such to move before change, change will move you in anyway to be frank with you.

However, gormandizing without watching your back is not only bad habits. It is in fact,a selfishness that has no remedy. Therefore, people as such deserve not to be followed because they like themselves than the country we all dearly love.

People as such are impossible to lead the Country. In this case, however, People must first take a minute or two to think about the root cause of the problem than putting individual interest ahead of the Country’s.

Following the path as the sheep do, does not apply to the model age. It had been left to the Neanderthal and should not be the only way that the country should be ran. This country needs a critical thinkers for its leadership.

To be sincere though, a Country cannot be ruled through remote mentoring and advising of others. Logic must be on the mind of the leader. If the country is ruled as such, the consequences are paramount and we already smelled the wind of it and the people who suffered the most are the innocent.

If that is the case, should we continue to follow that pass? The answer of this question should be no for all sound minded people unless you’re goofy enough to deny the reality in which I doubtably think you should.

In conclusion, kiir and his cronies must go and say no to their evil intention to divide us with our own resources. No matter what they may be thinking of prolong the war,we shall remain as one as we ever been because we know what the regime does to cling on power through filthy game.

If we understand it as we saw the regime’s intention, we therefore, need to standstill as the people of South Sudan that cannot be bought with our own to kill ourselves. We must say no to the blood money that is being used to kill us than uniting us in the common purpose of oneness as the people of South Sudan.

South Sudan is bigger than individual interest and we strongly need to resist those interests and stand firm for the country’s interest than individual one.

The author is a concerned South Sudanese that can be reached @

Weighing & contextualising the change we need in South Sudan politics

By: Marial Mach, A’duot, Melbourne, Australia, OCT/01/2014, SSN;

Any South Sudanese bestowed with conscience and rationale would agree unequivocally with the pervasive charges and claims of failures laid upon the government of republic of South Sudan. Informed by the calamity of wars and the shameful conditions of lives, it is unquestionably true that our government is a complete failure, vested uncharacteristically with mediocrity.

From the myopic understanding and dealing with the public security to non-existence of public services, the scales of what has been achieved since the interim periods to the present is outweighed by what has not been done and government unwillingness to act prudently.

These unfortunate facts are cheaply blamed on socio-political fatigues; a transiting from war to the government and that might have some elements of truth in it, but that must not be used as a perpetual signpost to repute the ineffectuality of the current system in carrying out its duties.

Knowing the scale of destruction we endure as South Sudanese in decades of war, no one would have an illusion that government should fix instantly the mess of five decades, but failure to initiate the work in progress conjures doubts on government’s ability to govern and to deliver.

The scales of government’s failures are evidence through effects of the rampant corruption and insecurity which makes the government not only lacking public-oriented conducts, but also the credentials of modern governments, e.g., higher standards of responsiveness and accountability.

Even before the debacles of the current conflict worsen the living conditions of the people, the state of public security was not close to any sense of security, but cluttered.

Public tranquility and peace was vanquished, savagely attacks by political violence deriving a shambolic state of affair and irresponsibility in Juba that failed to nourish the destitution and ease the tribal confrontations.

Failure to institute credible security, and the rule of law has allowed carnage to reign, and corruption to flourish, given the flaws of authority to assert control and punishment over criminal activities and corruption.

What has become more tragic as the result of such political delinquency is the notion of the people in power becoming more relentless in unleashing self-enrichment that dwelled on government’s ill-practices and incapacity to constrain the behaviours and actions of those officials to conform to the larger collective purposes of the society.

This has been evident in embezzlement reports involving the key government figures. Because of these incidences, it is explicit that government of South Sudan is not meeting its responsibilities. Hence, it has failed and change is inevitable.

However, the difficult question integral to those calls for change is the kind of change we need and how do we intend to achieve that? Many commentators even before the war came up with some good and impossible suggestions.

Among these suggestions are the destruction of SPLM in order rid country from the liberation idealism, others are seeking a democratic solution through a mass rejection of the ruling party at the ballots box and the third phase is a military solution currently pursued by the people that are waging it.

But as far as the current political situation is concerned, none of these aspirations are materialising or a solution and here are the reasons why.

First, the SPLM now in the government will not be destroyed easily, but will continue to exist and even widen its prospect of dominating South Sudanese political scene not because it will assemble the force to protect its forcible reign as it might be perceived, but because the legacy of liberation is fresh in people’s minds and would use that advantage to retain the power.

SPLM, for many generations in South Sudan is viewed as a liberating machine, thus, the immediacy of the struggle and the pride of such assumption is not fading any time soon. This makes the thought of SPLM relinquishing the power, let alone its forcible eviction an illusion at best.

SPLM will remains as a foundational basis for the government for a while, and an inspiration for future generations unless evicted democratically. This assumption is informed by what the SPLM brings into government; the ideals that shaped the struggle.

Even though the entire leadership of the movement and their practices in the government are most antiquated, still the movement can capitalise on any opposition, especially those waging the violence by invoking the pride of liberation they rightly earned.

Their credential of heroism among the public became their greater advantage given the public disapproval of opposite political forces as those who having been handed the independence on a plate.

SPLM in this case has become a trademark in which the aspirants market their political ambitions. To speak political language firmly resonating among South Sudanese, one needs to associate with SPLM and that is why we have seen the rise of few political parties with acronyms such the SPLM-DC, SPLM-in-government, SPLM-in-opposition and the SPLM leaders.

It could be impossible to uphold the destruction of SPLM due to the mindsets, and because of its political message immersed in the legacy of liberation that everybody is seeking to capitalise on it.

However in knowing the public admiration of the SPLM does not in any essence gloss the movement’s failures to live up to the promises of liberation. We all know justice, equality and prosperity which formed the core foundation of the SPLM are not self-executed.

They must be realised by ensuring the public safety and provision of the basic services ordinary people cannot afford to themselves like road, schools, medical care and the clean drinking water.

Without changing the pattern of how the SPLM led government carries out its duties and style of leadership, it would be a matter of time before the hyper of liberation fades. People stranded in poverty caused by the insecurity would likely accuse the movement of having power without exercising responsibility and that might change the political equations and response to the SPLM.

But still I don’t think that can overwhelm the SPLM support base. The change we need must focus on how to ensure the improvement of the system to fulfill the above promise and that must be harmonious changes rather than through war and other un-procedural characteristics.

The reason why gradual and peaceful change is better than violence lies first in a conceptual notion of war as hindrance rather than remedy. It destroys the small gain we supposed to build on it.

However on the political front, war would likely strengthen government ability to remain in power without change. The SPLM in government would seizes affections of war and use it to appeal directly to those affected, deflecting the blames of failure by quickly branding those fighting the war as agenda driven forces that cannot be trusted.

Such scenario hinders the change we seek within the SPLM and government; unless different set of approaches not associated with violent is devised. The rough idea supported with fact is an internal gradual change within the SPLM and in the government.

This notion might invite more explanations, but I would rather put it simply as ‘a political transfusion’; gradual replacement of exhausted, wore out party’s elites with effective young talents armed with modern ideals and wills to serve the same purpose with different perspective and approach.

This kind of change can be harder and long to be achieved, or even impossible if we base our judgement on what happening in Zimbabwe and many other countries in Africa with liberating parties and leaders in power.

Since the corruption and mismanagement as well as the failure to create good and responsive governance are the main concerns in South Sudan, it is true to say that none of these can be fixed simply by changing the government or party in power without changing the system or modalities in which the government operates.

Gradual changes can include a political reform through a constitutional configuration to boost accountability through checks and balances and parliamentary interpolation. Those currently waging the war might disagree on the fact that government in Juba is vested with rigidity and records of intolerance. However that can be untrue because the strategies of change are not encompassed in overthrowing government alone.

Change, in my opinion can be dichotomised and expanded to include so many avenues of institutional resetting and the policy spectrums. Let say if we need an effective system of government to fight corruption and to manage our state of affair, overthrowing government can never caters for those needs.

Changing actors’ views on governance and their practices can be realised through political reorientations through legislature capable of confer the rewards and punishment for good and bad practices.

Derived from this assumption, Larry Diamond, one of the best known political scholars argued that, ‘endemic corruption will not be reversed and controlled with moral crusades’ claiming that ‘…Officeholders will not abstain from corruption unless it no longer appears in their interest to behave corruptly’.

In this assumption, the one and only way to implement the above strategy and that is the change South Sudan is lacking and might need is how to constrain ill-practices and bad governance.

Larry emphasised that ‘to control corruption the expected utility for the individual officeholder of obeying the law must be higher than the expected utility of behaving corruptly.’

In saying that, I assume Larry is advocating for a strong rule of law capable of controlling and punishing. Instead of running with guns in our cities and jungles, or maintaining the status-quo that defies changes of procedures rather than the entire system, it is true that we sought to do our nation a great harm than good.

The remedy to this purposeful idiocy is to end the current war and seek a peacefully political reform and arrangement through discourses rather than violence.

Having a democratic political system capable of maintaining civilised power where the officeholders would be perpetually held to account for their actions can be realised only if we can constitutionalising the roles of government that can never be achieved through continuing waging aimless war.

The author of this piece is a South Sudanese political scientist residing in Australia. Marial Mach, A’duot is Deakin graduate with BA in Politics, and International Relations, Masters of International Relations, Masters of Politics and Policy. He can be reach for comments at

South Sudan: A baby weaned always remains crying for sometimes!

BY: Chier Akueny Anyithiec, South Sudan, SEP/21/2014, SSN;

Weaning a child is not always an easy task; it takes a child sometimes trying by all means to make sure that the source of the breast milk is maintained. What do you understand by this? I mean Kenyan economist, Mr. Mwangi S. Kimenyi, is totally wrong and needs to come up and
support his decision of abusing the whole nation, South Sudan.

The decision taken by the republic of South Sudan is not completely stupid and folly as he put it but it is completely ideal decision. It is a part of the measures of liberating the economic setback of this country.

Here, I would wish to humbly disagree with Mr. Mwangi S. Kimenyi for comparing the current decree issued by South Sudan’s government with that of Uganda in the time of Dictator Idi Amin.

To make it clear, Sudan as a whole got independent from British in 1956. This is a very long time indeed and for sure, Southern Sudan region was part of greater competitive nation, called Sudan.

However, the region of Southern Sudan was part of great Sudan with its educated machines, although Southern Sudan region has never been put in picture for all these times; then the problem was because the Southerners were under the oppression of the Arab Muslims of Northern region who do not accept anything else important apart from something connected to Sharia law and Islam itself. So, we are not Muslim to be put in picture by Northerners.

South Sudan has never lacked educated people since the inception. This region has its educated intellectual ever since Sudan got independent from greater Britain in 1956; let me repeat it for you to understand better.

We had doctors, professors, Masters’ degree holders and degree holders compared to Northern region and indeed skilled personnel are of great abundance but due to the lack of free social and economic integration in the system of old Sudan let us down.

If not, there would be no Mr. Mwangi S. Kimenyi today criticizing great South Sudan only on economic issues without a response from at least 20 doctors/professor etc of economic, if not hundredths of them from South Sudan alone.

Mr. Mwangi, at least a degree holder would simply respond to you now not because there are no doctors, professors, economic practitioners or whatever education level you may need in South Sudan.

War does not mean people who fought for their right for long period of time could be termed uneducated. We are educated to the extent we can properly manage our own affairs. Although we have consultants/specialists or practitioners from abroad, yet we are the very people
to supervise and correct them inside our country’s affairs.

Yes, South Sudan must have consultants from abroad, mostly Israelites. Why not? We know very well that foreign consultants are important in every growing economy that is why America still has foreigner consultants to the date. But this is not what it means here.

Mr. Mwangi, you need to understand the term in economy called Human Capital of any country: Sir, Mwangi, I would beg you to allow me explain to you briefly the need for South Sudan to declare such a burning issue to you today.

To liberate our economy, it needs us take ahead the all economic sections evenly. And indeed to promote all economic sectors forwards then, we would not leave the so called human capital behind.

This does not mean Kenyans, Ugandans, Rwandans, Congolese and the rest of the world will do it to us directly but indirectly and South Sudanese will impart directly. I would give you a book not because I have intended to do so to you but your aggressive act of terming South Sudanese ‘stupid’ makes me do so.

To explain it better, I have to talk little bit on human capital. This is nothing less than a stock of competencies, knowledge, customs, social and personality attributes, including creativity, perceptive abilities, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce
economic value.

South Sudan wouldn’t produce proper economic value using only foreigners without owners’ involvement. It is a collective economic view of the human being acting within their own economies, which is an attempt to capture the social, genetic, cultural and psychological complexity as they interact in explicit and in economic dealings.

Many theories unambiguously connect investment in human capital development to education, and the role of human capital in economic development, productive growth, and innovation has frequently been showed as a justification for government to subside in the job skills
training and skill augmenting.

It does not mean that Mr. Kimenyi, would come from Kenya to do all these for us to develop skillfully better in South Sudan without South Sudanese fore runners.

Human capital is only an alternative to economic capital and symbolic capital. These critiques, and other debates, suggest that “human capital has no sufficient justification worldwide, and then majority of economists including Kenyan economists except you embrace it

I wish I meet old Modern Makerere University graduate, your former President, Mwai Kibaki to explain to you the importance of promoting human capital and ways of promoting to you.

It is a supposition in economic concepts, reflecting the context of the heavy industrial sector of the economy which could be producing much more than the tertiary sector was able to produce at the time in most countries. But to do this, you cannot chase out the citizens from
holding the main stem of it.

Dear Mwangi, we are here talking about the service sector consists of the “soft” parts of the economy activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential, and sustainability and possibly what we called affective labor. The
basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of supplying me.

When we talk of services; they are known to be intangible goods include attention, advice, access, experience, and discussion. The production of information is generally also regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute to a fourth sector. We shall call not only you but also above mentioned old economist of Kenya, if you think we don’t have all these perceptions.

The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport, distribution and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, or may involve the
provision of a service, such as in pest control or entertainment.

South Sudan welcomes investors but not workers as you put it.

Secondly, you cannot exclude us from acting within our economy. South Sudan authority promotes all necessary backgrounds and atmosphere to attract investors to the country and contribute in the development.

Can you develop South Sudan without me? I don’t think you are really an economist that takes principles and theories of economic apparatus. Kenyan economic went and grew fast because the citizens themselves are the playing characters.

Would you simply explain to South Sudanese where Kenya got their skilled human resources initially in the history of your independent?

In modern characteristic of even economic promotion, we term balanced growth as the goal to equal growth of both aggregate human capabilities and physical assets that produce goods and services.

This simply means, when we continue employing foreigners leaving our talented graduates, then we stand on a ground that we are only promoting income of those foreign countries. Mr. Hon. Minister Ngor Kolong (the minister of labour) and I see the possibility of our country remaining incapable for rest of the century.

How do you need South Sudan to help you and how far do you need South Sudan to include you in developmental affairs of South Sudan? I think you cannot be my manager in Home and Away industry, when you and I are holding the same degrees and have the same skills.

If not so, then you mean we do not know what we mean to do!

I don’t think you could be in a position to criticize the decision taken by the South Sudanese concerning authority to improve the welfare and well-being of the citizens.

Mr. Mwangi, does it mean Kenyan professionals can drive, paid better, work in our industries,
hotels, sweeping and even working as office managers while our graduates and professionals should remain roaming without jobs?

If you may not know the difference, l would bother little bit explain to you the different between Ngor Kolong and Dictator Idi Amin’s expulsion of foreigners. President Idi Amin expulsed the traders and investors from the country, while Minister, Ngor Kolong only want for workers who hold citizens positions to leave and give the chance to the nationals wandering all over looking for jobs.

It does not mean when Mr. Mwangi comes as an investor for instance he has to bring all the workers along with him from the country of origin. Is this what you mean sir economist?

I studied in Uganda; I once went and entered a certain hotel called Panda Junub. The hotel
industry was surely for a South Sudanese; initially, I was not thinking that hotel belonged to South Sudanese investor because all the workers including finance, cashier, waiter/tress including cooks etc apart from managing director were all Ugandans. Why did that hotel
employ Ugandans instead of South Sudan?

I would simply invite Mr. Kimenyi if the concerned authority may not think of inviting him to visit Juba and the rest of our cities/towns to research and compare them with the rest of the countries including Kenya; if it is indeed the ways you need South Sudan to promote the
social economic stability of South Sudanese.

You cannot promote economic security without first promoting the common well-being of the citizens. I would not feel happy if I enter a hotel and a foreign lady or young man serves me when our young ladies/men are roaming aimlessly along the street.

We need to remove the ideology that South Sudanese don’t want to work! If we do not want to work and war is a heavier work that any other human being may feel tired; how did we fight for our freedom for 22 years leave alone 40 years if we include the genesis of the struggle
of Southern Sudanese region?

South Sudan needs to wean the child but still we should know very well that the child weaned remains crying until he/she adapted to the dry situations.

Writer: Chier Akueny Anyithiec,
South Sudan and can be reached by

Why Foreigners must go to pave for Employment of South Sudanese Nationals.

BY: KENYI ALEX KENYI, South Sudanese Economist, SEP/19/2014, SSN;

Time has come for the young baby to walk. Raise left leg or right and fall, but get up and continue. As one of philosophers noted; “There is nothing more powerful than an Idea whose time has come.”

If Ngor Kulang Ngor is to wait for the labor bill to be passed into law first, it would be too late to begin the economic repair of South Sudan. All babies cry trans-night the first day they are removed from the breast feeding but, gradually they accept the reality and changes and then life goes on. We cannot be good neighbors if our decisions do not affect East African Community or other neighbors.

Although they bring in a lot of expertise indeed; it is time to say thank you. This will ultimately give us Economic bargaining power once they feel hardship of us not being in the Community.

South Sudanese know all their problems; and the solutions as well. When Hon. James Wani Igga was sworn in as South Sudan’s VP, he said: unemployment by itself is insecurity. Therefore, by implementing the circular 007/2014 many economic problems will be solved; we would solve economic insecurity (unemployment), Tax margin would increase tremendously, Human resources development will have meaning; and Reduce capital outflow.

Most NGOS if not all do not pay Personal Income tax PIT to the government on grounds that the foreign employees are expats. Many NGOS do not have the names of their foreign employees on payroll as they are paid from Head Quarters HQ and the government do not know this or; has no basis for asking the remittance of PIT.

So as Daily Nation a Kenyan Newspaper puts, Kenyans employed in south Sudan to be 13,000. Assuming we go ahead and implement the circular; we would employ 13,000 South Sudanese whose can pay PIT not least then 15,000,000 SSP to our government. This will reduce capital outflow and hence we can lay the foundation for building our economy.

In capacity building and Human resources development, we can now acquire the skills and competencies that the Country need from us.

Most NGOS do not have South Sudanese at managerial positions that makes up the Senior Management Team SMT the supreme decision making body. When training opportunity arises they send the managers to represent the NGO.

This means they will never attain the so called capacity building of nationals forever instead they build their own. Most expats come with the same qualifications like South Sudanese. So they get trained by or make us do a donkey work for them.

But, the Ministry of Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development should watch out, the foreigners are having a sleepless night because of the circular. They are the decision making body in all NGOS, and other institutions, can think of the following methods;

1. Misinterpret the circular. All over East Africa where the order is felt the hardest; the news headings read; “South Sudan government has ordered all foreigners out” or “All foreigners are expelled from South Sudan”.

This is deliberately to cause public resentment so that South Sudanese living in East African Countries EAC can be threatened and call off the Circular. However, even there is no single South Sudanese working EAC. The EAC are worse than us when it comes to protecting jobs.

Rwandan Immigration Stamp reads, “Employment Prohibited”. Economically, should the EAC go for beg my neighbor policy; (Copy and Paste of other Countries Policy). The EAC will face worst economic collapse of the 21st Century. When the foreign Minister denied there was no order evicting foreign workers; they quickly wrote an article with this title; “Foreign workers in South Sudan can stay after all: Kiir rescinds Order.”

2. Using complicated job titles to remain working in South Sudan. There is need for Labor Office to see the Job description of the person before issuing the work permit. For example, the cook will be called Guest House Manager; Cleaner is called Sanitation specialist or sanitation engineer…

In accounting section a Cashier is given a job tittle of Finance Administrator; Finance Controller, Accountant will be called Finance Manager; Finance Director, Finance Associate or Finance Specialist… And therefore, the job titles above are unaffected by the circular.

But the implementers for the circular should generalize job titles to be advertised as; Managerial, Officer Level, Assistants, Coordinators and Administrators… Otherwise they can still remain working on ground that the position is not affected by the circular.

3. East African Understanding Method. EAUM here they will resort to bribe those will follow up. I wish people eat that money as it is ours and tell them kindly by force, it is a government policy.

4. The last of all but most dangerous is the forging of nationality Identification documents. You will see endless queue of South Sudanese converts who will give all reasons to justify their nationality. But that is just a lust for our resources.

In conclusion, “it is better to try and fail then failing to try”. Every Economy takes a decision to correct, sharpen and repair its economy. Any economic stage is guided through economic policies that are correct at the time.

That is Amin Dada of Uganda one day woke up and said; all Asians out. All economy protect the interest of its people why not South Sudan Government?

Kenyi Alex Kenyi,
The Author is an Economist. You can reach him

Root causes of the problems facing Lakes State and their solutions

BY: Daniel Juol Nhomngek, South Sudan, SEP/16?2014, SSN;

WHY? WHAT IS THE PROBLEM OF LAKES STATE: CAN WE GET A LONG TERM SOLUTION? Lakes State is one of the ten States in South Sudan occupied by over ninety percent of Dinka people of the Republic of South Sudan. Besides, it is one of the historical States in South Sudan believed by all South Sudanese to be the origin, centre and basis of the revolution that gave birth to the SPLM/A that later fought for the right to self-determination of all South Sudanese that led to the independence of South Sudan.

In addition, the people of Lakes State were the first to spearhead revolutionary war against the North and, which made them to be known for their patriotism as black African people.

Nevertheless, after the signing of the comprehensive peace agreement, they turned out to be the worst and trouble makers in the whole of South Sudan and their problems have dominated discussions in every corner of the country, which is unusual of Lakes State.

What has been happening in Lakes State invites a fundamental question and the question is: what is or what went wrong? Why? What is the problem of Lakes State?

It appears that the Biblical saying of “the last will be the first and first will be the last” is finding its fulfillment in Lakes State?

In this Article, I will explain the origin of Lakes State crises, problems of Lakes State and their root causes and after that I will endavour to explain solutions that I see appropriate to end the current security impasse, deadlock and unending conflicts.

To begin with, the problems of Lakes State are not girls, guns, people, politicians nor cows as many view them. However, the problems of Lakes State are deep-rooted problems and Girls, guns, people, politicians and cows are just facilitating factors that fuel and make such problems resurface.

In my understanding and analysis, the root causes of problems and tensions in Lakes State among civilians are economic, social and political and the failure by politicians to address these issues or to agree over comprehensive solutions to the problems caused by these issues or on how to end the conflict in tackling these issues in Lakes State.

As pointed out in the above paragraph, lack of agreement and self-interests by politicians involved in getting solution to Lakes State problems has worsened the situations.

As long as politicians of Lakes State are not ready to come to consensus over what should be formidable solutions to end Lakes State crises the sufferings of the people in Lakes State will never end.

The political indifference caused by self-interests as exhibited by Lakes State politicians is one of the stumbling blocks to finding a comprehensive approach to problems there.

In addition, it has been the source of problems, tensions and eventual conflicts in Lakes State. I came to this conclusion after attending the recent conference held at Nyakuron Cultural Centre over Lakes State crises.

In that Conference organized by Jieng Community Leaders Council, I came to the realization that politicians have contributed to the sufferings of the people of Lakes State.

This is because I attended the conference with the hope that politicians were going to put their differences aside and get a common position on how to end the conflict in Lakes State.

However, instead of sitting down as people who were united by one problem in order to try to find a lasting solution to crises in Lakes State, politicians started arguing over irrelevant things like who should the best to bring the lasting solution to Lakes State.

Self-interests of politicians again overshadowed the conference as they were locked in which approach should be taken to address Lakes State crises.

As one politician proposed beautiful and long solutions to Lakes State problems, which I totally agree with on one hand, another politician terribly opposed such solutions by offering short term solutions like the removable of Matur from Lakes State and disarmament of civilians.

In fact, politicians of Lakes State on that day ended up with endless debates over the approaches without going to the core of the matter; which is the root cause of Lakes State and how best to solve them.

Therefore, in that conference, the first day was wasted on meaningless arguments and counter arguments over the approaches.

In situation that presents people with challenges like the issue of Lakes State, people are prone to not finding a solution when they are trapped in the cocoons of their personal interest.

Beyond such a scenario involving deadlocks and impasses, the ultimate victims are often people trapped in a crisis, which people are attempting to find a solution.

However, where there is no personal interest and the people are only out to find a solution, it is easy to find such a solution sought for and the disagreement is not bound to arise. In fact, there are many approaches that have been put forward to get a solution to any problem.


1- A problem-solving approach. This approach focuses on solving one security or justice problem (such as violent crime, prison overcrowding or court backlogs) as an entry point from which to mobilise system-wide engagement. This sort of approach put forward by some politicians in that conference.

2- An institutional approach. This is where there are existing pro-reform initiatives at an institutional level that can be supported (such as a government-initiated review of the prison or police service). Linkages to other institutions can then develop over time.

3- A phased approach to post-conflict situations focusing on understanding and, where possible, integrating stabilization — “securing the peace” — and development-oriented objectives. This approach is suitable to be adopted after conflict with an attempt to find a lasting peace.

4- Finally, a comprehensive approach. This type of approach is important. It includes reviewing the effectiveness and accountability of the whole security and justice system in order to build linkages across it and although rarely available at the outset, a comprehensive approach would be the eventual goal of either of the approaches outlined above. In fact, Lakes State problems need this type of approach although majority of the politicians in Lakes State favour the first approach.

As I have stated somewhere above, the Conference at Nyakuron Centre has educated me on one fact that unless the politicians of Lakes State are left out in the search for finding lasting solutions to Lakes State crises, Lakes State will be under fire indefinitely.

In that Conference, what was happening was just an argument over approaches not a solution to Lakes State problems as I initially had hoped for.

In other words, they have a blind love for the people of Lakes State to the extent of not knowing what the people of Lakes State wants for the moment.

In reality, the precious commodity that people of Lakes State want at the moment is security, medicines, good roads and schools. These things can only be achieved if comprehensive approach is adopted not only targeted General Matur, which many politicians think to be a solution.

The reason why some of us blame some politicians of Lakes State is not that they are solely the cause of Lakes State problems but they have never been sincere to their people since the signing of the CPA.

They have been deceiving people of Lakes State that they represent them but in fact they represent their own personal interests and ambitions.

This is why they are not ready to save lives of the people in the State by agreeing on approaches to find Lakes State problems.

The politicians of Lakes State like any other person in South Sudan have misunderstood what people of Lakes State want.

There had been fictitious thinking that people of Lakes State need force in order to observe law and order, which proves to be fruitless on the contrary given current political arena.

The current political crises as indicated by unending brutal and merciless killings of innocent civilians and individuals that are caught up in skirmishes has underlined the fact the use of force remained a laughing and not a solution to the problems of Lakes State.

In short, it is superfluous and shallow way of solving human-made phenomenon.

As many proposed who have misunderstood the problems of Lakes State have been proposing, what the people of Lakes State need is not change of the governor only but the rule of law, justice, respect for their human rights, right to property and elimination of culture of impunity.

The culture of impunity embedded in the way of thinking by many in Lakes State needs to be eliminated through force and psychological demoralization.

The way politicians argue when it comes to the issue of Lakes State crisis indicates that they had not understood the problems of Lakes State.

The problems of Lakes State are rooted in history and have nothing to do with any governor.

If the lasting solution were to be found, there is a need for comprehensive approach by finding an entry point and then try to address all underlying tensions that act as a flashing point of conflicts among the people in the State.

The entry point might be to remove the current governor, which should not be a source of disagreement because it is not the final solution to the problems of Lakes State.

This is because the current governor is not the cause of the problems of Lakes State rather he is just a facilitating factor of the problems, which were already there.

Why some of us blame and consider current governor to be a facilitating factor is due to his failure to observe or protect tenets of democracy such as rule of law, justice, respect for human rights and right to property as stated above.

The failure to observe tenets of democracy as pointed out in the foregoing sentence has contributed and fueled tensions as citizens reversed to the primordial law and the principle of jungle law of survival of the fittest.

This is the core and the facilitating of Lakes State problems.

The failure of the current Care-taker governor to observe the rule of law and force people to do the same has opened a Pandora Box of the underlying tensions, which sparks off conflicts among different clans in Lakes State.

As things stand now, there is a need for much work to be done in order to achieve lasting peace in Lakes State.

For instance, in the past things were not worst as witnessed today in Lakes State because authorities did observe some of the above elements of democracy.

Nevertheless, the previous leaders did not also do much to understand the underlying problems that cause tensions among the citizens of Lakes State and this is why the current Care-taker governor should not be solely blamed for the problems facing Lakes State currently.

As stated somewhere in this article that the problems of Lakes State are deep rooted in history, it is now important to trace the root causes of the current conflicts in Lakes State.

One of the major causes of conflicts in Lakes State is the way cows are understood.

Cows are understood to be outside personal property and therefore, they are considered to be more important than human lives, which own them in Lakes State.

Yet in Dinka culture, it is an abominable to kill human beings but the current culture of impunity that has been developed by cattle keepers has changed Dinka Culture of respect for human lives.

Currently among cattle keepers, killing a person to get a cow is not a crime but instead it is encouraged. This kind of understanding comes in the way people have understood and depended on cows.

People who keep cows see them to be everything and the more cows one has the more important one is, hence diminished criminal responsibility attached to cows as property.

Contrarily, cows are worshiped like gods and are at the same level with human beings or even more important than human beings.

Hence, the root of the current conflicts in Lakes State has its origin in the nature and the way cows are kept, understood and viewed by cattle keepers.

The people of Lakes State were allowed in the first place to keep cows without checks and balances from Northern Government.

Lack of accountability in cattle keeping has been the root cause of the conflicts among the people of Lakes State since terrible crimes were committed with impunity.

In fact, the people of Lakes State used to fight among themselves because of cows even before the starting of the SPLM/A in 1983.

Nonetheless despite the fact that conflicts existed in Lakes State Communities, the regimes from the North of Sudan were not interested in bringing lasting peace not only among the people of Lakes State but also throughout Dinka Communities.

The example conflicts fought between Agaar and Gok before the SPLM/A started were clashes in Keerwith and Amook. In those two conflicts many people were killed on both sides but much was not done to bring lasting peace.

In addition, there used to be some conflicts among Agaar and Gok themselves.

In addition, Northern Regimes did not devise a long term planning to bring social transformation through educating them. One of the major reasons was that Arabs were not ready to educate people who would know that they were being oppressed and rose against them.

However, when the SPLM/A started war against the North, the war against the North became a unifying factor and as a result, Dinka people forgot enmity among themselves as they became preoccupied with the civil wars.

Nonetheless, when the CPA was signed, the people of Lakes State for instance remembered their past conflicts and found that injustices were committed against each but not addressed. As a result, they started their old conflicts.

Nevertheless, the failure by the government of Lakes State to address the first conflicts in comprehensive manner became the major cause of the current recurrent conflicts in Lakes State.

Thus, the problems of Lakes State cannot be said to be from any of the governors but their failure to find the root causes of the conflicts in Lakes State and if possible tried to bring reconciliation and lasting peace among the people of Lakes State.

Moreover, Riek Machar became a facilitating factor because his first rebellion trained cattle keepers on how to use guns in killing each other.

Therefore, as explained in the foregoing paragraphs, the problems of Lakes State are not girls, cows, guns or Riek Machar as many have been pointing out but lack of understanding of the root causes of the problems of Lakes State by State Authorities.

In order to bring lasting solution to Lakes State now, there is a need to understand historical root of the problems.

Otherwise, what the people of Lakes State need most at present is security. As it has been clear pointed by some writers, security is fundamental to people’s livelihoods in the following ways:

It helps in reducing poverty, which leads to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This is because security relates to personal and state safety; it contributes access to social services and political processes.

Security is therefore a core government responsibility, necessary for economic and social development and vital for the protection of human rights.

The reason why security is important in any country is because it matters to the poor and other vulnerable groups, especially women and children, because bad policing, weak justice and penal systems and corrupt militaries mean that they suffer disproportionately from crime, insecurity and fear.

Without security, the poor and other vulnerable groups are consequently less likely to be able to access government services, invest in improving their own futures and escape from poverty.

It thus by implication means that security and development are related. However, the concept of interdependence between the two has been misunderstood in Lakes State. This is because the authorities in Lakes State understand security to mean controlling physical fighting, which is not true.

In reality, security is connected to development, which means that in order to ensure security, roads must be built, professional organized forces must be trained, hospitals and schools must be built and above all accountability must be ensured.

In fact, what’s needed most in Lakes State is Accountability in all sectors. As the accountability has been explained, it derives from the fact that no society can claim to be free or democratic without strict adherence to the rule of law.

In actual sense, in Lakes State there are massive atrocities and crimes that have been so devastating that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored and left unaccounted for.

The major root cause of Lakes State is the violation of ordinary citizens’ right to life without accountability.

Many people have been killed in Lakes State but the authorities and judiciary do not do justice to be seen by all people.

Instead, the authorities are accused of being implicit in helping criminals to escape justice or loot other people’s cows without accountability.

Such lack of transparency and accountability from government officials and individuals cause different people in Lakes State to take laws into their own hands. Hence, explains what constitutes the fundamental problems of Lakes State.

However, given the limits to the law and prosecution in Lakes State, and although criminal justice is important, additional activities are needed that focus on documenting the truth about the past, which means that there is a need for comprehensive approach to end the problems of Lakes State once and for all.

It implies that in order to document the truth about the past in Lakes State, there is a need for some correct approach to be adopted in order to achieve reconciliation and lasting peace among the people of Lakes State affected by insecurity and violent crimes.

As explained above in the four approaches, it is important to adopt comprehensive approach in order to bring security and justice reforms, which are important in order to make the system accountable.

In truth, there is a need to carry security and justice system reforms in Lakes State. The security and justice system is defined by the OECD-DAC [OECD stands for Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee of the OECD]as including all those institutions, groups, organisations and individuals — both state and non-state — that have a stake in security and justice provision.

In Lakes State, the security system includes:

• Core security actors: armed forces; police service; gendarmeries; paramilitary forces; governor guards; intelligence and security services (both military and civilian); border guards; customs authorities; and reserve or local security units (civil defence forces, national guards, militias).
• Management and oversight bodies: the executive, national security advisory bodies, legislative and legislative select committees; ministries of defence, internal affairs, foreign affairs; customary and traditional authorities; financial management bodies (finance ministries, budget officers, financial audit and planning units); and civil society organisations (civilian review boards and public complaints commissions).
• Justice and the rule of law: judiciary and justice ministries; prisons; criminal investigation and prosecution services; human rights commissions and ombudsmen; and customary and traditional justice systems.
• Non-statutory security forces: liberation armies, guerrilla armies, private security companies, political party militias.

The security system can further be seen as being made up of smaller sub-systems, such as the following examples:

• Criminal justice system (police services, judiciary, prosecution service, lawyers, probation workers, oversight institutions, community justice providers).

Intelligence system (police, intelligence collection agencies, strategic analysis organisations, military, oversight institutions).

State security system (police services, security and intelligence services, military, border guards, oversight institutions).

As seen in explanation of what constitutes justice and security institutions, the two should play an important role in the management of conflicts within any society.

However as seen in Lakes State, abusive and unaccountable security forces and discriminatory justice institutions contributes to violent conflict.

In order to avoid security forces turning into repressive force, the priority must be given to security and justice reforms as a means for conflict prevention, peace building and development.

However, ‘given the sensitive role of the security system in society, there is a risk that if programs concerning security reforms are not carefully targeted they could inadvertently exacerbate tensions’.

For example, increasing the operational capacity of law enforcement agencies without improving their governance could fuel repression as seen in Lakes State with the governor who uses state apparatus to oppress citizens of Lakes with impunity.

In Lakes State, targeting programs in one part of the state in a divided society could reinforce clan divisions and the marginalization of disadvantaged groups, which highlights the importance of taking a conflict-sensitive approach.

As it has been observed as SSR programmes are often in countries affected by or at risk of violent conflict, it is important to understand the conflict dynamics and root causes as well as the perspectives of relevant stakeholders in order to develop programmes of support effectively.

SSR programmes that integrate a conflict-sensitive approach can help support peace building and mitigate tensions by, for example, increasing the access to justice of marginalized groups or enhancing trust between the police and local communities.

In order to ensure reform needed, a supportive political environment needs to be fostered in Lakes State, and early investments made in appropriate analysis. In the past, programmes were based on ‘inadequate assessment and have often have been too technical in nature’. This is because the system has never been accountable to the people of Lakes State.

As a result, when system messes up and people react negatively against the system as they often do, they are ones being blamed of causing problems in Lakes State because there is no transparency and accountability in the system.

To build the system, which is accountable to the people of Lakes State, ‘a balance must be struck between support to provide quick wins and confidence-building measures on the one hand, and taking time to understand each particular context with appropriate analysis and assessment on the other’.

Central Government in Juba should engage in SSR with three major overarching objectives: “ i) the improvement of basic security and justice service delivery; ii) the establishment of an effective governance, oversight and accountability system; and iii) the development of local leadership and ownership of a reform process to review the capacity and technical needs of the security system”.

In summary, in order to achieve lasting peace in Lakes State, what is needed to be done inter alia include:

Removal of the current governor as an entry point not the solution as many expects and thinks of. Then, after the removal of the Care-taker government, the Interim Government should be set up whose its roles are to write law governing the state, to set up the Truth telling, Reconciliation and Peace Commission to investigate and address the underlying issues that often cause the conflict; to carry out statewide consultation to get the views of the people of Lakes State on what should be done to end conflicts among themselves; to set up Reparation Committee that deals with the compensation of victims of the violent crimes; Disarmament programmes should also be carried out but it must be friendly to the people in order to ensure their safety by government providing protection against external aggression.

Besides, Gelweng should be trained with the objective of turning it into conventional community policing unit. The training will help them to have knowledge on the law of war, and the rule of game, which they lack today.

The prisons reform should be carried out with the aim of training prisoners to become productive individuals and at the same time making them obedient citizens who obey laws of South Sudan.

In addition, system of compulsory primary education should be consolidated so that no child is allowed to remain without schooling, which will help in reforming citizens of Lakes State in future.

In addition, the statewide conference should be held as a means of carrying out reconciliation meeting and then after that they are guarded in writing their own laws governing their relationship among themselves and other states and with the government of Lakes State.

Finally, the law to be written should emphasize the issues of girls and revenge killings. “Apuk” (Apuk means compensation given for a person killed ) should be abolished in order to ensure individual criminal responsibility while maintaining common law principle of negligence to ensure that victims have some compensation from the culprits in case of negligent killings.

The author can be reached through:; +211955321044