Archive for: September 2016

South Sudan Army (SPLA) Politics of disrespect for their dead members

By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, LDC, Kampala, Uganda, SEP/21/2016, SSN;

Revering the dead is a culture of humanity. It is done in different parts of the world and by different communities. In Traditional American Indian burial prayer, for instance, the respect of the dead is shown in the way they are talked to as if they are alive.

The dead are part and parcel of the living community members and they must be respected. In Traditional African Communities and in particular Dinka Community, the Dead are respected because they are considered to be part of the living.

In addition, in Dinka Community the families of the Dead are looked after and even those who died before getting married, their brothers or other living relatives marry for them wives. The question is: why do we respect the Dead?

There are a number of good reasons, both moral and material aspects for respecting the Dead. First of all, the dead had contributed to the welfare of the living members of their community while they were alive.

Sometime they might have sacrificed their valuable lives to save the community by lying the lives down. Besides, the dead have left their families that they used to cater for as they were the sole bread winners, so they expected their living to respect them through taking care of their families whom they left behind.

The statement in the above paragraph explains as to why the livings are not allowed to kill ourselves when a person they depend on dies; this is because he expected them to continue his or her legacy. Thus, his widows and orphans plus other close relatives are stopped from killing themselves while grieving because they represent him in the world of the livings.

Spiritually, the Dead are considered to be closer to God and because of that they are seen as interceding for the living and protect them from bad spirits or evil spirit as the Christians may term them.

In moral aspect, the Dead are part of traditions and customs and act as conscience that guides our actions in all areas. Hence, majority of the Dinka people and other tribes in South Sudan used to hate corruption because it was uncouth and anti-South Sudanese Culture to be involved in corruption of all kinds.

However, in South Sudan today things are different in term of morals. Morals are thrown to the dogs and the life is becoming meaningless as it is equated with wealth in terms of money. Thus, as Sigmund Freud has put it in his Book, Civilization and its Discontent:

“It is impossible to escape the impression that people commonly use false standards of measurement that they seek power, success and wealth for themselves and admire them in others, and that they underestimate what is of true value in life. In making any general judgment of the sort as pointed out by Fred, we are in danger of forgetting how variegated the human world and its mental life are.”

In fact, there are a few people from whom their contemporaries do not withhold admiration, although their greatness rests on attributes and achievements which are completely foreign to the aims and ideals of the multitude as seen in the case of the Late General, Lat Makoi.

As Sigmund Fred again explains above, the proper conclusion one can reach when reflection over the greatness of people is that the greatness of any person does not lie in how much wealth one has but it is found in how much love for humanity one has, as seen in the case of Nelson Mandela in South Africa and Martin Luther King in North America.

However, in South Sudan today the tendency is that greatness is seen in terms of wealth. So the people are struggling to corrupt the country in the process of accumulating unbridled wealth in order to be rich and famous.

Therefore, the Dead are no longer respected is because they are seen as not product and contrary to the interest of those who are struggling to be rich. Hence, the respect for the dead is no longer part of culture and morals of the so-called “powerful and tycoons of South Sudan”.

If such tycoons respect the dead then it is only done out of formality. This is because corruption for physical resources has engulfed and swallowed up the community as people struggle over limited resources with insatiable desire for becoming rich and famous.

For the above reasons, the Dead no longer have room in the kingdom of the rich of South Sudan and in particular in the heart of the top army generals. There is no respect for the dead in the army as the mission of some top generals is to achieve material wealth and power. Hence, the politics in the army has taken a dirty twist as the dead and their families are being ignored.

Members of the army are being used like slaves who are valued for their services but upon their death, they are forgotten and their families are no longer in the priority of the masters.

Then, the question is: why serving a system that does not care for the welfare of its members, a system that is set in a way that disregards the families of its dead members?

I am really angry with the way the Dead army members and their families are treated by the top generals who strongly believe in wealth, power and fame to the extent of forgetting they were one time mere soldiers with no ranks.

I came to the realization of the fact that things are not good in the army of South Sudan and there is a dead politics that has reached the extent of disrespecting the dead. How on earth can a family of a general who devoted the rest of his life in serving South Sudan being treated in a contemptible manner as shown to the Late General, Lat Makoi?

The Late General, Lat Makoi, served the SPLA for the whole of his life. He joined the rebel Movement, Anyanya 11 which was later transformed into the SPLA/M in 1983. Sadly enough, though he was a very bright student and had a bright future ahead of him (had followed his dream that he had in Rumbek Senior of becoming a medical doctor), he had to sacrifice his future in order to fight for the right to self determination of South Sudanese that was realized in 2011.

Due to his dedication and hard work, he climbed ranks and files until he became a general when he died on 17th September, 2016. Because of his hard work and moral integrity, he was highly respected when he was alive, no one knew including him that one day he would be disrespected even inside the tomb.

Nonetheless, after his death we were shocked and dismayed how deadly the politics is in the army of South Sudan.

The question is: if the politics affected top generals the way it negatively affected the Late General Lat Makoi’s family, what would be the status of the mere soldiers who are in the front lines? It is obvious and I do not need an answer here.

However, the politics in the army of South Sudan has reached the extent that without reforms the country will be thrown into further and worse chaos. What makes such a politics even worse is the fact that it is mixed with immoral and corrupt practices among some of the top generals who use the army code of discipline to perpetuate corruption.

Moreover, the army is not different from cattle keeping and hunting because army is very much based on tribes and because of that if a person does not have anybody on the top of military hierarchy then he can be borrowed at day light.

There is no difference between militias and trained armies in South Sudan. Corruption has created porous inlet in which all kinds of persons are allowed into the army even though they are not trained.

As a result, majority of the soldiers are not trained but they’ve been corruptly given ranks that put them above the trained soldiers and since their mission for joining the army was not to serve South Sudan but to get money, then, they are corrupting the army system to become rich as soon as possible.

Where there is corruption the first victims are always valuable morals and cultures. For that reason, valuable South Sudanese cultures and morals that use to respect human rights and the dead have been sacrificed at the altar of corruption and the high priests, who are top army generals are wielding sharp knives ready to cut anybody who points out the vice of corruption in the army.

Therefore, the lower ranking army officers and other army members without ranks are being mistreated, their salaries are being grabbed by some of the generals and if they complain, they are subjected to the army disciplinary code that does not allow complaints against misdeeds of the top army generals hence the lower soldiers always appeal to their guns to shoot down the army generals as a solution to their grievances.

Moreover, even in among generals the generals who are not corrupt or who hate corruption are hated by corrupt generals and mistreated. Lat General Lat Makoi was one of the few army generals in South Sudan who hated corruption but because of that he had to pay for his sin of hating corruption.

It was worse to see that even after his death his family was subjected to the same politics in the army in South Sudan. His family was promised that the plane was being prepared by the government to come and pick them in Kampala Uganda due to the insecurity on the road to Juba.

Nonetheless, the politics came and destroyed the plan as one of the top generals who was supposed to sign the paper in order for plane to come refused and the reason for his refusal was not given. As a result, the children of the late and his wife were forced to risk the insecurity by travelling by road which was dangerous. However, the children had reached safely.

In short, the way the family of the Late General, John Lat Makoi was treated leaves much to be desired. It appears that those who were against him in the army when he was alive are still after his family and his soul even after he died.

South Sudan army politics of disrespect for the dead members should stop if the army will continue to support the system because it is useless to support the corrupt system that segregates it members.

NB//: the writer can be reached through:

The ‘South Sudan Report’ and the morality of profiting from a neighbour’s misfortune

By Charles Onyango-Obbo, DAILY MONITOR, Uganda, SEP/14/2016, SSN;

The much-anticipated report on corruption and war-profiteering in conflict-wracked South Sudan was published on Monday.

Produced by investigative unit “The Sentry” co-funded by American actor George Clooney and activist John Prendergast, it spent two years following the money trail.

It reports some extraordinary looting, nepotism, and corruption by the South Sudan political and military elite who have made themselves rich while the country has been impoverished by a civil war of their making.
There are no saints and villians, both President Salva Kiir and his former deputy and rival Riek Machar have their snouts in the murk.

The report makes for sad reading, but one cannot help reflect on the ways in which South Sudan is different from almost every country in the region. Almost everywhere else, you have a few years of idealism and an attempt to do good after independence or liberation. Then the “revolution” stalls or is hijacked, and the corruption starts. No such thing for South Sudan.

The new country hit the ground stealing, so to speak. The other thing, which shouldn’t really be surprising, the report says the top leaders in the country have invested in property in neighbouring Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda. It also says that they have interests in Australia.

Army Chief, Gen Paul Malong, also the grand polygamist of Juba, and the man blamed for a lot of the recent madness in the country, has at least two luxurious mansions in Uganda in addition to a $2m mansion in Nairobi.

It’s last bit that interests us most today, because Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia have also been the regional mediators.

If you are God-loving or a human rights activist, you would find something terribly wrong with that because it seems the three countries are actually profiting from the conflict in South Sudan, so how can they be expected to go the extra kilometre to make peace there. And wouldn’t the ability of the belligerents to invest in these countries give them an easy way out and thus remove the incentive for them to compromise for peace?

However, the South Sudan conflict has also stunk up the neighbourhood, increased regional risk, and taken away some points from its attraction as an investment destination. The loss, some economists argue, is higher than the gain.

But if you flip the argument, you could argue that because neighbouring countries also get refugees (as dramatically illustrated in Uganda’s case with the new flood of South Sudanese refugees), suffer from loss of trading opportunities, and are hit by the “stink factor” referred to earlier, they deserve some “compensation”.

Profiting from a neighbour’s misfortune is one way of doing this.

These events, however, also point to some changes in our region, as indeed the rest of Africa, since the economic liberalisation wave kicked off at the end of the 1980s.

There are more private businesses, more rich people, and more thieving politicians who are skimming off the fat.
All these people now need “first stop” destinations where they hedge against future instability at home, a place where they can keep their money, buy expensive homes.

Next, they move to “second stop” destinations – London, Geneva, New York – where they stash their wealth to hedge against the bigger “Africa risk”.

For this reason, it has become important for countries to invest in “stability” in ways it wasn’t 30 years. The reward for being viewed as stable can be huge – both honest and crooked people – will take their money out of their countries and put it in yours, giving your economy – especially the banking sector – a liquidity boost.

If you get it wrong, like South Sudan has, everyone will steal and take their loot out. It’s a diverse business with a grey (or even dark) side, because you don’t just need stability. You also require a certain permissiveness that guarantees these people who bring their money confidentiality.

In other words, that no one in Kampala will come to ask Malong where he found the $2 million to buy his villa.

For example, it is said that Paul Kagame’s Rwanda, the anti-corruption republic, has not really ended corruption as such, it has driven a lot of it off the radar. So what do Rwanda’s corrupt do? They use Uganda and Kenya as their “first stop” destinations to stash their “unexplained surplus”.

On the other hand, the “Rwandaphonie” business people in eastern DR Congo stash their money in Rwanda, because there, it is safe from seizure from the bouts of “anti-Tutsi” politics that often erupts there.

So there is that bit – a “first stop” destination can also be a sanctuary. It’s complicated.

Mr Onyango-Obbo is the editor of Africa data visualiser and explainer site Twitter@cobbo3

Critique of Prof. John Akec’s Mistaken UN Trusteeship

BY: James Okuk, PhD, Juba University, SEP/18/2016, SSN;

As my part-time top boss at University of Juba, I would like to thank the Vice Chancellor, Prof. John Akec for keeping his private hobby of public writing. Many intellectuals of South Sudan and in many other African Countries abandon their hobbies when they become bosses. He needs to be appreciated and encouraged to keep up this consistency and freedom of expression.

What attracted my attention is Prof. Akec’s reference to St. Augustine and Thomas Hobbes to justify his apologetic defence of Juba’s suspicion and reservation on the awaited Regional Protection Force. I’m saying this because I have been a lecturer of “Comparative Political Thought” in the esteemed University of Juba since 2012, both to Arabic and English patterned students of the Department of Political Science.

The evolution of political thought, some of which are practiced in many countries to date, is an area I have admired with great interest. Thus, I must thank the electronic engineer, Prof. John Akec, for becoming an active participant in the classic political field, though.

I would have wished to invite him to attend a special lecture on the context and content on St. Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin who had put forward some rigorous political thinking in the history of human governance, especially in regard to ‘Sovereignty and the Sovereign’ in time of ‘Peace’ and ‘War’.

Those great thinkers of the middle ages in Europe were concerned much about “Sovereignty of the Monarch”. This political situation was broadened and cemented by the Treaty of Westphalia (October 1648) that legitimised the limited European Nation-States’ Systems and Principles between the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of France and their respective Allies.

However, the French Revolution (known also as the people’s bread revolution) and the American Declaration of Independence (known also as the people’s land revolution) made the Westphalia Treaty irrelevant for constitutional liberalism and democratisation of the modern nation-states. The Centre of ‘Sovereignty’ shifted from ‘I the King for the State’ to ‘We the People for the Nation’.

The sovereignty as far as St. Augustine and Thomas Hobbes were concerned was about “I the King” only with disregard to the centrality of the people and their dignified livelihood welfare. Is this what Prof. John Akec is trying to argue for South Sudan now?

Even Hobbes conditioned the necessity of the sovereign and the government on “not killing the subjects and also not instilling fear in them.” The Hobbesian Leviathan was for absolute peace and security of the people. Once the sovereign and the government break this condition, then they should immediately lose the value to continue ruling the nation in a state.

St. Augustine has also conditioned the sovereignty on ‘Peace and Justice’, with permissible ‘War of a Just Cause’, conducted through right intention, declared by a competent authority with good faith, and using proportional military force while discriminating the non-combatant citizens (i.e women, children, the elderly, the clergy, etc.) from the warriors of the sinful ‘City of Man’ who are being punished by divine authority to repent and return to goodness of ‘City of God’ for everlasting eternal grace.

Once peace and justice is denied to the citizens, then the sovereign and government should be prayed upon for divine fire of deposition and salvation for a new replacement.

Jean Bodin defined sovereignty as “Absolute”, “Indivisible” and “Complete”, the attributes which are not nearer to the situation of the divided South Sudan on the power of their current government.

Therefore, Prof. Akec shouldn’t kindly misquote these intellectual historical giants to mislead the public about ‘sovereignty’ and how UN Protection Force is “Trusteeship” in another name.

If the Prof. isn’t yet aware and informed about the matter, let him now know that the UN Charter since the end if World War II in 1945 doesn’t allow ‘UN Trusteeship” for an independent state with full UN and other regional organisations memberships.

The UN Charter and AU Constitutive Act predicate the modern sovereignty on: a)Protection of the population without discrimination, b) Undivided loyalty of the citizens to the state, c) Enforceability of government powers in all the jurisdictional and integral territory, d) Cooperation with the UN and other international and regional bodies based on treaties, mutual recognition and other legitimate obligations, and e) Viability of the state and sustainability of its government among other nations.

Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (December 1933) is what has defined the modern and contemporary state, not necessarily the traditional medieval nation-state any longer. Article (1) defines a state as a person of international law that possesses a) permanent population (i.e, not Refugees or IDPs), b) a defined territory, c) government, and d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

Also the Westphalia principles of equality of states, non intervention of one state in the internal affairs of another state and “forgiving the sins of the past” are no longer practiced in vacuum, especially when the UNSC, in accordance with the UN Charter, defines a situation as ‘threat to international peace and security’ as it came out in Resolution Number 2304 (2016) and acts via a “peace-keeping” long-term strategy or “peace-enforcement” emergency response in accordance with the principle of “the Responsibility to Protect”.

The Republic of South Sudan should not be made an exception on the evolution of the power of multilateral diplomacy and international relations. The Juba Varsity Prof. Akec has missed the intellectual goal that a professor shouldn’t afford to mess up with.

The Regional Protection Force and UNMISS-Plus is not and can’t turn into a formal trusteeship force in South Sudan because their mandate is clear and supplementarily limited to restoring the direly needed peace and security environment in the embattled country from all fronts.

That was why Juba signed a Joint Communique on 4th September 2016 with the UNSC Members who came to the country for first hand information and experience of the gravity of the situation.
Dr. James Okuk is a lecturer of politics in University of Juba reachable at

Alliance for S. Sudanese in Diaspora condemn Kiir for Killing Civil Societies members

SEPT/18/2016, SSN; The alliance for South Sudanese in Diaspora welcomes the strong language used by the United States government in the person of the permanent Ambassador to the United Nations, Samantha Power, in expressing outrage and condemning the Juba Junta Regime of Salva Kiir Mayerdit for its killing and harassment of Members of the Civil Societies with whom we express solidarity.

We are quite certain the government of the United States is aware of the killing of Emmanuel Wani but also the exiling of many members of the Civil Societies who had to escape the country for fear of their lives.

In solidarity with our fellow Civil Society members in South Sudan and in agreement with the government and the People of United states of America, We condemn in the strongest term the killing of those who strive for a better south Sudan for all not just for some few.

The Juba junta government must not be given a free ride when it commits atrocities against its very own citizens. We call for freedom of expressions and associations, which are at the core of democracy and are indelible natural rights.

By speaking out and holding the regime accountable, the government of the United States of America will end up saving lives because every south Sudanese knows Juba listens when America speaks. We applaud Mrs. Samantha Power for speaking out on behalf of all whose voices have been muted by death or threats thereof.

George Imuro, MD
Executive Director
Alliance for South Sudanese in Diaspora
A Washington Base south Sudanese Civil Society organization

Nullifying The Sentry Report is Turning a Blind Eye to War on Corruption in South Sudan

BY: John Adoor Deng, Australia, SEPT/16/2016, SSN;

The recent published Sentry Report presented by the Coalition of Independent Organisations, on the war related corruptions allegation has generated a considerable debate among the South Sudanese elites especially the South Sudanese diaspora communities. I am also told that many kiosks and tea places in Juba and in other capital cities in South Sudan are inundated by the discussions around the stated report.

It is overwhelmingly noted that the Sentry Report has polarised South Sudanese elites, with some arguing that; firstly, the report is biased and serves as an intention for Regime Change in South Sudan.

These groups of debaters seem to suggest that a call on corruption must not start from the top leadership as this may be hardly fought given the intrinsic fact that most African leaders act above the law and so is President kiir.

Thus in their view, the alternative projection is that any vice could be best fought at the middle leadership level and using the top leadership to hammer it altogether.

The second group of debaters argue that the Sentry Report has demeaned the expectations held before it was published. It was widely expected that the report could parade some pathways of corruptions, nailing the flow of money and resources from institutions to institutions, from individuals to individuals and company to company respectively.

However, this report miserably failed to allude to these predicted findings and none of these foreseen findings were explicit in the Sentry Report.

The report left room for manipulations even by the most corrupt officials in terms of its lacking of indisputable details that could be used to hunt them down. The debaters asserted that the report is shallow and has given soft messages to the most corrupt individuals in the country and has in effect demonstrated weak process of fighting corruption.

The third group of debaters affirm that the Sentry Report has “belled the cat,” they believe it is a good beginning at the right place and time. These groups of debaters have presented reasonable arguments in one way or another.

However, I personally concur with the third group in that the Sentry Report is well placed and could not be thrown away with the bathing water. The context of the report is very clear right from the onset. It is and was meant to expose war-related corruption, which it has squarely achieved.

Although this report may not change much in terms of persecuting the alleged corrupt officials, nevertheless the truth has been spoken, and the dirty hands of the ruling elites have been nakedly exposed.

Truly, their depicted lifestyles with their families speak volumes to the suffering masses of South Sudan who cannot afford even to hold to one meal a day.

Its speak volumes to child soldiers, suffering at the trenches in the frontlines tuned to fight his own brother from the other tribe. The report speaks volumes to the common soldiers who are not paid for months and whose families are in displaced camps, with their kids not going to school because of lack of school fees.

Interestingly, while these soldiers continue to suffer immensely, their good Boss in the army is buying homes and villas worth millions of dollars. It is paradoxical, that the General could not pay salaries of his soldiers but at the same time, accrue enough money to buy villas and mansions abroad for millions of dollars.

In conclusion, I hold the view that the Sentry Report is a good start on the war of corruption and exposing corruption at the very top is “belling the unbellable” cat that has jogged unbelled for years.

Although not much may change as a result of this report, however, few elements exposed in the report in my view will go through adjustments.

For example, the sons of the elephants will as a result of this report change the notoriety of their lifestyles. People like Lual Malong must cease boasting extravagantly of richness for money he earned not on social media.

The sons of the president will change their unconscientious occupations (sons of the president). After all, where on earth is being a son of X become one occupation? Why do they (sons of X) expose themselves that much?

Don’t they know that in every airport they enter and when their passports are scanned, they become known and in this insecure world it is not advisable for one to expose his or her privacy? In my view, they are making themselves susceptible to external forces for no reason!

To president Kiir, this report is a wakeup call for him as Head of State to fight corruption. The report shall supposedly energised him to fight corruption more fiercely in the country.

He cannot afford as a known honest person to be the target on the war on corruption while he knows the real spoilers and corrupt individuals who are even richer than him in the country. It is now upon him to use all tools at his disposal to expose the faces of these faceless corrupt officials.

To the generals alleged to have squandered public funds, this report brought home hard lessons to learn as their subordinates may start questioning the delays of their supposedly monthly salaries.

Through this exposure, no more general shall transact huge money to their personal accounts whether through companies or relatives. They will now know that the world is watching them in amazement.

To analysts, people like Biar Ajak of the Centre of Strategic Studies and Dr Jok Madut of USA. We should not as elites who have had the opportunity to learn how corruption is fought in Western world, turn to defend the indefensible on the war of corruption.

It must be waged on many fronts and any exposure should be treated as opportunity to fight the vice and the Sentry Report has provided good basis to accelerate fighting corruption in South Sudan. Thus nullifying the Sentry Report amounts to turning a blind eye to the war on corruption in South Sudan.

The author can be reach by email:

The Jieng Council of Elders (JCE) 2015 Master Plan: Dinka Development Plan for 200 years!

From Juba, SEP/14/2016, SSN;

After studying the different regions and peoples of South Sudan to find out what the different tribes think and do, here is the feedback from fellow Jieng who work in different regions of South Sudan. On how ready they are to advise on how best the Jieng can rule South Sudan as per the Dinka culture.

Here below is our advice:

First, the Jieng were mistreated by the British colonialists and after the departure of the British upon South Sudan attaining independence, all the tribes of South Sudan despised us. We had very few educated Jieng, which led to all the top government posts being filled by people from other tribe. This made Jieng to envy other tribes.

We are now totally convinced that should we follow to the letter what is stipulated in this document, herewith known as The Dinka Development Plan (DDP) Dinka shall rise and shine and we shall be able to rule South Sudan for at least 200 years!

Fundamental steps to be taken by Jieng:

1. Increase the number of schools in Dinka states and post in them highly educated teachers. We shall take it upon ourselves to fill the schools with pupils and students every year.

2. We must ensure that Jieng are made military officers in order to equate the of non Dinka Military Officers, or even to supersede them. We must not accept the non-Dinka to boast that they are cleverer than us.

3. With immediate effect, send Jieng students abroad on scholarships. We must ensure that vacancies are reserved for them in key government positions to deter people from other tribes being employed in such positions, such that our sons and daughters get employed immediately upon their return. In the unlikely event, should a non Dinka be employed in key position, then he should not be a boss to a Jieng

4. Increase the number of industries and factories in Dinka States in order to boost our economic power. We are well aware that this will cause the other districts to become jealous of any developments in Dinka, but this shall force the other regions to federate with us is basing on our strong purchasing power base. The only serious opposition we might face from the non Dinka, especially should the number of industries in their region increases.

5. We are aware that there is a considerable number of non-Dinka in the army police and Prisons’ forces more than the Jieng We should increase the numbers of Jieng to supersede the non-Dinka, and we request that this be implemented as soon as possible. We foresee our danger and forces in order to topple government. We therefore recommend that the following Non Dinka army officers Clement Wani Konga, Johnson, Juma Okot and Rizik Hassan Zachariah relieve immediately in order to promote Jieng army officers to head the armed forces and govern state.

We do not trust other tribes, we need General Paul Malong maintain the position of Chief of Staff. With respect to Police, General Pieng Deng should be removed from the position of the Inspector General of Police and General Manyok should be made the commissioner for Prisons.

Should these recommendations delay to be implemented, we shall suffer heavily. There is quite a considerable number of non Dinka officers in the Police and Prisons forces have served for quite a long time although they are not well educated.

We should promote these not so intelligent elderly officers but not the young energetic Jieng youthful officers should be strategically put to work side by side with these non-Dinka officers so that with time we weed out the non-Dinka and replace them with the Jieng youthful officers.

The good in keeping the elderly non-Dinka officers is that they despise any advice from the youthful non-Dinka that could lead them to get ideas of topping our government. We should be wary of despite being illiterate because he can easily join with intelligent Nuer who can plan to topple our government. We do not want that non-Dinka, to be head of the Special Branch, this post should be given to a Jieng.

6. We wish that all recruiting officers in all government departments are Jieng this will give a chance to those Jieng who did not get access to education to get access to wealth. Any NGOs or foreign national who mistreats a Jieng should be expelled from South Sudan.

The following ministries should be headed by Jieng:

Finance and Economic Planning Agriculture; Education, Health, Defense, Interior and national security The non-Dinka should not be given an opportunity to head ministries or even departments that are directly in the line of developing the country.

7. Whenever a need arises to carry out a project in non-Dinka state, the same project should also be carried out in Dinka states, as a must. Should there be any program to be executed by the non Dinka, we must see to it that also Jieng officers are involved.

8. Send as many Jieng officers as possible to work in non-Dinka states, especially as Army officers, Prison Warders, Wildlife officers and at the borders. This shall make the people in non-Dinka States believe that we Jieng are the best educated and most suitable.

Ensure that the Police Commissioner for non-Dinka States is always a Jieng who shall give us a non-compromised report or exactly what the non-Dinka are up to. These Police commissioners in non-Dinka state should also encourage the fanning of divisions among the non-Dinka and any progressive non-Dinka with the intent of uniting non-Dinka should be deal with.

In fact should there be any developmental projects to be carried out in non Dinka state, they should be along the border areas with Dinka state in order for the Jieng to benefit the most.

9. Please ensure that many Jieng join and lead all political parties in south Sudan, as this will make the other tribes believe that it is only the Jieng who are capable of leading the nation. We should instill this myth in the minds of all the other tribes by ensuring that only Jieng are appointed in key administrative posts.

This will serve us well since the country is headed for development because then all the other tribes in South Sudan shall be made to believe that it is only Jieng who are capable of being good leaders and that anything good can only be found in Dinka.

10. The Jieng are quite unhappy about the current boundaries with non Dinka States This is particularly in greater Upper Nile state.

11. We should be secretive on whatever goes on within Dinka. All developmental projects in states should not be broadcast on the national Radio or even in the newspapers. People without a strong foundation should not be allowed to work in Dinka states.

At the same time, people who are well conversant with Dinka but despise us should also not be allowed in Dinka states. This should be so be in order to avoid the impression that Dinka state is being developed at a fast rate at the expense of other regions.

12. The following Leading government agencies should be headed by Jieng: Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of national security, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of finance and Ministry of Education. All this is possible but it seems that there is an element of inferiority complex.

This is the full report of our investigations from all the 10 states of South Sudan.

As per our wishes, there should be no elections at all. For what benefit is it to hold general elections today? The general elections we held in the first place was because we wanted to end, now whom do we want to expel to necessitate the holding of general elections?

We acknowledge the authority commanded by the President SPLA/M, a phenomenon that has generated a lot of envy among our fellow SPLM inner circle. Should we allow any other person to take over that position, we as Jieng shall be subjected to enormous suffering.

We should increase the ranks of Jieng officers within the army and not from any other tribe. We and the commander of the Special Force must be a Jieng and not from any other tribe. We do not want Non Dinka to head the Special Branch. They are not be trusted and can easily poison us.

There is no doubt that we are capable of ruling South Sudan for 50 years should General Salva Kiir Mayardit collaborate with the great sons of Jieng such as Gen. Paul Malong, Gen. Kuol Mayang Juk, Tiller Riing, Pieng Deng, David Deng Athorbei and God blessed us to cooperate and work together.

Should anyone attempt to do our President any harm, we are willing to sacrifice our own lives for him.
Long live our son, we are his confidants and this document should remain confidential, and be circulated only amongst our most trusted.


Our Great Leader, General Salva Kiir Mayardit:

1. You should not be deceived by anyone that the Non Dinka detests James Wani lgga. We the Jieng like Gen. Malong so much, because it is through him that we can deal decisively with the Non Dinka.

2. Save us from the non-Dinka the likes of Pagan Amum who should not be made the Secretary General of SPLM/A party. We protest Joseph Bangasi Bakosoro being given any post in SPLM/A Party. We detest Anna Itto and non-Dinka, being the organizers of the SPLMA Party.

3. Save us from the non-Dinka. We do not want Jadala or Thomas Cirillo to be in a position where he can gain access to government secrets because he shall then be in a position to pass them over to the non-Dinka.

4. Save us from the non-Dinka. Great leader, a considerable number of Jieng should be posted in Non Dinka land in order to keep us updated on what the non-Dinka are up to.

5. Save us from the non-Dinka. You gave our land to the non-Dinka, when shall it be returned to us?

6. Save us from the non-Dinka. Your Excellency, with all our hearts we request you to save us from the non-Dinka and ensure that James Wani lgga remains the vice president and Louise Lobong remains governor of Namurunyang state.

17. Save us from non-Dinka. Your Excellency, you are well aware of how the Non Dinka disrespect us, why have you decided to keep silent?

This is all, Your Excellency, that there is to inform you. We shall send you an envoy at a later time.

We have nominated you as the Party President and wish you success.

Thank the Heavens.

Signed on behalf of Jieng Council of Elders (JCE):

Justice Ambrose Riny Thiik Chairman

Hon. Joshua Dau Diu

Hon. Aldo Ajou Deng

Hon. Maker Thiong Maal

Hon. Parmena Aluong

Kiir, Machar, Malong and families accrue millions as war rages in South Sudan

From The Editor and other media reports, SEP/13/2016;

After nearly two years of following the money underwriting South Sudan’s war economy, The Sentry of George Clooney, John Prendergast and Don Cheadle has finally released the much anticipated report which unsurprisingly revealed how South Sudanese leaders-cum-thieves, from president Kiir, Machar, Malong, to their families have managed to illicitly accrue wealth as most citizens continue to die due to the persistent wars and hunger.

However, according to the Editor of this SSNation website, the report wasn’t comprehensive enough as it somehow deliberately omitted mentioning many other suspected thieves or even including the likes of vice-president Igga or first vice, Taban Deng, who was then governor of the oil-rich Unity state and the many other leaders in the Kiir government suspected of looting the nation.

Several of the most powerful politicians and generals in South Sudan appear to have accumulated significant wealth in the decade since the 2005 signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the North-South war.

Immediate family members of South Sudan’s top officials have held commercial ventures throughout the country’s most lucrative business sectors. For example, documents obtained by The Sentry indicate that president Kiir’s 12-year old son held a 25 percent stake in a holding company formed in February 2016 and that at least seven of Kiir’s children as well as his wife, Mary Ayen Mayardit, have held a 25 percent stake in a holding company formed in February 2016.

The report by The Sentry, a watchdog group co-founded by Hollywood actor George Clooney, on Monday said that large sums of money have moved through accounts in Kenyan banks held by major figures in South Sudan.

Also, President Salva Kiir and former Vice President Riek Machar maintain family homes a short distance from one another in a wealthy Nairobi neighbourhood.

A compound occupied by members of President Kiir’s family sits inside a gated community in Lavington, “one of Nairobi’s most upscale neighbourhoods”, states the 65-page report titled War Crimes Shouldn’t Pay and released in Washington, DC.

The extensive property was found to include a two-storey, pale yellow villa that is more than 5,000 square feet in size.

Dr Machar, the leader of South Sudan’s armed opposition, also has family members living in a luxurious home in Lavington.

The property includes “a large backyard with a large stone patio and in-ground swimming pool”, The Sentry reveals.

It further indicates that the property “is located a short drive from the Kiir home”.

Machar’s family previously lived in an elegant villa with six bedrooms and five bathrooms in a gated community in Runda, located in Nairobi’s outskirts, the report adds.

Four of President Kiir’s grandchildren attend a private school in a Nairobi suburb that costs about Sh1 million ($10,000) a year, The Sentry adds citing a “knowledgeable” anonymous source.

“President Kiir officially earns about Sh6 million ($60,000) per year.”

Posts on social media show Kiir family members “riding jet skis, driving in luxury vehicles, partying on boats, clubbing and drinking in the Villa Rosa Kempinski — one of Nairobi’s fanciest and most expensive hotels — all during South Sudan’s current civil war”, it says.

The war has forced 1.6 million of South Sudan’s 12 million people to flee their homes for UN-protected compounds or refugee camps in neighbouring countries.


The UN estimates that 5.2 million South Sudanese are in urgent need of food and other forms of humanitarian assistance.

Gen Paul Malong Awan, chief of staff of South Sudan’s army, “has been the architect of immense human suffering” in the course of the conflict, The Sentry says.

It reports that his family owns a villa in an upscale community within Nyari Estate in Nairobi.

“The home includes marble floors throughout, a grand staircase, numerous balconies, a guest house, an expansive driveway and a large in-ground pool.”

When visited by investigators from The Sentry, the home’s driveway was occupied by five luxury cars including three new BMW sport utility vehicles.

“Three independent sources told The Sentry that Gen Malong owns the house, with one source saying that the Malong family paid $1.5 million in cash for the home several years ago,” the report adds.

It notes that Gen Malong is likely to have earned the rough equivalent of Sh4.5 million ($45,000) a year in official salary.

“Gen Malong also has two large and luxurious homes in Uganda,” the report continues.

“One of these homes sits inside a walled compound located just off Kawuku-Bwerenga Road, halfway between Kampala and Entebbe. Built in 2012, this two-story home is a massive, rose-coloured mansion with dozens of large, ornate windows and appears to be well over 7,000 square feet.

“The interior is spacious, elegant, and well-maintained, with several portraits of Gen Malong hanging throughout the home.”

Massive corruption lies at the core of South Sudan’s crisis, the report says.

It cites a leaked letter written by President Kiir stating that “an estimated $4 billion are unaccounted for or, simply put, stolen by former and current officials, as well as corrupt individuals with close ties to government officials”.

The Sentry observes that “none of these funds has been recovered — and the kleptocratic system that allowed the looting in the first place remains completely intact”.

Governments of Kenya and other countries should investigate whether “laws are being violated by banks that process suspicious transactions on behalf of South Sudanese political and military figures”, The Sentry urges.

It adds: “These banks should already be conducting enhanced due diligence” in regard to South Sudanese officials’ accounts in accordance with international financial monitoring recommendations.


In the course of a two-year investigation, The Sentry reviewed documents which it says show Sh300 million ($3 million) moving through a personal account at Kenya Commercial Bank held by Gen Malek Reuben Riak, the South Sudan army’s deputy chief of staff for logistics, between 2012 and 2016.

He is in charge of military procurement, and earns an annual salary of about Sh3.2 million ($32,000), according to the report.

“The transactions recorded include more than $700,000 in cash deposits and large payments from several international construction companies operating in South Sudan,” the report says.

“Additionally, over this four-year period, $1.16 million in cash was withdrawn from the account.”

Gen Gabriel Jok Riak, an army field commander subject to United Nations financial sanctions, received transfers of at least Sh37 million ($367,000) to his personal account at Kenya Commercial Bank in 2014, the report says.

It notes that Gen Jok Riak is paid a government salary of about $35,000 a year.

A large share of the transfers to Gen Jok Riak came from Dalbit International, a Kenyan multinational petroleum corporation operating in South Sudan, the report says.

Dalbit told Sentry investigators that its transfer of Sh31 million ($308,524) was reimbursement for a fuel supply deal with the South Sudan army that had fallen through.

“This was neither a business transaction nor relationship between Dalbit and the General,” the company is quoted in the report as saying.

Some transactions for Gen Jok Riak “were apparently processed even after he became subject to a United Nations-imposed asset freeze in March 2015”, the report states.

“When presented with the information obtained by The Sentry, KCB did not reply to requests for comment”, the report adds.

“The hundreds of thousands of dollars in payments from multinational oil and construction companies that apparently passed through the accounts of Gen Malek Reuben Riak and Gen Gabriel Jok Riak raise serious questions; whether they know it or not, companies that make payments to those responsible for looting and killing in South Sudan play an integral part in facilitating the violent kleptocracy,” The Sentry states.

“The banks that processed the transactions, meanwhile, also play a role. These banks, either wittingly or unwittingly, have facilitated the apparent ability of government officials to divert significant sums that could be used to benefit some of the poorest people in the world.”

The Sentry, sponsored by the Washington-based Enough Project and two other NGOs, suggests that South Sudan’s civil war is mainly a product of “competition for the grand prize — control over state assets and the country’s abundant natural resources — between rival kleptocratic networks led by President Kiir and Vice President Machar”.

The Sentry’s report adds: “The leaders of South Sudan’s warring parties manipulate and exploit ethnic divisions in order to drum up support for a conflict that serves the interests only of the top leaders of these two kleptocratic networks and, ultimately, the international facilitators whose services the networks utilize and on which they rely.”

During the press conference, those of Clooney, Prendergast and actor Don Cheadle and Brian Adeba revealed that they were going to meet US president Barack Obama immediately after and they also have appointments with other top US officials including the Treasury Secretary.

They are seeking “the US government to penalize any banks that have failed to fulfill their due diligence, reporting and compliance requirements in South Sudan.”

The Sentry proposes a new strategy to counter the violent kleptocracy in South Sudan through the following approaches:

1- Targeted Sanctions against the entire kleptocratic network responsible for the war’s continuation.

2- Anti-money Laundering measures.

3- Mitigating collateral damage and unintended consequences. END

UN threatens South Sudan with arms embargo

By FRED OLUOCH, Posted Saturday, September 10/2016, THEEASTAFRICAN;

***South Sudan faces an arms embargo by the United Nations Security Council after President Salva Kiir’s government appeared to be reneging on an agreement to deploy a 4,000-strong protection force in Juba.

***South Sudan government spokesperson Micahel Makuei said in a statement that Juba “consented” to the deployment of the regional protection force, but did not “accept” its deployment, adding that anyone who enters South Sudan without consent is an “invader.”

***There are already 12,000 troops of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) protecting the 1.6 million internally displaced people in various parts of the country.

South Sudan faces an arms embargo by the United Nations Security Council after President Salva Kiir’s government appeared to be reneging on an agreement to deploy a 4,000-strong protection force in Juba.

The Council had threatened an arms embargo if Juba did not co-operate on the protection force by the September 15 deadline.

“If they don’t co-operate and if the deployment doesn’t happen, the UN Security Council will have to consider the steps that we’ve laid out, which include targeted sanctions and an arms embargo,” said US ambassador to the UN Samantha Power.

Later in the week, the US special envoy to South Sudan Donald Booth told Congress that the US will support an UN arms embargo on South Sudan.

After the UN Security Council members made a four-day visit to Juba and secured an assurance from President Kiir on the deployment, top government officials are now saying that Juba will not accept troops from the frontline countries and that the international community should look elsewhere.

South Sudan government spokesperson Micahel Makuei said in a statement that Juba “consented” to the deployment of the regional protection force, but did not “accept” its deployment, adding that anyone who enters South Sudan without consent is an “invader.”

That means Kenya, Ethiopia and Rwanda, who were to provide the 4,000 regional protections force, have to weigh their options, even as South Sudan ambassador to Kenya Chol Ajongo told The EastAfrican that no single country from the region has been mentioned as having a conflict of interest.

“The government accepted the deployment on principle but the technicalities are still being discussed in regard to the number of troops, the countries they come from, the type of weapons they will be carrying and where they will be stationed,” said Mr Ajongo.

Twenty four hours after President Kiir met with the United Nations Security delegation, presidential spokesperson Ateny Wek Ateny issued a statement saying the government would not accept deployment of troops from countries sharing immediate borders with the young nation “because they have already developed conflicting interests with the country.”

While Uganda and Sudan had been ruled out due to “vested interests” in South Sudan, Juba has also been uneasy with Ethiopia, which has been giving refuge to rebel leader Riek Machar for most of the two and half-year civil war.

Kenya has been striving to remain neutral but some South Sudan government officials are not happy that Nairobi allows Dr Machar to talk to the press freely whenever he is in the country.

Dr Machar — who is currently in Khartoum — has delayed his intended visit to Addis Ababa because it would compromise Ethiopia’s deployment, the Horn of Africa country is supposed to provide the bulk of the 4,000 regional protection force.

Former Sudan People’s Liberation Movement secretary-general Pagan Amum — a member of the former detainees who is currently in self-exile in the United States — said the Security Council should now think of plan B because the South Sudan government is “playing games with the world.”

According to Resolution 2304 sponsored by the US and passed by the UN Security Council last month, the regional protection force is supposed to secure Juba and protect the internally displaced in the UN camps; provide security for the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC); protect humanitarian agencies and protect key installations like the Juba International Airport.

However, the government is opposed to foreign forces taking over the airport as they consider the move an “invasion” and an infringement of the country’s sovereignty.

“We don’t want a situation where it would appear that foreign forces are coming to protect the people of South Sudan from their government. They have to co-operate with the government at every stage,” said Mr Ajongo.

Civilians and foreigners, including relief workers, were targeted in the July fighting by South Sudanese soldiers who raped women and executed a local journalist.

There are already 12,000 troops of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) protecting the 1.6 million internally displaced people in various parts of the country.

On Thursday, the UK announced that it will provide an additional 100 troops bringing the total number to 400, to bolster UNMISS.

The UK troops, who have been in South Sudan since June, are involved in vital engineering work to strengthen the country’s infrastructure as well as providing advisory support to UNMISS headquarters in Juba. END

National Democratic Movement (of Dr. Lam Akol) position on the UNSC visit to Juba

National Democratic Movement (NDM) Position on the United Nations Security Council’s visit to South Sudan.
The leadership of the National Democratic Movement (NDM) which was formed under the savvy leadership of Dr. Lam Akol in August 2016, with the objective of rescuing our nascent state from the jaws of a weak, uninspiring and ruthless dictatorial regime in Juba under President Salva Kiir and his Jieng Council of Elders, welcomes the recent historic visit to Juba by members of the United Nations Security Council, 1-4 September.

We believe that the deployment of the envisaged Regional Protection Force (RPF) under the command of the United Nations to take charge of security in Juba will enforce security in the national capital thus saving lives of the innocent civilian population and creating a conducive political environment for the germination of free political discourse and ensuring the full implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCISS).

The deployment of Regional Protection Forces could be further strengthened by adoption of new political road map to resuscitate the ARCISS.

In this regard the National Democratic Movement would like to urge the United Nations, Security Council (UNSC), African Union Peace and Security Council (AUPSC) and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to exert pressure on the government of South Sudan to revoke all decisions and actions taken by President Kiir in violation of the ARCISS and declare them null and void.

These include:— the imposition of the Establishment Order No. 36/2015 dividing the country into 28 states;
— reconstitution of the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (TNLA);
— all decisions taken since the renewed conflict took place in July 2016;
— the establishment and operationalization of the Hybrid Court for South Sudan as stipulated in the Peace Agreement and to dialogue with the stakeholders in the country to renegotiate the security arrangements in the Peace Agreement, especially the formation a new national army and other security organs.

The National Democratic Movement express deep concern regarding the oscillating position and the protracted diplomatic discourse the government of South Sudan has embarked upon pertaining to the deployment of the Regional Protection Force.

In fact the joint communique issued in Juba between the Government of South Sudan and the visiting United Nations Security Council’s delegation provided light at the end of a dark tunnel regarding the operationalization of resolution 2304 (2016) in particular, the deployment of the 4000 strong Regional Protection Force.

The Communique which was read on Sunday by the Cabinet Affairs Minister, Martin Lomuro stated inter alia that ‘to improve the security situation, the Transitional Government of National Unity gave its consent to the deployment as part of the UNMISS of the regional protection force recently authorized by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2304.’

However, on Monday 5th September barely before the ink joint communique was dry, Cabinet Affairs Minister Martin Lomuro and the Minister of Information Michael Makuei held a press conference in Juba denying government’s consent to the deployment of the regional protection force.

Dr. Martin Lomuro told reporters that in order for the regional protection force to be deployed in South Sudan, the government must agree on the number of troops, the contributing countries and arms to be carried by such a force!

On the other hand, Michael Makuei further added that there will be no force if the conditions are not met and that ‘4000 is the ceiling, but we are not duty bound. We can even agree on 10.’

The oscillating position by the government of South Sudan on the deployment of regional protection force as demanded by the UNSC Resolution 2304 (2016) was a shock to many but hardly surprising from an irresponsible and arrogant dictatorial regime of Kiir.

The government of South Sudan has lost credibility, respect and honour as far as the implementation of provisions of the ARCISS is concerned as well as any other commitments intended for the fostering of peace and stability in the country.

The continue intransigence by the government on all outstanding issues pertaining to the implementation of ARCISS, is a poignant reminder of Kiir’s failed leadership in administration of country’s affairs.

Therefore, we call upon the United Nations to show a unified leadership and consensus shown in their visit to Juba and to take serious actions against the dictatorial regime in Juba including and not limited to the immediate imposition of targeted sanctions regime. Enough is enough the time for diplomatic rhetoric is over; it is time for action.

Amb. Emmanuel Aban
National Democratic Movement (NDM), Representative to the United Nations
New York,

UN Confidential Report blames Pres. Kiir and Army Chief Malong for ordering July 8 large-scale attack

Various News agencies, JUL/09/2016, SSN;

The confidential report points the finger at President Salva Kiir and army chief of staff Paul Malong as having ordered the large-scale attacks that began on July 8.

A UN panel of experts has concluded that heavy fighting that engulfed South Sudan’s capital Juba in July, forcing vice president and ex-rebel leader Riek Machar to flee, was “directed by the highest level” of the country’s military.

The confidential report seen by AFP on Thursday points the finger at President Salva Kiir and army chief of staff Paul Malong as having ordered the large-scale attacks that began on July 8.

“The relatively large scale of the hostilities which featured the deployment of MI-24 attack helicopters, in coordination with ground forces, reinforced by armed units, support the conclusion that the fighting was directed by the highest level of the SPLA command structure,” said the report.

In the report, the experts quoted South Sudanese officers as saying that only Kiir and Malong have the authority to order the attack helicopters into combat and that Malong acted “with Kiir’s full knowledge” during the offensive.

The finding dismissed suggestions that the violence in Juba, which led to the collapse of a fragile unity government cobbled together from a year-old peace deal, was carried out by rogue elements.

More than 300 people died in the fighting from July 8 to 11, tens of thousands fled the country, and the United Nations reported a surge in sexual violence, mostly by the ethnic Dinka-dominated soldiers against Nuer women and girls.

The two-and-a-half year conflict has escalated from a “primarily political to a tribal war,” said the report.

Attack on aid workers ‘well-coordinated’

The panel found that dozens of soldiers gang-raped and beat aid workers in a “well-coordinated attack” on a Juba housing compound on July 11.

Over four hours, between 80 and 100 soldiers overran the Terrain compound, beat and abused, raped and gang-raped at least five international aid workers and executed an employee of a non-governmental organization.

“The soldiers damaged every single room, and looted the compound extensively, taking over 25 vehicles,” the panel said.

“Considering the degree of violence inflicted, the high number of armed actors who participated, the vast quantity of items stolen and the systematic damage exacted on the sprawling compound, the panel has concluded that this attack was well coordinated and cannot be considered as an opportunistic act of violence and robbery,” it added.

The panel described the attack as a “clear turning point in the level brutality inflicted by South Sudanese soldiers on international humanitarian personnel,” it added.

A separate UN investigation has been established to report on whether UN peacekeepers failed to protect civilians including the aid workers at the Terrain compound who sent several text messages to the UN mission pleading for help.

The experts said arms sales to South Sudan’s military were continuing, citing the recent purchase of two L-39 jet fighters, one of which was used in combat operations in July.

Kiir’s government has entered into contact with a Lebanese-registered firm, Rawmatimpex, to build a small arms manufacturing plant in South Sudan, but the outcome of those talks are unclear, according to the panel.

South Sudan descended into war in December 2013 when Kiir accused Machar of plotting a coup.

Tens of thousands have died and more than 2.5 million people have been driven from their homes.

South Sudanese government forces have acquired two jet fighters and truckloads of small arms ammunition and were seeking to manufacture bullets, UN sanctions monitors said in a confidential report seen by Reuters news agency.

The report on arms flows and security threats to South Sudan added that opposition troops have not received any significant arms shipments from abroad.

The monitors also said that armed government actors were imposing “debilitating movement restrictions” on UN peacekeepers.

They warned that the economy of the world’s newest nation had effectively collapsed because of government policies that included buying weapons instead of funding social services.

Al Jazeera’s Hiba Morgan, reporting from Juba, said that the report is likely to anger those who should benefit from social services, which are already underfunded.

“South Sudan’s economy has been in freefall since it floated its currency against the dollar in December last year,” she said.

“Half of South Sudan’s population live beneath the poverty line, according to the National Bureau of Statistics. South Sudan’s consumer price index is up 700 percent from this time last year. It is difficult for ordinary civilians to get food from the market.

“Some civil servants can earn as little as two or three dollars per month, which makes it hard for them to be be able to sustain their families.”

More than 200,000 people rely on humanitarian assistance, Morgan added.

The report strengthens the case for an arms embargo, a move recommended by the monitors to the Security Council in January. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has also called for an arms embargo.

“There is no evidence to suggest that more weapons are required in South Sudan for the government to achieve a stable security environment,” the UN monitors said.

“Rather, the continued influx of weapons … contributes to spreading instability and the continuation of the conflict.”

The report said that while Sudan had provided small arms, bullets and logistical support to opposition troops, they “found no evidence to date that Sudan – or any other neighbouring country – has provided heavy weapons … which has limited the opposition’s ability to mount large-scale operations”.

However, the monitors received reports that government troops have made significant, ongoing arms procurements, including the likely recent acquisition of two L-39 fighter jets.

“While the panel has received preliminary reports from two sources that the jets were serviced and painted in Uganda, the panel has not yet been able to confirm their origin or if these jets have been purchased or are on loan,” the monitors said.

Two truckloads of ammunition were transferred to the capital, Juba, from Uganda in June, while late last year South Sudanese army chief Paul Malong asked a Lebanese company to begin developing a small arms ammunition manufacturing facility in Juba, the monitors said.

“It is not clear from currently available information whether this project has proceeded in the intervening period,” they added.

A Czech Air Force L-39C

Role Military trainer aircraft
Light ground-attack aircraft
Manufacturer Aero Vodochody
Designer Jan Vlcek[1]
First flight 4 November 1968
Introduction 28 March 1972 with the Czechoslovak Air Force[2]
Status Out of production, in active use with various air forces
Primary users Soviet Air Force
Czechoslovak Air Force
Libyan Air Force
Syrian Air Force
Produced 1971–1996[3]
Number built 2,900[3]
Developed from Aero L-29 Delfín
Variants Aero L-39NG
Developed into Aero L-59 Super Albatros
Aero L-159 Alca


Talk of arms embargo

In the wake of deadly violence in Juba in July, the council said it would discuss an arms embargo if Ban reports this month that the government was not cooperating with the deployment of 4,000 more peacekeepers and was obstructing 12,000 UN troops already on the ground.

A UN peacekeeping mission (UNMISS) has been in South Sudan since the country gained independence from Sudan in 2011.

The UN monitors said that in rhetoric and action, government-affiliated forces “have actively threatened the operations and personnel of UNMISS and other UN agencies, and both parties have continued to target humanitarian workers”.

During the violence in July, between 80 and 100 uniformed soldiers overran Juba’s Hotel Terrain compound, home to the staff of international organisations, and in four hours killed an ethnic Nuer journalist and raped at least five foreign aid workers and other staff working at the compound, the monitors said.

The monitors said that given the number of soldiers involved, the number of items stolen and the systematic damage inflicted, “this attack was well coordinated and cannot be considered as an opportunistic act of violence and robbery”.

The UN Security Council has long threatened to impose an arms embargo on South Sudan after the country spiralled into civil war in 2013, but veto powers Russia and China are wary that such a move would benefit opposition fighters because it would be harder to monitor them than to police the government.

The Security Council set up a targeted sanctions regime for South Sudan in March 2015, then in July blacklisted six generals – three from each side of the conflict – by subjecting them to an asset freeze and travel ban.

A political rivalry between President Salva Kiir, an ethnic Dinka, and opposition leader Riek Machar, a Nuer, sparked the civil war.

The pair signed a shaky peace deal a year ago, but fighting has continued. Machar fled the country after the violence between their troops erupted in July.

The monitors said in the report – which was requested by the Security Council – that “the actions and policies of the two major parties” pose the most severe security threats to the peace deal and the transitional government.

“The focus of many of the central military and political figures on mobilising their respective tribes has continued to escalate the conflict from a primarily political to a tribal war,” the monitors said. END