Category: Featured

South Sudan War of Choice: It’s only a dispute of leadership

BY: Santino Aniek, NEW YORK, USA, OCT/25/2014, SSN;

We became fascinated by the stories of brutality of the war, realizing that suffering is the only tangible price to get jobs in South Sudan. War has become the most accessible and continuous leading alternative in finding jobs in the government sector in Africa especially in South Sudan, to personally engage and demonize citizens through violence.

The best illustration in the head of every South Sudanese people is the tribal war, Yau Yau war and the war of choice which is now killing our citizens in hundreds of thousands. Now a day in South Sudan, war has replaced tolerance, understanding, dialogue and compromise and it is the most habitually used throughout the regions.

The champions of the war of choice has influenced their tribesmen to sustain their ruthless ideology of division as well as mobilizing them to fight an endless war on South Sudanese people, by engaging their supporters with deceptive information.

Indeed, one of the many galvanizing preaching information was the genocide and coup in Juba, and has been the point of struggle to establish a national public mobilization involvement of young people and their tribesmen to help them fight this war of choice.

From the higher military commands to the youths leaders are now campaigning to fight the free South Sudanese people, and are now trying to build a fashionable struggle philosophy of discriminatory killing and the endless destruction against innocent people has been a central issue in this war of choice.

As is always the case, the future of a country is a shared responsibility between the government and its citizens and as common sense tells us, nations cannot survive if the citizens are divided internally.

In other words, an individual alone cannot survive the future of a nation, but it is a collective responsibility of the citizens and the government. The crux of the debate is therefore argued that the government may have reinforced and deeper propelling force pushing the country into conflict.

However, South Sudanese people solely believe that the government has full responsibility and is mandated to provide services, and maintain law and order for its all citizens across the country.

In fact before the war, the citizens were extremely worried that the country was declining so profoundly that it will become vulnerable to future attacks within and outside by its traditional enemy in Khartoum.

The government was very aware of the risks they were assuming, and they choose the war only with a great reluctance knowing that the civilians are going to be pretentious.

In the end, the government has chosen the war for one simple reason; they believed without a war they would not maintain their day job because the public were fed up with government policies toward human services and development services in the new nation.

In those days, the reaction and the outcry by many citizens to the government was proceeding unanimously that it was practically possible to hold the government accountable for the setback that has been facing the nation for the last eight years.

In addition, the role of local communities to participate and contribute in maintaining security and peace as a paramount priority was also declining, because there was no good relationship between the government and the local communities.

Nevertheless, it is truly that there is no way that the government alone can provide and sustain security or law and order in the country without the help of the local communities at large.

Meanwhile, it was the hope of each and every South Sudanese people prior to independence that the government is going to create a partnership with the local communities to address the current challenges and the conflicting wounds of the civil war.

Sadly, the government was happy to accept the gospel of the war without wanting to address the issues. More generally, it is widely known that there is a very disturbing trend occurring in the new nation in which our people’s lives are being threatened by this war of choice from those who want to raise their families through bloody job, and it is a gloomy side from which our history is being reanimated.

Furthermore, it is tremendously despondent that regular people get caught up in this conflict for subjugation by a very few avaricious individuals who have been advocating for conflict in South Sudan.

Oftentimes, the popular culture identity of us against them whereby popular politician forms a group of armed men and provides them with false platform of information exhibition of intricacies and powers them to annihilate innocent people’s lives is now gaining a countrywide support among the South Sudanese society.

In fact, the philosophy of war has become a part of politics identity since the country has been engaging in so many wars and now has an opportunity to link this philosophy directly to their experiences they had in the 21 years of civil war.

Similarly, this link between tribes and politicians is becoming more and more ubiquitous, and has been attracting the public inquiry in recent years that is triggering critical instability and uncertainty in the country.

In this situation, it is increasingly signifying both in national government and local government as well as individuals and communities are now striving of joining this war of choice, and this new politics identities of a largely exclusive in the country has achieved so much support among the South Sudanese communities.

It is in the view of this, my article would like to bring to the forefront of modality in the ways of informing the citizens of South Sudan to accept peace, tolerance, compromise, forgiveness, dialogue and negotiation for “everlasting peace”, because the country has reached a limitation, and we need to change course to overcome this crisis with more thoughtful and compassionate responding to this tragic war of choice.

The inscription of politics identities of inclusive of all the tribes of South Sudan has to be a part of the government’s responsibility and power sharing in the next government is instantaneously fundamental.

Subsequently, the election of 2010 has encouraged opposition politicians and civil society activists and now has an opportunity to compete with the Ruling Party to get their message across in part, because of the availability of political risk and lesson learnt during the civil war.

In addition, and perhaps more importantly, the public also has an opportunity to realize that the government has lack responsibility and accountability that empowers the public to direct their concerns and views point to the government as a result of rewarding those who kill innocent people.

Sadly enough, the government is frequently attacking those who happen to disagree with the militias, while they are rewarding militias with a higher position and building a conducive relationship between the two.

There is another aspect to this story, and that is the government is denying many South Sudanese people who are qualify to hold these positions in the government, but tragically these ruthless pathetic criminal, and unwanted human beings in the South Sudanese society are given these important position.

This practice appears to be conflicting or contradictory to the laws of any nation, unless the government succeeded in implementing laws and orders, the country may have to accept this madness brought forth by the narrowed-mined war custodian.

Nevertheless, my article is trying to highlight the war of choice within the category of public discourses and the deliberations of this conflict, which aids the advancement of participatory of these militias that are now dragging the country into a civil war.

These so-call leaders uses the communities with a deliberately simple message to turn the communities against each other and try to make sense to these actors who truly believe in a destructive articulation with the intention of participation in the government workforce, and they always signal the distribution of disadvantage in fashionable society of new nation.

In the view of this, my article adopts a theoretical approach that uses the experience of two wars, and the take away in these wars is obviously, the vital resources needed to fight the war and the human suffering is tremendously heartbreaking.

More importantly, the predicament and hardship our citizens have been facing and the mentality of rewarding criminals has encouraged a sizable number of people to join the war of choice.

As a result, many people are extremely suffering and lost their lives in the name of positions or jobs in the government substantially, especially in the Greater Upper Nile of the World.

Meanwhile, keeping the likelihood of early mobilizing our people especially in the loop of all communities to embrace “everlasting peace”, my article however, uses relevant information from the episodes of the two conflicts that has been going on for quite some time.

Nonetheless, the quaintest mechanism is that South Sudanese self-proclaimed-politicians and so called leaders in the new nation have lost the ethics and values of leadership to the extent of reaching borderline of intimidation of its own citizens, and so it is becoming a struggle.

In terms of politics, in South Sudan in this day and age, war has replaced political philosophy and has become role player in promoting a false debate and creating conflict among the South Sudanese society.

The enablement of the prevention of inclusive participation of all South Sudanese citizens in the government has gone a long way of no meaning and seem to form a dictatorship process that raises in attempting to make the war of choice a pillar upon which societal politics rest on.

However, accountability and transparency are the normal demand by the citizens from their government and most of the times in South Sudan, it is not possible to operate and function freely and normally without interference and intimidation by the government.

Equally enough, reform is not only necessary but urgent considering what has been proceeding in the new nation has been extremely troubling and all the South Sudanese communities including international communities are becoming exceptionally concerned.

In fact, what happened has shown the absence of law and order in the country and it is a clear failure of the leadership, which needs to be addressed with urgency, and has to be on the top of the agenda of the next government.

Nevertheless, the new nation has totally failed to reach a democratic transition as a breakthrough improvements meant to be pursued during the country’s civil war with regime in Khartoum. Even though, few communities who are supporting the war of choice think that the current war will look like an improvement than the past civil war, it is totally misleading the public because we are killing future generations and it is only a dispute of leadership.

Furthermore, this war of choice remains the number one sources of acquiring wealth and an employment to those who have nothing but to kill innocent people in order to get jobs in the government.

Though, war in South Sudan also encourages few individuals to own wealth through the enhancement of creating conflict by giving preference to those who support their causes, and this practice is believed to be against the norms and the values of the South Sudanese people.

More importantly, war has become a key player among the South Sudanese communities. Today it is transforming to a field of an employment and offers people with new belongings, fame and self-identification. Obviously, given the fact that the majority of our citizens still have no access to their daily news, war is becoming the window of misleading.

Therefore, while trying to adopt the model of public rights for the citizens to know what the government is embodying, South Sudan departs from other nations where the right of the citizens are being manipulated by the government and tried to make nonsense accuses to covered up the dishonest burden.

The importance of these claims during struggle mention that the country will be moving toward a democratic approach to emphasize the need of the citizens is now proven to be an empty promise.

Studies indicated though, issues of politics of division and politics of isolationism are the main dominants in fairly politicized fashion and other broad issues like tribalism is part of the factors that caused this war of choice, and therefore can be categorized into issues of crime, corruption, service delivery, poverty, economy, education, political party dominance or proportional representation and the need for political reform in the new nation.

Yet the sweeping changes of eight years ago in South Sudan have now shifted from animated to worst despite the tremendous experience of 21 years of civil war, which was the hope to build a unifying country. In addition, the establishment of the politics of division, politics of isolationism and its subsequent undemocratic initiatives is clearly represent a worst foundation for future extensions of equal access and opportunity to all citizens in South Sudan.

The aim of my article is to examine the war of choice and how self-representation and the expressions of selfhood emerging from these individuals that are seeking an employment through war and has not constituted a mediated public sphere, which is not creating avenues for public discourse in South Sudan.

The aim should be understood against the background of the government and the social political realities in which the new nation define relations among different classes of people in South Sudanese society.

What we are observing now however, is the dynamics of power rocking that is playing itself out in the way certain attitudes and personalities seek to become dominant while others may be relegated or silenced in the course of political structure taking place in South Sudanese politics.

Nowadays such a regime of anti-freedom and equality, encourages individuals and groups to bring their own experiences and opinions into public debates leading to new understandings of the political structure in the society.

In addition, my article present an exemplary of intervention in which a government and rebel may bargain in order to avoid falling into a civil war and however, the two parties may adopt the mentality of forgiveness, tolerance, compromise, dialogue, and peace to reach an agreement.

If they want the fighting to continue, the government and the rebels have to decide what level of atrocities they want to commit, and a third party may intervene to halt atrocities. By including a number of different parameters, the exemplary underscores how complex the intervention conundrum actually is.

Therefore, this work critically examines the potential of war of choice as a means of reinventing politics through mediation and intervention. War of choice has consequently become a channel through which different interest groups in South Sudanese society seeks an employment especially in the government sector using different kinds of messages and ideologies.

However, in this regard to the debates of war of choice in the South Sudan context, conclude that such a war has become a lens through which few people may begin to organize themselves and commit atrocities to get a position in the government.

Equally, people of South Sudan are now able to grasp the dynamics of an evolving political of division and politics of isolationism with several attempts of individual and group interest in particular ways in order to either remain important or kill their opponent.

While demonstrating the impact of the struggle for freedom and equality access to free its own citizen, the idea of “right to live” needs to be implemented in South Sudan now or else.

Nevertheless, the war of choice advertising remains an affordable in South Sudan. It is however, remain to be effective that targeting the vast majority of audiences in the country. The principle of reconciliation, tolerance, dialogue, compromise, and peace among the South Sudanese communities is immediately needed.

Despite the dominance or popularity of the war of choice, our citizens must abandon this recklessness practice once and for all and adopt peace and unity.

The overall interpretation from the perspective of war in general, continue to tell us that war is extremely horrific, and therefore, our undertaking has to create a way forward strategy of a collective compromise, because we need to change the culture of war and the mindset of these ruthless politicians who are always dragging us into conflict.

As a final thought, our citizens need to think only about their future and the future of the country they liberated some years ago. They have duty not to support any politicians who moralizes violence against innocents people, and they also have responsibility to reject the validity of any form of division once and for all.

We must continue to appeal to a system of tolerance, compromise, forgiveness, dialogue, and peace that is designed to empower all the citizens and build successful politics of understanding and put our differences aside. We must embrace peace and unity, because those cold-blooded leaders will never be defeated by the use of this war of choice.

Santino Aniek is a concerned South Sudanese in Upstate New York, U.S.A. He can be reached atsantino.aniek5@gmail.com and find me on Facebook, on Skype and on twitter @saniek.

South Sudan accused of threatening aid groups

From NEWVISION, OCT/25/2014, SSN;

International charities working to stem chronic disease and hunger in war-torn South Sudan are facing increased harassment, surveillance and threats of expulsion from the government, according to a charity Friday.

A letter to over 100 international aid agencies from South Sudan’s NGO Forum detailed the “increasing trend of harassment and interference targeting NGOs” that is “marked by increased hostility and threats from officials”.

Incidents include the detention and expulsion this month of one foreign worker as “escalating rhetoric and the overall hostile tone toward [the] international community” rises, the letter said.

It also detailed concerns over the alleged “increased surveillance of NGO communications”.

Last month South Sudan’s Ministry of Labour ordered all international aid workers out of the country before another ministry rescinded it.

South Sudan, one of the world’s poorest countries, became independent in 2011 after decades of battling hardliners in neighbouring Sudan, which also had a long history of cracking down on aid groups.

Now 10 months into its own civil war, the world’s newest country is blighted by what UN officials call “a man-made crisis” that has caused widespread hunger, left 1.4 million people homeless and a third of the population needing help.

But the NGO Forum said government officials “have adopted a hostile and almost irrational approach toward NGOs” that includes trying to ban the use of the words famine, disaster and catastrophe.

The UN’s World Food Programme is still trying to trace South Sudanese staffer Mark Diang, who was abducted at gunpoint last week by plain clothes men from an airport in the north of the country.

In a meeting with officials this week, international representatives were “threatened and intimidated personally and organisationally”, leaving them “increasingly vulnerable”, the letter said.

British charity Oxfam, which authored a report predicting famine in parts of the country, was reportedly “directly in the line of fire” at the meeting, but the government also “threatened” the 36 charities that signed the report and demanded an official apology and retraction.

A spokesman for the South Sudan government could not be reached for comment.

Towards SPLM unification, again? What a tragedy for South Sudan

EDITORIAL ANALYSIS: OCT/21/2014, SSN;

As president Kiir and arch-rival Machar met face to face to initial yet another futile agreement deal on October 20th, 2014, at the Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge outside Arusha, Tanzania, the day will stand out as an inauspicious and unpropitious day in the political evolution of South Sudan nation as specifically pertaining to the political behavioral evolution of our so-called political leaders.

If the assertions by both rival sides (SPLM ruling and SPLM-in-Opposition) that the goal of the talks and the agreement thereof is the re-unification of this monstrosity known as the SPLM again, then the oppressed peoples of South Sudan are once again being callously and unashamedly betrayed by the same personalities.

Yes, not only once, twice or thrice in our life time, but for the nth time, is the nation of South Sudan silently witnessing another duplicitous realignment of personalities who until this very moment have combined, colluded and commissioned the murders of hundreds of thousands of the citizens.

Sadly, the Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge parody comes after the abysmal and clear failure of the IGAD-negotiated Peace Talks in Ethiopia, whereby both sides of the government and the rebels came out immensely disappointed by the IGAD mediators.

In the latest statement from government spokesperson, the unpredictable minister of information, Makuei, the IGAD mediators were more interested in the participation of one politician at the peace talks and that was Dr. Lam Akol was deliberately prohibited by Kiir from traveling to Addis.

But more pertinently, IGAD also wanted to dish out an almost equal proportion of the share in a new government of national unity to each of the three, i.e. SPLM ruling, SPLM-in-O and SPLM ex-detainees, which didn’t bode well with Makuei’s boss, Kiir, hence the adjournment of the Addis talks.

Now, seriously, if after all those many months that the IGAD has been coercing, cajoling and counselling these same SPLM ‘compatriots’ in Ethiopia but to no avail, what difference would Tanzania’s ruling party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi and Pres. Kikwete do differently to achieve concordance among a bunch of diabolically cantankerous and self-seeking persons?

Nonetheless, one important anomaly needs to be pointed out about this gang of so-called SPLM ‘leaders’ and that is their selfish propensity to fully and criminally exploit any chances whereby they are being feted and accommodated luxuriously and freely at someone’s expense, and even get paid for their irresponsibility.

We clearly saw this behavioral manifestation during the unnecessarily prolonged pre-CPA talks in Nairobi and Naivasha, where greed became a prominent characteristic of these SPLM gangsters. The IGAD Addis is a rendition of their greed of financial exploitation.

According to Tanzanian President Kikwete, he had invited the Kiir and Machar “to a dialogue aimed at reunifying the South Sudanese SPLM ruling party.”

Furthermore, quoting the Secretary-general of Tanzania’s ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi, Mr. Abdulrahman Kinana, Kiir and Machar had been invited “to the intra-SPLM dialogue with the hope to re-unify the party.”

However, it should be recalled that a week before (October 12 to 18) the so-called Kiir-Machar Summit at Ngurdoto Lodge, a bunch of SPLM ruling and SPLM rebel and ex-detainees representatives had been meeting in Arusha and according to Mr. Kinana, “the SPLM family have reached progress on establishing a framework for the SPLM dialogue, including shared principles, objectives and agenda for engaging dialogue.”

Seriously, for many of us concerned South Sudanese, this is the biggest and scandalous exposé of the SPLM dishonesty and dis-ingenuity. What’s there that the two SPLM protagonists have to talk about to ‘unify’ their long-exipired party?

The SPLM for all intents and purpose is a dead party, what Kiir, Machar, Pagan or Lam Akol are supposedly leading are mutually antagonistic and mutually destructive, self-serving but deadly clones of the former SPLM that only serve the particular interests of these personalities and their tribal peoples or criminal gangsters.

Dr. Peter Adwok Nyaba, who incidentally is leading the SPLM-in-O group at Ngurdoto, posed the following in his latest book, ‘South Sudan: The State we aspire,’ “What’s the difference between confusion and a vicious circle? In essence, there’s no difference between the categories…… but in the context of South Sudan, confusion-cum-vicious circle is the political environment the political elite engineers in order to de-conscientise the masses and prevent them from appreciating the oppressive reality in which they are submerged.”

Dr. Adwok further goes on: “Because most political leaders practise double talk, it becomes absolutely necessary for them to generate confusion about their real intentions and they create a psychological environment which could be described as a comedy of political impotence.”

Precisely and unfortunately, the Ngurdoto document just signed by the so-called ‘three’ factions of the SPLM, which will serve yet again as another roadmap for further negotiations to reunite the SPLM and end the war, epitomizes the ‘confusion-cum-vicious cycle’ Dr. Adwok Nyaba referred to above.(pp 148)

Succinctly, Dr. Adwok Nyaba concedes, “…the comedy of political impotence is the havoc the political elite, former revolutionaries of the national liberation struggle, pursuing a personal agenda for power and wealth, are wrecking havoc with the destiny of the people of Southern Sudan.”

The biggest misfortune is that the civil societies and other stake holders in the current predicament facing our nation were deliberately excluded by Tanzania’s president Kikwete with the obvious complicity of the three SPLM leaders and this doesn’t bode well for any possible or probable future resolution of the crisis in the nation.

The SPLM as a whole is seriously and permanently debilitated by internal contradictions, schisms and rivalries which have cumulatively wrecked havoc among these so-called leadership or former revolutionaries.

Nothing good will ever materialize even if God himself came down and took these SPLM ‘leaders’ up into Heaven to negotiate among themselves.

These SPLM criminals, like the biblical people of Babel who disobeyed God himself and built the metaphorical ‘towers of Babel’against God’s will, must be destroyed and dispersed into different directions (many into prisons for life).

More concisely, the SPLM leaders have collectively lost their legitimacy to rule the country anymore because of the crimes they have committed or commissioned that, as Dr. Adwok Nyaba even wrote in his book (pp 148), that with the preponderance of evidence, “it would be easy to pick up and send to the International Criminal Court-ICC- in The Hague many of those in positions of authority today in South Sudan.”

Since coming to Juba in 2005, Pres. Kiir and his ex-deputy, Machar have never really resolved their political differences from the bush era, on top of their bitter tribal differences, a fact overtly exacerbated by the big educational disparities, the latter a PhD holder and the former an primary school leaver.

On the other hand, Kiir has never forgiven or forgotten those so-called Garang’s Boys, such as Pagan Amum, the leader of the former detainees group, for their mischievous role in his (Kiir’s) marginalization and abuse during the bitter animosity with Garang when the late briefly contemplated dumping his deputy, Kiir,

Moreover, in the current opposition groups, those of Machar and Lam Akol still behave like two bitter ex-wives married to the one husband, never will they ever consensually collude and come together to even overthrow the Kiir regime, a near-miraculous expectation those many South Sudanese opposing the Kiir government had hoped would happen sooner than later.

Lately, the Machar’s SPLM-in-O, has publicly and wholeheartedly embraced the popular demand for federal system of governance in the country. If now SPLM unification has become a top priority, is Dr. Machar not once again exhibiting his traits of betrayal to the Equatorians, the Nuer and Western Bahr el ghazel supporters who stood out to support the rebel SPLM?

If the improbable were ever to materialize that a united SPLM came back to life and took over the running of the Juba junta, that would be the biggest tragedy of our nation and its people.

A South Sudan government with Kiir, Machar, Pagan, Alor and company would be diabolical mockery and a painful insult to all those innocent compatriots needlessly eviscerated during the so-called struggle for regime change.

Once again, one would imagine Kiir boldly and without shame stand up in the dead beat parliament to pronounce a general amnesty for his own crimes and for the crimes of other SPLM co-conspirators.

Bitterly, the nation will be again forced to swallow the painful realities that they will and must have to live with once again ad infinitum, the ‘confusion-cum-vicious cycle’ of SPLM political disasters, one after another.

Like it or not, tribal domination will be overtly expedited, there will be no accountability for any crimes commissioned by the ruling SPLM gangsters, people will be murdered and brought with decapitated heads to the government morgues and other unimaginable egregious crimes perpetuated blatantly and lawfully.

In conclusion, whatever the case, the nation should not countenance or allow the tragedy of SPLM unification and the comeback of the SPLM monstrosity to again damage, desecrate and disintegrate the stalled progression and evolution of our nation.

For genuine peace in South Sudan, the peasants must be involved

BY: TABAN ROY, Uganda, OCT/16/2014, SSN;

Our country is in an intensive political care unit with devious quack doctors hovering over the patient, taking their own time to maximize the gains like vultures over a carcass. Time has exposed these IGAD masked doctors, they cannot be trusted to diagnose quick and effective remedy to the patient other than putting a drip to buy time for the bills to swell.

We have lost every essence of nationalism that once bound us together during the long struggle for freedom, justice and liberty, words we should be ashamed to pronounce if our actions are to be dictated upon by our conscious.

Alas! No, we have degenerated into murderous, war mongers, oppressors, lovers of money, more than the nation….. the list is endless yet we expected someone else to clean the mess we open mindedly triggered.

We can cast blames and counter blames but one thing stands out clear, peace cannot be forced nor fixed for convenience.

To put into perspective, those who marry to please their relatives or parents will soon discover rocky grounds and troubled waters down the road of this marriage of incontinence.

The disturbing question is, do we have to sign peace to please IGAD and the international community or we have come into realizations that the war is uncalled for?

To answer this question we must examine the probable cause of the bitter split among the once brothers/comrades and the resulting consequence that is threatening to tear the country apart attracting wolves and vultures to devour the poor new nation for their own survival.

In my own point of view, the lost of Dr. John Garang in that fateful day of the plane crash was the beginning of our trouble. Although Garang was and is still accused of autocratic tendencies, he was a nationalist who would go to any length to salvage a situation such as the one we are in.

It’s not in distant memory that we all know the bitter 1991 split that almost brought the movement onto its knees that most people including me would find it hard to believe that the then bitter foes in the persons of Dr. Garang and Dr. Riak could shake hands and dine on same table after losing innocent members of their respective clans as a result of their wrangles over power.

Oh yes! Garang was ready to forgive for the sake of the nation. One thing we must note is that the mediation was not conducted by foreigners but our own elders, clergy men and women so was the likely split between Garang and Kiir which was eventually and successfully reconciled in Rumbek, by our people not the international community.

Most of our political leadership in both camps, the ruling party and the opposition have their moral authorities compromised so much so that making it back to the top on a level ground is almost impossible having being alleged to have committed terrible crimes in one way or the other.

For such people political survival other than provision of services to the people is their preoccupation. They have to keep the status quo of their families abroad most of whom live lavish life styles at the expense of the poor.

The Minister for youth and sports, Mr. Akol, had a point in one of his speeches over Radio Miraya FM if my memory serves me well, the young minister from Lakes states hinted the fact that leaders should have their families (children and wives) here to enhance patriotism and service delivery the way he does.

One could add that our legislatures should have moved a motion prohibiting senior government officers from taking their families abroad to reduce the imperialistic like government, looting and feasting on the loots where their voters – the peasants, the orphans and widows – have no chance to pick the crumbs.

We do not only cheat the peasants and the fallen comrades but continuous manipulation of their children into another Armageddon using the tribal card.

Truth being said, being President Salva Kiir is not easy, some of these greedy senior officers tactfully play the tribal cards to protect their evil. It’s not uncommon in South Sudan that when a Minister is fired, his tribes-mates see it as an attack on their tribe or state or the region as whole regardless of reasons behind the sacking, for them, the culprits should be allowed to loot too.

How do we expect a change or revolution from this same clique? We ought to remember that the war was largely fought by the peasants, some of whom laid down their weapons just after the CPA.

Today it’s the same peasants in the trenches in defense of their kinsmen, their looters. They are dying of hunger, living undignified lives in Camps while their so called “our mans” and their families do not know how it feels like to live in a refugee come with limited meal/diet.

It’s only us, you and I who will bring genuine lasting peace to our nation not any foreign nation.

Firstly, we must find and aggregate means of solving our problems using our cultural methods, not ruling out support from impartial friends around the globe but not the double edged sword nations.

We must swallow the bitter truth that the majority of the butchers and the butchered are sons and daughters of the less privileged maliciously recruited to join in defense of their respective political cultists, lured in mobilizations dubbed resistance/freedom fighters or national defense, adding more fuel into the furnace.

Indeed mass ignorance is the wreck of our nation. Seriously, who is benefiting from this conflict?

Secondly, we must accept there are no saints these days, the accused and the accuser must take responsibility and find space in their hearts to apologize and forgive.

History has proven this beyond reasonable doubt that our actions are sometimes dictated by need, survival and unfortunately the tendency to dominate yet there is always prosperity after confession, forgiveness and acceptance of each other like what happened in South Africa.

It was Desmond Tutu who led the truth and reconciliation Commission, we have Tutus in South Sudan in the persons of Rt. Bishop Paride Taban with in-depth knowledge of the movement, the people, individuals in the SPLA leadership, I have faith he would act impartially.

But then, the people, the poor who suffer the brunt of their carnage must also be involved from grass roots, something Garang mastered too well. He involved the local chiefs every step of the way that was why he garnered immense support across the nation.

He knew too well that our cultural born leaders still command great adoration and respect thus engaging them could be a formidable tool to employ if we need to realized people’s owed peace

Grassroot engagement of the local leaders across the nation and societal structure would first and far most foster collective responsibility, enshrining nationalism at the grass roots level.

They should know the facts, the causes and result of the war. This I believe if diligently done would deny destructive politicians raw material to advance their selfish interests.

Thirdly, the fragmented civil society must be engaged with preconditions. Most of our civil society does not conform to the realities that the warring parties will treat them with suspicion if they continue to rely on international donor support from nations viewed hostile to the either side, the government or the rebels.

There must be a way to demonstrate impartiality other than relying and identifying with a particular donor(s). This group should nominate and vet their representatives with approval from the antagonizing parties with funding from agreed source.

IGAD dominated by Uganda, Ethiopia and Kenya are only too happy to keep us where we are to continue consuming their goods and services for their respective nations’ Economic growth. Relying on them is a national disasters. END

Taban Roy ; Uganda

UGANDA to buy WEAPONS for Kiir’s Government!!!!

From NEW VISION, Kampala, OCT/15/2014, SSN;

The South Sudanese government has signed a long-term agreement on military cooperation with Uganda, defence Minister, Kuol Manyang Juuk said on Monday.

Full details of the agreement are yet to be made public, although it’s understood it will allow Uganda purchase weapons and technological support on behalf of South Sudan if required.

The announcement came after Juuk and his Ugandan counterpart, Crispus Kiyonga held a meeting at which they discussed military and weapons cooperation, Sudan Tribune has reported.

“We have signed the cooperation agreement in order to work together and support each other,” Juuk told the state-owned South Sudan Television (SSTV).

The development follows the recent visit of president Salva Kiir to the Ugandan capital, Kampala, where he attended a summit on the Standard Gauge Railway, a regional developmental initiative aimed at fostering the movement of people, goods and services across the region.

According to the minister in the office of the president, Awan Guol Riak, Kiir was able to hold bilateral discussions with the heads of state and governments in the region, including the host, President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, with whom the former discussed issues connected to peace talks in Ethiopia.

The talks, which are being mediated by the regional bloc, the Intergovernmental authority on Development (IGAD), are part of attempts aimed at ending the 10-month-long conflict, but appear to have hit an apparent deadlock recently over what executive powers should be granted to the prime minister and the president.

Museveni is among the key players in the conflict and the talks, given the Ugandan’s army’s (UPDF) deployment to the country following the outbreak of violence to fight alongside government troops, who are battling to contain an armed rebellion led by former vice-president Riek Machar.

Uganda’s involvement in the conflict has irked some countries in the region and there have been calls for the Ugandan military to withdraw.

A key driver behind Uganda’s continued desire to maintain its arms capability is its continued military involvement in South Sudan. Following the breaking out of fighting in Juba in December 2013, Uganda intervened, deploying two battalions into the country. Uganda Peoples’ Defence Force (UPDF) spokesperson has stated that the army’s mission is primarily to protect key installations and to ease safe evacuation of the Uganda nationals in South Sudan. However, BMI(Boston, USA) believes that Uganda’s decision to deploy its military in South Sudan is less a benevolent act and more an assertion of its increasing regional dominance.

A senior military officer told Sudan Tribune on Tuesday that the UPDF’s intervention, with its military hardware, had saved South Sudan’s leadership from being toppled.

“Out of record, I want to say that it would have taken us [a] much, much longer time to exert full control and to take back Juba, had Uganda not intervened in the last battle outside Bor (Jonglei state capital) around Jameza,” the officer said.

As such, we expect imports to Uganda, which lacks its own military-industrial base, from Russia and China in particular, to steadily increase for the foreseeable future.

END

The construction of future conflict in South Sudan

BY: ELHAG PAUL, South Sudan, OCT/11/2014, SSN:

It is over 9 months since President Salva Kiir unleashed his dogs of war, the ‘Dootku Beny,’ on the Nuer and the people of South Sudan killing tens of thousands and destabilising the country. President Kiir, Michael Makuie, General Wani Igga, Dr Martin Elia, Ateny Wek Ateny and their blind supporters are still in place engaged in violence and disinformation blitz to entrench Dinkocracy.

Defensively and in a persistent manner they bark loudly hoping to dupe the international community. “This government was democratically elected by the people of this country and the time for elections has not yet come”, “Any moves to replace an elected government by force was unconstitutional and unacceptable.” http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article52545

Obviously, these Dinkocrates have conveniently forgotten that they usurped power on the eve of independence on 9th July 2011. The democratic mandate they received in April 2010 expired with the break up of the then Sudan into two countries.

As everyone knows, elections have not been held in the new state of South Sudan. So what are they talking about?

Listening to and observing these Dinkocrats misbehave conjures up images of people who are out of touch with the reality. They speak with confidence while blocking their ears to the truth being told to them. To the world they are deaf and yet they want the world to listen and believe their side of the story which is completely false.

These Dinkocrats seem to believe in what they say to be the ultimate truth, even when the average person in the streets of South Sudan does not perceive it so. They have unreasonably convinced themselves that they are democratically elected and they must not be asked to cede power.

Whether it is President Kiir or his deputy General Wani Igga or Majok on the street, the vigour, fervour and the conviction with which they spread their lies is just the same. As social theory postulates – when something or a lie is repeatedly said, it gradually becomes a reality to the preacher with the bombarded listener turning into a believer.

In the process the preacher and those being preached to lose touch with reality. In a sense they become mentally corrupted. Could this be the thing that is affecting the Dinkocrates?

Could it be the same thing that sunk IGAD? Or was it IGAD’s partiality? Or is it a combination of both?

Whichever, IGAD is doomed to failure mostly due to its partiality. The songs of “democratically elected” only became sweeteners to solidify their biasness. IGAD does not offer any hope. It prescribes more of the same (SPLM misrule).

This is not peacemaking but rather the construction of future chaos and instability. Where then is the peaceful future that IGAD’s mediation promised? Who in South Sudan wants more of the same?

Who wants the continuation of the current tribalism, thuggery, and the Jieng engineered ethnic cleansings?

In a nutshell IGAD’s mediation represents doom and gloom for South Sudan. IGAD is not working for peace. It is working first for the interest of its heads of states and secondly for an entrenched instability in South Sudan.

So, in order to address the problem of South Sudan it requires focusing on the real root causes of the current problem namely: SPLM’s resistance to democratisation and diversification of power; the creation of private tribal armies like Dootku Beny; vicious Jieng tribalism; lawlessness and the ethnic cleansing of the Nuer.

These are the critical issues that must be addressed by all South Sudanese stakeholders if a lasting peace is to be achieved in South Sudan. What does IGAD then do? It embarks on one plan to patch the SPLM as a solution without plan “B”: http://allafrica.com/stories/201404140864.html

In the last 9 months it has done everything to realise this objective knowing very well that SPLM is the real problem. It is the cancer destroying South Sudan. SPLM in reality is a Jieng machine through which Jieng tribalism is detrimentally implemented in the country.

Disappointingly and unethically, IGAD has consistently worked with President Kiir frustrating the participation of the stakeholders to the extent that now the only parties left in Addis Ababa are the SPLM factions responsible for the chaos.

Interestingly, IGAD now shouts that peace is within reach. Do you see the hypocrisy of this club of dictators? What hope is there for South Sudan under the mediation of this hypocritical body?

Sweeping the real issues that plunged the country into chaos under the carpet and rewarding the very party responsible for it is not going to help in the healing process and the stabilisation of the country.

These issues will not go away, they will not disappear but they will fester and grow until they explode with devastating consequences. What IGAD is doing now in Addis Ababa is the deliberate construction of a future conflict.

So whatever deal they sign now will only afford South Sudanese a temporary respite. More over this deal would only be between Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile only. President Kiir and the SPLM-IG represent the former and Dr Machar and SPLM-IO represent the latter.

Equatoria which would have been represented by the other political parties has been frozen out. So Equatoria is already marginalised and its horrific experiences under the SPLM murder machine have been dismissed.

How can the exclusion of Equatoria which comprise a third of the country lead to a lasting peace? I leave that to you to think about it.

Could IGAD’s behaviour not be seen as sending messages to Equatorians to follow in the footsteps of those who have plunged the country into chaos should they want to be counted, listened to and taken seriously? How responsible is IGAD when it becomes part of the problem by marginalising a third of the country?

IGAD is messing South Sudan and creating for itself two serious problems that will come to bite its members.

First, the manner in which IGAD has failed to fairly mediate the South Sudan conflict has displayed to the world its weakness. In addition to losing credibility in the world, new non-state actors emerging in the region in future will not take it seriously and it may not be accepted to play any role.

Secondly, the South Sudan conflict has shown that IGAD has no fangs. It is all talk and threats without any power to enforce it. Take for example, it declares targets with datelines and nothing happens when these datelines are breached.

Its target of 60 days issued in June 2014 to achieve peace agreement in South Sudan expired in August 2014 without any outcome. Again in August 2014 it issued another target of 45 days for same purpose and it is about to expire within this week without any ray of hope in sight.

These targets have been blatantly breached without any consequences. The question is: why does IGAD bother to set these deadlines if they are unable to see them through?

South Sudan will continue to remain in problems not because South Sudanese are trouble makers, but because IGAD makes choices that prolong instability as if it has rights in doing so.

It is the South Sudanese people’s failure to make use of their sovereignty that has led IGAD to assume the right of a decision making in the country’s affairs in support of a criminal party (SPLM).

The responsibility of this failure falls squarely on the SPLM. To break it down, it is President Kiir’s idiotic government; Dr Riek Machar’s inability to have a foresight and vision and the well proven incompetence of the SPLM G-10.

Who is IGAD to dictate terms and decide for a sovereign people? If this situation was reversed to the IGAD member states, would they accept it?

IGAD is only a mediator. Its role is to assist in bringing peace between the warring parties. It is not an arbiter or a judge to dictate or bully left and right. It does not have that mandate to impose decisions on South Sudanese people.

South Sudanese must realise that without a genuine lasting peace there will not be any security in the country. Thus leaving the country in the hands of a hopeless organisation (SPLM) and incompetent “leaders” who do not know the rights of a sovereign state invites abusive treatment of South Sudan as is played out in Addis Ababa by IGAD.

The state of South Sudan did not come to life without huge sacrifices. Millions have paid for it with their blood and the people endured decades of painful oppression.

For SPLM to allow the state of South Sudan to be played with by IGAD is tantamount to gross negligence. The IGAD process glaringly reveals the ignorance of the SPLM and all the supposed leaders of the various SPLM factions as people who have no idea about what a sovereign state is.

Inward looking, corrupt to the bone, and short sighted they connive with IGAD to make all the wrong decisions about fate of millions of South Sudanese people. Remember, the Troika correctly named the problem in South Sudan as “man made”.

Who are the men who made this catastrophe? Is it not President Kiir and the entire SPLM machine? Think about this.

This catastrophe is made out of a mixture of personal ambitions, tribal interest and abuse of state machinery. Was it really necessary to go to war just to settle a disagreement within the SPLM party?

As it may well be obvious to everybody at this point it is clear that this war is a result of power struggle within the SPLM and the irresponsible short sightedness of the supposed Jieng elites. If they only listened to the American friends of South Sudan in early July 2013 this tragedy would have been averted. Please access this link to see it: http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/news/press-releases/friends-of-south-sudan-warned-of-serious-consequences

SPLM is making all the wrong decisions for South Sudan and this is why the country is collapsing. South Sudan can only pull itself out of this mess if it is represented by caring, responsible, and knowledgeable people who make right decisions about its well being and welfare.

Daran Acemoglu and Jones Robinson in their book ‘Why Nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity and poverty’ convincingly point out that, “poor countries are poor because those who have power make choices that create poverty.”

This finding is highly pertinent in the case of South Sudan and it actually illuminates the bleak situation facing the country.

In spite of all the resources South Sudan is endowed with, the people are likely to perpetually remain poor because of the obvious wrong decisions made by the SPLM leaders described by Gerard Prunier as “idiots……rotten to the core” in their various shapes and forms.

The evidence is already clear. Since 2005 all the decisions made by the SPLM leaders stunted the country socially and economically. First they started by entrenching tribalism. Both President Kiir and Dr Machar ensured their tribes controlled the security sector.

They then distributed over 80 percent of the government positions to their tribesmen without any merits. After this they encouraged an alliance of convenience between the Nuer White army and the Jieng of Bor against the Murle people at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012.

All these were done while they were busy raiding the coffers of the state mercilessly. As if this was not enough they triggered a war with the Sudan over Panthou (a legitimately South Sudanese area) which they negligently left to Sudan to occupy and claim ownership.

So, right from the start the catalogues of poor and wrong decisions have ceaselessly continued up till December 2013 when it took a deadly turn.

Due to his limited capacity and with the influence of the Jieng cartels President Kiir deliberately ignited the current crisis in the country and encouraged ethnic cleansing in the belief that this would make him and the Jieng powerful, feared and a superior tribe.

This delusion of grandeur as a result has seen the country fall apart. The Jieng need to understand that they can not construct a tribal superiority by crude barbarism. They can not be what they dream on the back of other people blood.

Conventional wisdom tells us that such delusions will be resisted and eventually crashed at a certain point and that point for South Sudan is fast approaching whether they like it or not.

The jieng have the key to halt the gathering Tsunami of South Sudanese anger. The Jieng should not deceive themselves that the support the regime is receiving from IGAD will save the status quo.

The idea of a superior tribe milking everyone else as in Juba now frankly speaking is fatuous. It is unsustainable in this modern world.

While the Jieng may control the army, security, police and the economy, that is not enough in itself to ensure their safety and eternal survival. Some tribes like the Gaddafi of Libya and the Boers of South Africa tried it but it ended in tears.

South Sudan as a country is a socio-political system. All the component parts of the country work smoothly when the system is in equilibrium. What this means is that if all the people of South Sudan are happy the country becomes stable and development takes off. But if some people or tribe are unhappy the country loses stability.

Therefore, the currently destabilised socio-political system in South Sudan can not be repaired or cured by keeping it under the management of the very people and party (SPLM) responsible for its political malaise which is exactly what the IGAD mediation is doing.

The system is broken because one of its components (Jieng tribe) has embarked on a puerile project of superiority. The Jieng have become infected with tribalism and grown too big in the social arrangement that kept the system in equilibrium pre-1983.

IGAD by destroying the initially agreed principle and arrangement of bringing all the people (stakeholders) together to deliberate on a way out has just done a huge damage to the stabilisation of South Sudan.

The SPLM factions and IGAD can strike their own peace agreement without the stakeholders but they must know that their peace product is the seed for future conflict.

Therefore, the people of South Sudan need to fight back to stop this construction of future conflict by:
– Petitioning the UN and Troika about IGAD biasness and demand transfer of the talks to a neutral mediator.
– Highlight the fact that SPLM is the problem of South Sudan and it can not be handed power again after it has destroyed the country. The Interim Government should be lead by people with integrity.
– The SPLM should be held accountable for the destruction of the country and the killing of tens of thousands of innocent South Sudanese people. Principally president Kiir must account for the lawlessness and the ethnic cleansing in South Sudan.
– Highlighting the reasons for IGAD’s failure:
a) its open biasness;
b) narrowing and restricting the talks to SPLM factions only thus disenfranchising the people of South Sudan;
c) rewarding failure and criminality in South Sudan;
d) promoting interest of IGAD member states at the expense of the people of South Sudan;
e) promoting instability in South Sudan and potentially in the region.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]
Elhag Paul
elhagpaul@aol.com

Federal system of government the salvation of South Sudan

By: Jacob K. Lupai, JUBA, OCT/06/2014, SSN;

South Sudan is in crisis that could have been avoided. The crisis has brought untold sufferings to many innocent people, probably more than the sufferings endured during the bitter wars of liberation for independence of South Sudan. It is with horror that in independent South Sudan people should turn ferociously on each other in a senseless struggle for power and leadership.

There could have been a peaceful way out in winning the hearts and minds of the people for power and leadership. Unfortunately the use of guns and bullets as a shortcut to power and leadership was erroneously conceived with little or no conceptualization of the consequences. Poor calculations have resulted to unnecessary destruction and senseless loss of innocent lives notwithstanding the deep polarization of communities along ethnic lines.

The ongoing crisis in South Sudan is a litmus test of the political leadership whether they have the guts and the will to climb above partisan politics and ethnic cleavages in the national interest. There is no denial that this senseless armed struggle for power and leadership has taken ethnic dimension where members of one ethnic group in the wrong place have been brutally dealt with. The ethnic dimension of the ongoing armed struggle for power and leadership is well documented in the Interim Report on South Sudan Internal Conflict December 15, 2013 – March 15, 2014 by South Sudan Human Rights Commission.

The ethnic dimension of the ferocious conflict suggests that those who imagine that South Sudanese are one people are nothing but merely wishful thinkers. South Sudanese will never be one people even if the Son of Mary comes for the second time. What they can only be is as people of one destiny. Being of one destiny was the only unifying factor that brought independence to South Sudan.

Before and after independence of South Sudan

Before independence of South Sudan in 2011we were all people of one destiny because we were oppressed and marginalized, being forced to occupy second class citizenship in the old Sudan. As people sharing the same fate we were untied for strength to liberate ourselves from the yolk of Arab oppression and marginalization. We therefore fought as people of one destiny for equality, justice and freedom.

As people of one destiny the unity of people during the struggle transcended ethnic, religious and regional divide. South Sudanese were united in their strong desire for freedom and an independent homeland where they could live in dignity. Arab marginalization and the treatment as second class citizens were too painful that the people of South Sudan preferred to die in the battlefield for freedom and dignity.

According to the Sudan people’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) Manifesto 2012 the people of South Sudan are united by a common history of struggle against oppression, different forms of colonialism. This clearly suggests that South Sudanese are people of one destiny but not necessarily one people as the propagandists would like us to believe.

The Manifesto affirms in no uncertain terms that the people of South Sudan are forever inspired by the ideals of human rights and dignity, and by the insistence on respect for fundamental freedoms, social justice, equality, prosperity and democracy. Now the question to ask do those ideals still hold after independence of South Sudan.

After independence the fear and hatred of Arab colonization that had previously united South Sudanese as people of one destiny seemed to have vanished overnight. There was nothing much to unite people as before. The project was over and there was the lack of concepts for other projects to unite people as during the struggle. South Sudanese appeared to have become individuals, tribes or clans looking first after their own interests where national interest was taking the backseat.

The euphoria after the referendum results gave way to bitter disappointment in deficiencies in the ability of the government to deliver security and basic services as some of the most anticipated peace dividends and rewards for independence. There were also claims of corruption, nepotism, exclusion and domination of government and business by some ethnic groups. This was not in line with people’s expectations and aspirations before independence.

People had expected that in an independent South Sudan security of individual and property would have been provided. That was not the case. For example, land grabbing should not have been of concern in independent South Sudan. However, according to the International Republican Institute public opinion poll in all the 10 states of South Sudan, land grabbing is of concern but only in Equatoria.

The cries of poor victims of land grabbing in Equatoria by citizens from Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile are often ignored while the land grabbers are rewarded. For example, land grabbers terrorise legitimate landowners with guns yet these criminal land grabbers do not face the law nor are the guns collected from them as a security measure to preempt anarchy. One can only speculate as to what is going on and how is that going to promote national cohesion and unity.

Systems of government

There are many systems of government in the world. Each country adopts a system that is seen to address its unique needs, compatible with its vision. However, a system that works perfectly well in one country may not necessarily be suitable to another country. What may happen is that a country adapts a system to address issues of diversity and development. However, the system must be seen to be reducing social and regional inequalities and poverty.

A system of government adopted must be seen to be efficient in service delivery for a high standard of living of the people. The system adopted must also be a response to deep social fissures along ethnic, cultural and regional lines where a civil war may be looming. An adoption of a system of government to defuse tensions may save a country from collapsing.

Some of the systems of government are unitary, federal and confederal. A unitary system is the one with only a single, centralized, national tier of government. In the unitary system powers may be highly concentrated in the centre to the disadvantage of the peripheries. It is here that problems sometimes arise when the peripheries are ignored or starved of development to improve living standards.

In a unitary system of government a single ethnic group may consolidate its grip on power over the whole state through nepotism to the detriment of national unity. A unitary system of government can therefore be seen as inappropriate to a country full of ethnic, cultural and regional diversities.

In a federal system powers of government are divided between the national government, state and local governments. Under the federal system each level of government has sovereignty in some areas and shares powers in other areas. For example, both the national and state governments have the power to tax to generate revenue to deliver services but only the national government can declare war.

In a federation, the self-governing states as well as the division of powers between them and the national government, are constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision neither of the states nor the national government.

The confederal system is usually limited to a permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states. The closest entity to a confederation is the European Union. However, any existing federal state can be transformed into a looser confederation instead of breaking up into totally different independent nations.

Diversities in South Sudan

In the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan 2011, South Sudan is considered a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-racial entity where such diversities peacefully co-exist. However, the statement in the last part where it is asserted that “such diversities peacefully co-exist” is arguable. There are always inter and intra ethnic clashes and violence. There are also regional diversities in physical features that can provide comparative advantage in development.

In South Sudan there are mainly two modes of livelihoods. Some communities are pastoralists while others are sedentary farmers. Clashes between pastoralists and farmers are not uncommon with poor delivery of security, characteristic of a centralized system that may be hopelessly too remote to be effective.

Sometimes, arrogance and insensitivity of pastoralists to the feelings of farmers make things worse. It is common for pastoralists to drive deliberately their animals into cultivated fields for the animals to feast on food crops. This is adverse to farmers’ food security. When the farmers complain the pastoralists do not listen and hardly control their animals for a peaceful co-existence with farmers.

It is very clear that the diversities in South Sudan call for a system of government that is robust, closer and adequately responsive to peoples felt needs at the grassroots. A highly centralized system that is hopelessly remote and cannot deliver services as anticipated is not for South Sudan. South Sudan is apparently in need of a system of government that accelerates development for a high standard of living of its people.

Federalism for salvation of South Sudan

The present system of government in South Sudan is quasi federalism. It is a quasi federal system because it is midway between a centralized and a federal system with many attributes of federalism, of course, lacking. There are 10 autonomous states but are limited in powers. For example, the states have limited powers of having their own judiciary, police, prisons, wildlife and fire brigade. The states also may have limited power to tax to raise the needed revenue for development.

For the states to perform and deliver the badly needed services a federal system of government is the most appropriate because the states will then have more powers. Some people have argued that the existing 10 states show that South Sudan is already a federation. This, however, is false. This may be partly due to ignorance of what a federal system entails or it could be the case of those tunnel vision reactionary centralists who exploit and benefit the most from a centralized system of government.

A federal system of government is the most recommended because it will turn South Sudan into a strong vibrant united country where diversities are a source of strength with more powers to the states to address the current deficiencies in service delivery for development.

Conclusion

As mentioned above there are three types of system of government under consideration and they are unitary, federal and confederal. For South Sudan it is envisaged that a federal system is the most appropriate and a good compromise. Although at first it was shunned, the federal system is now widely recognized in the nation and regionally. What remains are the details. In principle federalism is already accepted.

The Sudan Tribune website on September 27, 2014 showed the Government of the Republic of South Sudan agreeing to a federal system of government.

The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Protocol on Agreed Principles on Transitional Arrangements Towards Resolution of the Crisis in South Sudan, 28 August 2014, in part, stipulates that the “Transitional Government of National of Unity (TGONU) to initiate and oversee a permanent constitution-making process, during the Transitional Period, based on the principles of federalism and taking into account unity in diversity, and to devolve more power to the states”.

One wonders what will the opponents of federalism make of the government’s acceptance of a federal system and the acceptance of principles of federalism by IGAD. It is hoped the opponents of federalism are not out of touch with the reality unfolding.

In conclusion, a federal system is the only way for the salvation of South Sudan for national unity in diversity and sustainable development out of the mess and turmoil that has been unnecessarily created.

Jacob K. Lupai is the author of a new book, South Sudan, Issues in Perspective, which will shortly be launched in Juba, South Sudan.

Unnecessarily Deep-rooted Hatred, Empty Pride and Unhealthy Competitions are bringing us quickly to Doom!

By: Deng M. Koch, South Sudan, OCT/03/2014, SSN;

An Open Letter to the people of Lakes state:

Dear my people of Lakes state, first before I bring your attention into the heart of my message, kindly allow me to highlight the following story:

Once upon a time, a group of nine (9) individuals (men) set out deep into the surrounding forest near their village with the purpose of harvesting wild honey located in a hollow of a very big tree previously known to them. Not known to them however was the fact that in the very hollow in the trunk of the tree ‘resided’ a very big Viper (Snake) with deadly venom which kills instantly once it bites and injects venom (poisonous substance) into human or animal blood system.

The men arrived to their intended destination under the big tree and as is in line with the crude traditional ways of extracting honey, started a fire and a thick smoke began billowing and the men positioned themselves from top of the tree where the mouth of the hollow in the tree trunk was to under the tree on the ground.

The aim is usually to pass fire with smoke up to the tree and insert smoke into the trunk’s hollow and scare bees away from the honey-rich hive and on the other hand, extracted honey is passed down the same line of people to the last person on the ground under the tree who then packages the sweet substance into containers.

The expert “master honey extractor” on top of the tree inserted fire and smoke into the tree and the poor Bees quickly made way for his hand to grab the honey, but the Viper, alerted by smoke and movement near the hollow (kok) was already angered by the intrusion into its territory and hence was on its striking position; the poor guy’s hand was bitten by the deadly snake which he could not see because it was dark in the middle of the night.

Nonetheless, the bitten man had a bad heart and didn’t want to die alone, so he said to the one next to him, “please get hold of this fire thing and continue to harvest the Honey, something has fallen to my eye; let me go down the tree so I can wash it off.”

His unsuspecting friend quickly took up the deadly position and as he rushed his hand into the trunk of the tree, another deadly strike met his hand at the entrance! The same story of excusing oneself was done by the second man as he too realised it was a deadly snake bite and hence did not want to die alone just as the first victim of the snake did.

Number three, four, five, six and seven all followed in the same way and were all bitten and as they climbed down the tree, they all succumbed to the Viper’s venom/snake poison and died.

When it came to number eight, a man of good heart and full of love for others, he was in the same fashion, bitten in the hand and as soon as he realized it was a deadly snake bite, he shouted in agony, “Oh God, my God, why would you allow the Satanic Viper to finish my people like this!”

His crying in despair alerted the number 9, the last man who was standing; he quickly turned and inspected all those others previously bitten and found out they had all kicked the buck! Alas, bad heart and ill intentions of the first seven victims made it possible for snake to annihilate almost the entire group!

Thanks God the 8th victim was pure in heart, loving and caring for others’ welfare; his warning stopped the last member of the group from falling into the same abyss of tragedy. He dared not to approach the death trap which finished his friends! He became the sole survivor to tell the tragic tale of the honey hunters to the village people and beyond.

So, my people of Lakes state, haven’t we allowed the “Viper snake” of hatred, tribalism propelled by tribal or clannish chauvinism and hegemony with all its by-products of cattle rustling, highway banditry, targeted cold-blooded murders of innocent including sleeping victims to finish us individual by individual, clan by clan and county by county?

For far too long we have been burying our heads in the sand, pretending that the escalating violence was a “normal traditional practice of community’s rivalries over pastures and watering points for their cattle”.

Now that towns such as Cueibet, Rumbek the capital of state, Pacong, Wulu and you name them all, as well as along the Highway serving five states, the Greater Bahr El Ghazal highway from Juba – Yirol – Rumbek – Tonj – Wau – Aweil and which branches off in Rumbek to Bentiu, had been turned into human Abettors by gunmen from the very “normally rivaling community groups” in the state, hadn’t the chickens returned home to Roost?

There is nowhere is the story of single snake finishing 8 people out of 9 reflected in practical terms than in our volatile Lakes state in the Republic of South Sudan!

The South Sudanese public and the world community are reeling to absorb and comprehend the scale and frequency of death, destruction or looting of properties of innocent victims coming out in the new Country’s centrally located Lakes state on daily basis.

People there are almost psychologically resigning to the fact that their lives could easily be terminated at any time of the day and that living to see the next day, week, month or a year was a matter of privilege; a privilege granted not by the divine powers as is usually the case with humanity’s beliefs, but rather by the decision and will of criminal human hunters who initiates killing of unsuspecting innocent people at will; or act in the name of Revenging and counter-revenging their lost loved ones regardless of the circumstances leading to such loses.

None is safe anymore and age, gender, occupation, status or physical ability no longer exempts one from falling victim to the raging practice of innocent human beings elimination!

More questions than answers abounds as to how and why have the people of the once glorious province of South Sudan allowed themselves to fall so lowest.

But none including the author have the real and convincing answers to these questions, hence the search and guessing for answers to the questions and solutions to the escalating destruction of lives and properties in the volatile state is ongoing.

As the communities are confused and the core of their social fabrics in tatters, our state politicians are in disarray with no unity of purpose forged amongst themselves and “bunch of self-hating idiots” we becomes in the eyes of the South Sudanese nation.

Practically a major source of sympathy to the well-wishers and a bunch of laughing stocks in the eyes of Scorners and haters!

None in the Republic of South Sudan but the very people of Lakes state themselves can bring an end once and for all to their mini-wars and unnecessary death tolls.

The national government, already stretched thin by other more pressing national emergencies can only facilitate and where necessary, impose in collaboration with local institutions of governance and people in the state, the rule of law and Justice for the victims.

Any perception that the solution is entirely external is void of logic. We must thus put our house in order and cease idle whining and lamentation about the menacing problems.

Things are not being helped by the fact that the state Assembly, a Legislature that was tasked with formulating laws and policy direction has become nothing more than a gossip house!

They no longer know what to do nor what not to do, a vast majority of them have become Residents of Juba by choice or against their choice as talks of “threat” to their lives, real and imaginary are ripe in the corridors of lamentation and one no longer understand where the real cause or solutions lies.

If the members of the most powerful institution, people with the mandate from their electorates to change course of things in the state have become ‘roaming’ whiners and like ordinary citizens, helplessly pointing fingers of blame to one man (Caretaker Governor) and shadowy figures!

The question is then begging itself, is this one man (Caretaker Governor) the real problem or are we (people of Lakes state) spearing the shadow of unknown animal?

Didn’t we complain time and again before that the previous Governors were the problems? Were they not removed in their different times of office and did the madness of killing one another stop?

How can one person be a problem to the extent that Hundreds of Thousands of citizens in the state are helpless in finding solutions to their issues?

To me, I do think that our individual attitudes as well as collective perceptions and actions, more than anything else are to blame for the now ensuing mess which left us with nothing but shame of enormous proportion in the eyes of the nation and beyond.

When shall we come to our collective senses as people of the volatile Lakes state, isn’t our dignity and collective image not battered enough and hence the need to quickly salvage what we can before it all together become uselessly too late to do so?

There is a fundamental problem of perceptions and understanding within us as a society!

Again, there is an old adage which goes “the bigger and influential the position that one occupies in employment, the bigger the size of trousers and shirts one wears.”

This simply means people desperately want big positions in order to enrich themselves more than serving the constituents and this seems to be the trend among politicians of Lakes state.

And this may also explain why almost every politician in the state is eyeing the position of governorship, either for him/herself or his/her “Nominee” to fulfill certain interests; be they individual or collective in the case of clan or tribal politicking.

A pattern of “See nothing say nothing as long as you are in the state government cabinet; and see everything everywhere and shout the loudest as soon as you are reshuffled out,” has manifested itself ominously amongst the amateurish state politicians since the formation of government in 2005.

There is no doubt the governor, whether in the past, in the present or in the future has and will have his shortcomings just as all other human beings are, but to propagate or assume all the ongoing mess including rampant cattle rustling, robbery with violence, cold-blooded killing of innocent people and even Hyenas and dogs gone amok in killing or eating people in the state on one man or woman in position of Governor is a mockery to logic and self-defeating to say the least.

Therefore, I humbly call upon you my people in Lakes state and by extension, in all other violence prone areas in the Republic of South Sudan to rise to the challenge and stop acts of barbarianism and savagery.

It is time each citizen in the affected places of communal violence, cattle rustling and highway banditry begin to ask themselves what criminal acts brought upon them and their communities; and what their obligations to their communities, states and the country at large are.

We all ought to collectively strive to live in peace and harmony and appreciate our cultural and linguistic diversity as an invaluable asset which we must all work hand-in-hand to preserve. Multicultural society we are and differences in opinion, ways of life and religious beliefs we must accept, as long as they are not detrimental to the security and wellbeing of our country.

Our leaders too at different levels of governance need to fully understand and appreciate the needs and challenges pertaining to their constituents and constituencies; formulate clearer road maps for both short term and long term solutions to such and adopt consultative approach as opposed to unilateralism in decision making.

Decisions which affect or have the potentials to affect citizens’ lives are not a matter of clique rushing with it and excluding others, rather they deserve wider consultation and in the process create collective sense of belonging to and ownership of decision making process and hence acceptance of the outcome.

The growing culture of assigning people based on who they know more than what they know is by no mean lesser evil in the debilitating problems of Lakes state and by extension the wider country.

It is my sincere hope and prayer that my people in Lakes state will one day come to their senses and begin to seriously work to restore peace, unity and stability; and regain appreciation and respect by others in the Republic of South Sudan and beyond.

The sooner the better for all! South Sudan, a country for which you (Lakes state people) always walked in the forefront with your compatriot during the liberation struggles of various time, until the people of South Sudan achieved their full independence, need your positive input in the development of the country, not your aimless self-killing.

It is thus heart-breaking to witness the deteriorating situation of senseless killing of innocent people and the acceleration of politics of gossiping and sabotage among the political class of the state, thereby in the process leaving the needs of the citizens unattended to.

While the phenomenon of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a factor in the psychology and actions of individuals in Lakes state, it is not an excuse as it is neither a monopoly of you nor endemic (confined) in Lakes state; it affects all the post-war communities around the globe and other South Sudanese are no exception!

Therefore, let us rid ourselves of this glaring shame we finds ourselves in, my people. Dragging down with you the whole community including innocent, vulnerable and helpless children, women, elderly, physically hindered people, and all the people in the society is no noble cause for sensible and objective-oriented men.

So, to all the warring Gelweng, leave these groups of innocent people as well as innocent travelers through your land out of your self-annihilating fights and think of the future of your children, parents or partners before you act.

To local politicians, you can only be a proud leader of the living people, not of the dead; hence it is high time we all pull our acts together without allowing our individual political interests to interfere with the process of restoring peace and harmony to the lives of our people.

Great men and women in the political history are they who were selfless and who suffered in emancipation of their people.

On the other hand, the most reviled are they who were selfishly self-cantered, greedy and lustful of power; history is not and will never be so kind to them.

What legacy do we want to leave behind in our communities, state and the beloved country? I leave that for you to digest.

Seriously, I mourn all the slain victims of the senseless inter-community or inter-clan fights, particularly those very innocent victims shot dead in their homes, on the roads etc.

The great men who laid the foundation of unity and pride of the people of Lakes state, the like of great chiefs, spear masters, Christian religious leaders, wise and noble men and women of this great but now self-demoting state must be watching down on us in great agony.

But still, it is not and will never be too late to correct the mess and save the peace loving people of South Sudan and the world the heartache and headache of hearing bad news after bad news coming out of Lakes state.

Stop, stop, and stop my people stop the senseless bloodshed now!

“Glory to God in the Highest and Peace on Earth to men who are his friends,” The Friends of God according to Holy Bible, are the righteous who fear God and think of God’s instructions before they act. The instructions of God include “Do not kill” and “love your neighbour as you love yourself”.

Deng M. Koch Dengdit,
The Author is the Former Gurtong Peace Trust Correspondent for Australia and now in South Sudan. He can be reached through: deng.koch2014@gmail.com

Both SPLMs irresponsibility & betrayal at Addis Talks

EDITORIAL ANALYSIS, OCT/01/2014, SSN;

Clearly, whilst millions of South Sudanese citizens are perpetually and painfully languishing in despair, hunger and insecurity, the so-called stake-holders at the prolonged so-called ‘peace talks’ in Addis Ababa are engaging in endless theatrics of irresponsibility, duplicity and self-preservation.

In the latest developments, both Kiir’s government delegation and Machar’s rebels have each proposed two diametrically unworkable and inapplicable modalities of ‘Federalism,’ that’s governance by federal system.

In the first instance, Kiir government’s proposal of the Kenya’s defunct 2007 power-sharing modality between the majority Kikuyu tribal clique of President Mwai Kibaki and the second largest Luo tribe of his political rival Raila Odinga, can’t even be qualified as ‘federalism’ and as such is utterly inconceivable in the context of South Sudan.

In the aftermath of the bitterly disputed presidential elections in which thousands of citizens were needlessly butchered, the Kenyans were forced into power-sharing arrangement which was to placate and accommodate the two majority tribes as a way to achieve some healing and reconciliation among them.

The messy arrangement created the positions of the president, two vice-presidents, the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers.

However, even though the prime minister had the authority to coordinate and supervise the execution of functions and affairs of the government of Kenya, he was obviously eclipsed by the more powerful executive president and his two vices.

In the end, the system was a total disaster, the Kikuyus emerged as expected the ever dominant ruling tribe till today and the Luo, unfortunately, remained forever marginalized and circumscribed from central political power.

Therefore, in our current context, this system is a dead end. Kiir’s support for such a proposal is to perpetually entrench Jieng hegemony and cynically ensure Naath (Nuer) political marginalization akin to their Kenyan Luo cousins!

Machar’s proposal of the Ethiopian federal parliamentary republic system is again a non-starter in the context of the peculiarities and particularities of South Sudan tribal dominance politics.

Ethiopia, with a population of 100 million (2015 prediction), and a longer history of atrocious and deadly rivalries between several much larger ethnic groups, has structured a political system based on 9 ethnically-based administrative areas in addition to the two self-governing Capital City of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.

Furthermore, the Ethiopian president is a figure head though elected by the House of Peoples representatives for a six-year term, whereas, the Prime Minister is the head of government with executive power and a parliament with the legislative powers.

The prime minister obviously comes from the party with the majority following the legislative elections.

All in all, the Ethiopian modality of governance is completely premised on their bitter experiences of the long history of ethnic antagonisms and diversity, but more importantly, on the long imperial rule by the Amharic emperors and the military rule of Mengistu which fatally exacerbated the conflagration of ethnic wars.

Seriously, in contextualizing our current predicament, what we, South Sudanese, are looking forward to is a political system that is not monopolized by either the Dinka or Nuer, and that political modality must be based on equality and justice for all.

Therefore, what those of Kiir and Machar representatives are deliberating in Addis is a concoction of a corrupted modality of ‘Federalism’ that will best satisfy only their separate tribal imperial ambitions of domination and power greediness.

It’s even more mind-boggling to learn that the All-SPLM delegates have worked out a system whereby one person from each of these three All-SPLM groups now assumes the chairmanship of the sessions on daily basis.

They are all clones of that most corrupted system that led our new nation to bleed so badly in this current All-SPLM exacerbated power and ethnic war. Why the hell did they fight against one another in the first place on that fateful day of December 15th, 2013?

Since already proven above that neither the Ethiopian nor the Kenyan modality of ‘federalism’ is acceptable to either groups, why not look further into the more civilized Western world like America, Germany and Canada, for better modalities?

Basically, our primary problem in the ‘new’ South Sudan is the SPLM/A, which has proven itself since coming to power in 2005 as the most FAILED POLITICAL ORGANIZATION ever seen in Africa, with the worst and incompetent so-called ‘leaders,’ with the worst ‘POLITICAL SYSTEM,’ and the most hopeless and sycophantic ‘FOLLOWERS AND SUPPORTERS’ of that failed system and its leader.

Be it inept president Kiir or rebel Machar, and all the G-11s and the Lam Akol’s, all are morbidly tainted and corrupted with that failed SPLM/A contagion, including the uncouth, uneducated SPLA military generals, who remorselessly kill each other and yet the next day, have the temerity to hug each other as if the dead they just murdered were just some dead cows!

These SPLM/A adherents, who within the shortest time in history unimaginable, have utterly devastated the soul of the nation, as evidenced by their shameless prostration and pretence at the Addis talks.

Whilst they are being so graciously and luxuriously supplicated by IGAD, the real South Sudanese on the ground are needlessly being tortured, bullied and eviscerated by their undisciplined military foot soldiers down across the nation.

Since coming to power, the SPLM/A monstrosity of so-called leadership in collusion with foreign interests, robbed all the rich resources our nation is endowed with and then built a violent and extractive political order which has subsequently led to the current crisis.

To conclude, what is advisedly prudent for those in the All-SPLM talks in Addis Ababa is to draft a new political modality based on federalism that is fair, workable and acceptable to all sections of the country and its various nationalities.

Advisedly, the federalism proposed by the Equatorians, which can be further improved upon, looks more truly accommodating to all the various ethnic and sectarian interests across the country, except that a new clause be included that leaves room for any community to opt out or into the proposed ‘states.’

As regards to the national or central authority, there will be a national head of state with limited powers, and perhaps with that post being rotated among the various states or nationalities.

Finally, instead of solely relying and depending on those dead-brained and soul-less SPLM/A delegates now faking as unrepentant peace-brokers, we should seek better learned legal and constitutional brains from the real civilized world to help in drafting the new political modality being proposed at Addis.

Surely, an ALL-SPLM monstrosity that’s truly ‘TOO DEFORMED TO BE REFORMED’ can’t be solely relied upon to draft any document that’s most certainly bound to fail, disappoint and to let us down again.

Spare us from further humiliation & put the damn expat expulsion circular on the shelf

BY: AGOK TAKPING, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, SEP/25/2014, SSN;

The minister of labour Mr Ngor Kolong Ngor in the government of South Sudan issued a circular last week demanding that NGOs and other private businesses in the country must expel those expatriates who are doing jobs that can easily be done by the host country’S nationals (HCNs) by 15 October 2014 and fill those vacant positions with South Sudanese nationals.

This sparked an overly malicious outcry from our neighbours particularly Kenyans and Ugandans with some media outlets in those countries going as far as calling South Sudan a “kid who doesn’t know how to appreciate” and or a “person who bites the hand that feed him.”

In addition, some individuals in social media from the aforementioned countries called South Sudanese as primitives and monkeys.

However, by looking at the current Kenyan president, his vice president and two former presidents and not to mention the influential opposition leader, Mr Raila Odinga, I see myself (black South Sudanese) not so different from Kenyans in term of colour. Thus the monkey-like insult is simply misplaced and phony.

Calling us “people who don’t appreciate” is also hypocritical, because if I sit down and try to reflect on what Kenyan people have done to South Sudanese during our 21 years civil war, I will not come up with a single good experience.

Kenyans have never been hospitable to South Sudanese despite the fact that the exponential growth of their economy in the last decade or so can be directly or indirectly attributed to South Sudanese.

In 1990’s UNHCR opened up a refugee camp in the middle of the most inhospitable part of Kenya (Kakuma) for South Sudanese refugees. Kakuma became the largest refugee camp in the world which created thousands of jobs for Kenyans.

The same UN turned Lokichoggio (a remote town in northern Kenya) into a coordination centre for South Sudan relief. Again thousands of Kenyans were employed, many small businesses including brothels were booming and Lokichoggio became a thriving major economic centre in Turkana district overtaking Lodwar.

Furthermore other better-off South Sudanese flocked to “down country” including Nairobi, Eldoret, Kitale…etc. and rented thousands of houses, they also took their kids to schools and paid schools fees.

Nevertheless, without appreciating the fortune which South Sudanese brought to Kenya, South Sudanese were openly subjected to some despicable harassments and police brutality.

For South Sudanese, walking down on a street in Nairobi became a warrant for a kidnap-like arrest and to be released one must pay ransom/bribe to the police, it became a way of life for South Sudanese living in Kenya.

It was only after the signing of the CPA in 2005 when Kenyans began to treat us like brothers and sisters. The change of behaviour came about because Kenyans saw the opportunity to exploit South Sudanese, it works.

The exodus to South Sudan has begun, vendors, “professionals” with faked certificates, thieves, prostitutes, you name it, flocked to South Sudan in search for wealth. You could hear them saying, “look at these stupid South Sudanese, we are sucking them up, kabitha, and they don’t see it,” “Hahah” and they laughed.

But can we blame them? We led ourselves down in the last nine years of combined autonomy and independence.

Had we built at least three major cross-country highways, had we built at least one major dam for both water and electricity, had we upgraded at least two major universities to the level of modern universities, had we at least laid down a foundation for modern farming, had we at least built one major food processing centre.

More importantly, if we had been loving and treating ourselves with respect, Kenyans would have at least showed us some respect.

However, at the moment they don’t see themselves in equal terms with us, our government may think there exists bilateral relation between Kenya and South Sudan based on mutual respect but in real sense there is nothing like that.

Kenyans know whatever we import from them including goods, health, education, and holidays is a result of desperation and not that we prefer them over other countries. This perception will continue until the time they see us producing 50% of the things we normally import.

We must, however, give credit where it is due, Ugandans were the only people who treated us with respect when we had nothing. No one was ever arrested on the street in Kampala because he/she was a South Sudanese, we were given the same right that Ugandan citizens have.

Therefore, they are the only people who have a very right to get angry with us if they feel they are being targeted or mistreated in South Sudan.

Back to the circular, the intention of the minister of labour was good, South Sudanese are loitering in Juba doing nothing while all the jobs are taken up by the foreigners.

No government in any country in any continent that would tolerate what is happening in South Sudan where the percentage of expatriates in the entire workforce is higher than that of the HCNs.

However as usual, the minister of labour like many of his colleagues in ROSS just woke up in the morning and begun issuing the circular without thinking it through. The circular was poorly planned and badly written which subjected it to multiple interpretations, assumptions and misconceptions.

Firstly, jobs that the minister would want to be reserved or vacated for South Sudanese should have been precisely defined. The continuous attempt by the foreign minister to clarify the circular make it even more confusing.

For example, the foreign minister in his effort to clarify the circular explained that “by executive directors, we mean executive secretaries and secretaries, and by public relations positions, the circular meant receptionists and other front desk workers, as well as protocol officers” (www.sudantribune.com).

This is embarrassing, where on earth can EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR mean EXECUTIVE SECRETARY? Yes English language is not our language and nobody expects us to speak it like the English people do but in writing, the errors we are expected to make would be grammatical but not writing different words with entirely different meanings and expect people to know what you mean which is totally different.

Executive director is the very top person who is responsible for steering the company, he/she is the one who makes decisions. Executive Secretary on the other hand is a person who keep the executive director’s briefcase (office manager).

Mixing or confusing the two positions indicates the lack of deliberation on the circular and that should be enough to discontinue it.

Secondly, the circular should have never been retrospective, that is, it needs not to apply to those foreigners who are already employed. The process of employing a new employee and training him/her takes a minimum of six months before he/she can do the job independently with confidence.

Thus giving businesses and NGOs one month to terminate their existing workers and hire new workers is dreadful. It will send a very bad message to businesses and that can simply scare away potential businesses from investing in South Sudan.

If the labour minister and the government led by president Kiir is genuinely caring about the rampant unemployment among South Sudanese and they want to tackle it retrospectively, here is what needs to happen:

— the government needs to introduce graduate program. To eliminate the chronic nepotism, the government can hire internationally renowned companies like Deloitte which is already in Juba to run the graduate program; or if the money is an issue, they can also ask UN or its affiliate like USAID to help in running the graduate program.

— The government will need to enter an agreement with all NGOs and private businesses in regard to how the graduate will be employed. In the agreement, businesses and NGOs will have to give the government the list of the positions which are currently occupied by expatriates’ employees, the government will then take the list to the graduate program coordinator.

— The graduate program coordinator who must not be South Sudanese will then advertise the positions and conduct all the employment process. The only graduate needed to apply will be South Sudanese, both at home and in diaspora.

— These graduates will then be taken by NGOs and private businesses and assigned the very person (expatriate) who is holding the position to train and make the transition as smooth as possible. This apprenticeship like training will need to continue for one year and after that the expatriate will need to be redundant and get his/her payout.

— While in training with the business or NGO, the government needs to pay this graduate for one year until he/she takes over from the expatriate. Businesses or NGOs must not be compelled to pay the wages of South Sudanese graduates while in training because the whole thing is not their initiative.

— To prevent private businesses and NGOs from exploiting such a system, any position that has become vacant must be advertised separately, it needs not be included into graduate program although it must as well be given to South Sudanese nationals.

— The aim of the graduate program would be to find competent South Sudanese who would replace expatriates in private businesses and NGOs, it would continue until there are no more expatriates holding common positions (positions other executive director) in those private businesses and NGOs which are operating in South Sudan.

— As with other expatriates who are holding nonprofessional positions, the government can just sit back and wait for each one of those expatriates to have his/her work permit expire and then refuse to renew it again.

Disclaimer: views expressed in this article are the opinions of the author. Agok Takpiny is a concerned South Sudanese in Melbourne Australia. He can be reached on agoktakpiny@ymail.com