Archive for: June 2016

Optimism: Is there any hope to hope for in South Sudan?

BY: Ocholamero Otir Bure OROTO, JUN/29/2016, SSN

His Excellency, Salva Kiir Mayardiit, President of the Republic of South Sudan.
His Excellency, Dr. Riek Machar, Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan.
His Excellency, Wani Igga, 2nd Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan;

The Sudan People Liberation Movement & Army (SPLM/A) had done great work and valuable tasks to rescue South Sudanese from the tyranny of Arabs’ government in the old Sudan. No one in South Sudan can pay any of the liberators for such a gift. I meant, no money can be enough as a token of appreciation to all the SPLM/A personnel who fought for the self determination of South Sudanese.

Allow me to bring to your attentions the following, as an ordinary concerned South Sudanese, who would like to see the best happen in this country.

The view that dialogue is a tested means to resolve issues peacefully is a reality when people accept it, and I, the writer, is a proponent of peace through dialogue and reconciliation. But in a society where it appears that the leaders make ordinary people feel like they are not listening, it is difficult to see any progress.

There is no hope! It has been for a while now that people are regretting due to the fact that they voted for separation. Because many have not experienced such insecurity and brutal killings of innocent civilians when the country was not divided.

It appears clearly that the current government has failed terribly under the leadership of SPLM/A in the provision of good life and security in the country. The sole purpose of leadership is to lead by good examples.

If it appears that the government leaders are messing the playing field for peace and reconciliation, it is a waste of time for ordinary people or communities at grass root level to try their best in fostering peace and unity.

It is terribly sad to see how this country went from celebratory mode to the extreme mode of sorrows due to brutal killings in the hands of liberators! So to speak. Yes, South Sudanese need to create their own solutions, but it is clear that the leaders and influential figures are not showing any interest to return the country back to peaceful situation any time sooner.

It seems there are many deceptive information and abuse of power is so rampant! How could such behaviour facilitate peace and reconciliation in a dysfunctional newly created state without the sense and spirit of nationalism?

As leaders of the government and leaders of SPLM/A which is perceived to be the movement of the people, it is about time to work out what went wrong and work to correct it. In other words, identify the faults and correct them kindly.

It is the case in any given society that moral and ideological support can be given to the presiding leaders when they show interest and take visible actions that can give hope to the people.

Otherwise, what is clear at the moment is that under the current helpless situations, South Sudan will remain ‘a hell on earth’ for several years to come.

The answer to the truthful solutions to the current crisis is within reach, but consciously or unconsciously it appears that the leaders are beating around the bush and not doing enough to solve the real issues.

The ordinary community members are ready to reconcile and most of them do not have any inter-tribal issues, but, the current situations had instilled or reconstructed deeper inter-tribal dislikes over the years.

Some questions deserve some thoughts among others:
1. How could societal members change their minds when leaders are the factors of continuous mess?
2. How can peace be implemented in such a situation?

The SPLM/A top leadership should wear the onus of the security failure and they are in a better position to act in a humane manner to reverse the country from the current crisis.

Considering the current SPLM/A ideological malfunction and what most South Sudanese and the rest of the world call as a failure, there is no HOPE to hope for! Because, who else should “we” the South Sudanese turn to for security and peace?

It seems that South Sudan has become a deadly field of atrocities and unpredictable killings. Until further notice, there’s no sign of peace in South Sudan due to the political unwillingness of the SPLM/A top leadership.

At present, there is no projection for peace. The only sign that is visible is more brutish killings in the land of deception, rampant continuous immorality and dehumanising acts.

This is all what people are experiencing in the country not to forget the resultant effects of war like hunger-lack of food. How many will die of hunger this year alone? Just think about this and try to feel it.

Question 3. How could the situation in South Sudan be in 10, 15 or 20 or more years to come?
South Sudanese are yearning for peace. Taking the current trend in perspective, it is difficult to see peaceful co-existence and improved security in the near future.

This means SPLM/A will go in history as the worst movement known in the 21st Century. This will tarnish SPLM/A reputation for good. In other words, without taking steps to maintain peace and security in South Sudan, people will only remember SPLM/A for bad things and forget the many good that SPLM/A have done on aggregate.

Thus there is no sense in concealing the reality on the ground. The problem of South Sudan is in the hands of those who control SPLM/A (the leaders and their associates who could influence good policies and return to the good mission of the movement).

By the same token, SPLM/A as an entity under your leadership is the solution to all these problems. Nothing more and nothing less.

The ordinary citizens can only and only help when the leaders correct their errors of policies and correct their ideological mistakes and accept to correct themselves. Otherwise, they (the SPLM/A leadership) are running in circles. That mean attaining peace will never be an easy work without the change of minds and hearts of the leaders who wield the power at the moment.

Tentative recommendations:
1. Sudan People Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A) top leaderships, President Kiir, VP Dr. Riek, 2nd VP Wani Igga plus their associates, need to urgently act to curb these situations.

2. The top leadership needs to lead by examples and ensure the field is leveled for peace and reconciliation agenda to prevail. This will ensure peaceful dealings.

3. Please re-visit, revise the SPLM/A manifestos and deliver to the people what you promised e.g., the justice, equality, freedom of communication and prosperity.

4. Show people that the SPLM/A was, is and will be the movement of the people.

5. Show the world that South Sudanese can and have the ability to govern themselves peacefully.

6. Show people that South Sudanese are one people who struggled together and are willing to overcome these challenges collectively.

It is the case that however slow the vehicle of peace is travelling, if it is travelling in the right direction, there will come a time when the vehicle will reach the targeted destination.
The Sudan People Liberation Movement/Army, has the capability to steer this country toward peace within foreseeable future.

It is not too late to make a U-turn. I write to you out of concern and out of love to see the Republic of South Sudan prevails and attain the values that you fought for over the course of your lives. South Sudanese will be extremely happy to see that your offices work toward the attainment of ‘Justice, Liberty and Prosperity’ for all.

Once again, SPLM/A under your leadership is the surest solution to the current problems. Allow me to make this request; could you please shift the gear forward, Mr. President, speed up and you have the support of the concerned people to back you up in propelling the nation toward peace.

Therefore, is there any Hope to Hope for? Yes, there is!

Mr. President, the hope is your collective efforts to attain peace. With that in mind, I wish you all the best, may our good South Sudanese ancestral spirits guide you to steer this nation in the direction leading to peace and progressive development.
Yours sincerely,

Ocholamero Otir Bure OROTO.
A concerned South Sudanese

Condolences message to the bereaved families in Wau Massacre

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:Tuesday, June 28, 2016

I’m gravely dismayed by the incident that happened in Wau, South Sudan. Eyewitness said more than 400 people have been killed in which most of them were targeted based on their ethnicities.

Losing such a number of people within a single day is beyond the crime and this purely amounts to full-scale massacre on innocent civilians.

In this regard, I admitted that the entire communities of Wau are massacred and negatively
affected. This is a tragedy with no name and people should condemn this because these families who lost their lives are part of the diversity that makes us shine and proud everyday.

I question the Government of South Sudan for relaxing to respond and its influence on the targeting killing. This is very sad indeed and there is no ground for the official army of the nations to target one community.

I thought that we are lucky to be the last state in the World to have our sovereignty at last. There are a lot to learn! We can learn from Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Liberia. These countries were in crisis and we should ask how they resolved their differences.

I’m here to extend my heartfelt condolences to the bereaved families of Wau incident. I also would like to remind the survivors that our country has been in crisis from December 2013, the collapse of our economy, the worst scenario of Wau today and the possible of automatic change tomorrow.

This is what the TRIOKA, International Community and the United Nations need to take note of. I know the hope of other nations who injected huge effort and money to the birth our country is nearly zero. Our hope too as a nation is tinny and too little.

But I believe we shall overcome!

I recognize the presence of United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) for its continuous support to protecting the civilians even though some irregularities such as Malakal incident occurred.

I would further appeal to the donors and international community to support the Humanitarian Organizations in order to intervene with medicines, food and non-food items in Wau.

Furthermore, I would recommend UNMISS to extend its operations everywhere across South Sudan because our trust as civilians among ourselves and toward our government is very low due to several incidents that targeted individuals based on ethnic lines.

Although it’s difficult to be accepted, I would finally like to bring to the attention of JMEC and Transitional Government of National Unity to quickly drop or settle the issue of 28 states. I personally believe that the issue of 28 states is among the factors triggering the instability in South Sudan.

Badly hurt,
Peace Ambassador Gatwech Koak Nyuon
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Nuer Supreme Council Condemns Mass killing of Innocent Civilians in Wau

June 27, 2016, Press for Immediate Release

The Nuer Supreme Council (NSC) condemns in the strongest terms possible the continued killing of innocent civilians from Jurchol, Balanda and Fertit tribes in Wau, Western Bhar El Gazal State in South Sudan by none other than State’ forces under President Salva Kiir Mayardit.

In solidarity with the people of South Sudan, particularly the victims of the Wau massacre and others across the country who are being targeted the same government under President Salva Kiir, we call on the people of South Sudan, other peace loving nations and the international community to condemns the mass killing of Jurchol, Balanda and Fertit’s tribe men and women in Wau.

It was reported that more than 4, 000 innocent civilians were killed on well coordinated attacks for the last 2 days, and 100, 000 civilians displaced and then fled to bushes for their lives. Another 10, 000 or more persons have been reported to have gone to UNMISS and Red Cross bases in Wau for their safety.

In the course of this mass killing of civilians, it was reported that houses were burned, women gang-rape and killed after rape and young men were around up subsequently killed after establishing their ethnicities. These are horrific crimes and they must be condemned strongly.

We appealed to the United Nations -UNMISS and other international bodies to do their utmost concert efforts to help averting these continued senseless suffering and loss of innocent lives in the hand of a “murderous regime.”

In these difficult times, the Council agreed with the faith group, particularly the Catholics of South Sudan’s priest who stated that those who committed these horrible mass killings and displaced thousands of innocent civilians in Wau are nothing but “devils” in human cloth.

They must be condemned and also be held accountable for their actions.

Strong condemnation of SPLA killing civilians in Wau, WBGhazel state

People of Western Bahr el Ghazal State (WBGS) are very annoyed by the fact that the SPLA tend to turn their anger and guns aggressively against un-armed civilians when they lose battles against any armed group. This is considered being an act of cowardliness and we condemn it.

We also condemn, in the strongest terms possible, the brutal attacks, unfolded on 23.06.2016 and continue to on civilians in the capital, Wau, Western Bahr el Ghazal WBGS, especially, in the Bakari Jeded, Bazia Jeded, Nazareth, Hai Kosti etc, that left many who lost their dear lives and the injured.

We’re further appalled by the deterioration in the humanitarian situation in and around Wau, and demand immediate action by the TGoNU to ensure unconditional refrain from further hostility to avert further crisis and tragedy in the town.

The people of WBGS appreciate the ongoing efforts by International Organizations to address humanitarian needs and support the civilians currently trapped inside and around Wau.

We express our concern at the ongoing violence in the country and especially in the capital of Western Bahr el Ghazal, Wau, and demand that the TGoNU take all necessary actions to ensure that the Permanent Ceasefire is fully respected across the country, including Western Bahr el Ghazal and Western Equatoria State.

Further, we call on the Parties comprising of the TGoNU to immediately embark on addressing the economic and security challenges that the people of South Sudan are facing.

We extend our condolences, support and prayers for the families who lost their beloved ones in this tragedy.


By: WBGS community

Analysis of JMEC’s Statement on the Despairing Situation of South Sudan

By: James Okuk, PhD, Pol. Sci. Lecturer, Juba, JUN/26/2016, SSN;

In the Opening statement delivered to the members during the plenary meeting in Juba on 23rd June 2016 by H.E. Festus G. Mogae, the Chairperson of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC), it could detected that the preliminary monitoring and evaluation of the pace of the implementation of the August 2015 Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) is overwhelmingly negative and frustrating to those who want to see a meaningful peace settlement in the country as a whole.

For the first time H.E Mogae has started addressing the scary and disappointing situation of South Sudan with ‘a heavy heart’ of almost-getting-frustrated as he narrated the highlights of his assessment to the 32 members of his institution, representing the parties to the agreement, the other South Sudanese Stakeholders and Adherents, the Regional Guarantors, and International Partners and Friends of South Sudan {i.e., 2 each from GRSS, the SPLM/A–IO and Faith-Based Leaders; 1 each from Former Detainees, Other Political Parties, Women’s Bloc, Civil Society Organizations, Eminent Personalities, Business groups and Youth; 1 each from Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Djibouti, Somalia, Rwanda, Chad, Nigeria, South Africa , Algeria and African Union Commission; and 1 each from U.S, UK, Norway, China, United Nations, European Union and IGAD Partners Forum (IPF)} and also the public at large both nationally and internationally.

For him the parties are failing to adhere to the letter and spirit of the ARCSS as stipulated in the Preamble and also to the spirit of the transitional National Constitutional Amendment Committee, culmination in the national elections at the end of transitional period.

According H.E. Mogae, Chapter I on Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU) is not fully established and moving as expected. It is seems to be paralyzed by the fact that only the Presidency and the Council of Ministers are in place but not working collectively as one team of peace yet.

There seems to be a parallel government operating separately and secretly from the TGoNU. This is blocking any progress in the expansion and reconstitution of the Transitional National Legislative Assembly and Council of States, the reform of the Judiciary, the reconstitution and establishment of the Other Specialized Transitional Institutions and Mechanisms (i.e., the undersecretaries, the professional commissions and authorities) and the restructuring and composition of State Governments, especially in Conflict-Affected States and other states in accordance with power-sharing quotas in the ARCSS.

The formation and operationalization of the expected Boundary Commission to look into the issue of 28 states as directed by the IGAD’s Council of Ministers in January 2016 remains a far away dream as some dirty games have been pushed into this to fail it.

But above all the JMEC’s Chairperson identifies the delays and obstruction against the implementation of Chapter II on the Permanent Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements (e.g, work of CTSAMM, JMCC, JOC, Joint Integrated Police, the Strategic Defence and the Security Review Board, etc) as the priority area of the worry about the viability of the ARCSS.

Most content of his statement identified the critical areas for attention because without security in place there can’t be any meaningful peace and sustainable development in South Sudan, which might also pose a regional and international threat as the new country on the globe doesn’t exist as an island of its own among the nations.

For the first time he came out openly to diagnose the problem and identify lack of political will from the Principal former warring parties (the SPLM-IG and the SPLM-IO) to silent the guns in all parts of the country, especially the country side where the social fabrics is seriously wounded by the bitterness of harmful consequences of the war (i.e., killings, robberies, ambushes, intimidation, harassment, sexual violence, child abduction and conscriptions, displacements and refuge in UNMISS PoCs and neighboring courtiers).

He urged the Presidency to intervene and give clear directives to their respective lieutenants on this urgent matter because it is hopelessly putting the ARCSS on a dangerous hold with a possibility of an undesirable collapse.

Lack of progress in Chapter II (due to absent of leadership and cooperation from the military commanders and lack of commitments by their representatives) is seriously hampering the implementation of Chapter III on Humanitarian Assistance and Reconstruction.

Access of humanitarian personnel is being denied in the most-needy areas for rescue and sometimes the relief agents are harassed or killed. Thinking about the establishment and operationalization of Special Reconstruction Fund (SRF) remain a far away dream.

Also the reforms and legislations which are needed for effectively implementing Chapter IV on Resource, Economic and Financial Management Arrangements is being delayed mainly by lack of comprehensive permanent ceasefire in the country, which causes more desertion of citizens to save their threaded livelihood but stay idle in UNMISS camps (PoCs) or other refugee camps in the neighboring countries and at the mercy of good Samaritans and NGOs.

Spending more money and lives on military war operations has not been reverted to humanitarian, economic and services sectors yet. The currency exchange rate and inflation has continued its descent, further escalating the suffering of ordinary people.

For H.E. Mogae who is a professional economist in addition of being a statesman, a country without a stable running economy can’t b regarded as a dignified territory for happy life.

Despite the politicized dodging of full and timely ARCSS implementation, the JMEC’s Chairperson warned the parties not to temper with Chapter V on Transitional Justice, Accountability, Reconciliation and Healing.

He wanted the components (i.e., Truth, Healing and Reconciliation Commission, Compensation and Reparations Authority, and Hybrid Court for South Sudan) of this type of special justice to be established without further delays so as no the keep abetting impunity continuity of violence in the country.

This has to go hand in hand with implementation of Chapter VI on Parameters of Permanent Constitution so that issues of governance and management of diversities in the country could be addresses comprehensively and based on scientific findings, including the federal system of government and the suitable number of units of the levels of the government (e.g. No states, 3 states, 10 states, 21 states, 28 states or more states).

According to H.E. Festus, the JMEC shall keep reminding the parties on Chapter VIII on Supremacy of the ARCSS and Procedures for Amendments so that they do not operate outside the deal without approval by the JMEC (e.g. trying to amend the ARCSS matrixes and unilateral decisions by the Presidency on critical issues like advisors without getting back to the JMEC, the Council of Ministers and all the Parties).

The JMEC shall keep its commitment as stipulated in Chapter VII of the ARCSS and remain seized to in how to overcome some of the major obstacles to ARCSS implementation with the mandated mission:
1) Monitor and oversee all aspects of the implementation of the Agreement;
2) Monitor and oversee the mandate and tasks of the Transitional Government of National Unity, including the adherence of the Parties to the agreed timelines and implementation schedule;
3) Oversee all work of Pre-Transitional and Transitional institutions and mechanisms created by the Agreement;
4) Enjoy, under the laws of South Sudan, such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions, including the capacity to contract and to acquire and dispose of real and personal property;
5) Request status reports from any of the Pre-Transitional or Transitional institutions, as it deems necessary;
6) Break deadlocks within the TGoNU, as per the provisions of Chapter VII, Article 6 of the Agreement;
7) Publicize its work, conduct public outreach to the people of South Sudan, and ensure that the progress of implementation of the Agreement is widely disseminated;
8) Report regularly to the TGoNU Council of Ministers, the Transitional National Assembly, the Chairperson of the IGAD Council of Ministers, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, and to the Secretary- General and Security Council of the United Nations on the status of implementation of this Agreement, as provided for in the Agreement;
9) In the event of any non-implementation of the mandate and tasks of the TGoNU or any of the Pre-Transitional and Transitional institutions and mechanisms created by the Agreement, or any other serious deficiencies, recommend appropriate corrective action to the TGoNU, and/or remedial action to the national and international institutions named above; and
10) In the event the TGoNU fails to take such remedial actions, the Chairperson shall report such matters with recommendations to the other stronger international bodies for pressure and action.

The address of H.E. Mogae should prick the conscience of the ruling leaders of South Sudan if at all they have a sympathy left for their suffering population from effects of the senseless war and crazy volatile shocking economy.

These political leaders should not gamble and undermine the gravity of the despairing situation being faced by vulnerable and downtrodden population who still has the electoral power of mandating the legitimate governing of the country.

So far the parties (especially those who have the monopoly of means of violence) are still behaving as expulsive strangers to each other rather than cohesive partners for peace. The mistrust between them is still high.

That is why the Overall Supervisor of the ARCSS implementation is seriously worried, given his assessment of the behavior of the parties. For him the stalemate on the pending issues might threaten the viability of the whole peace agreement and draw the country back to a gloomy situation of ‘to-be’ or ‘not-to-be’.

But so as not to be blamed if things went wrong later (God forbids), the Old Man from Botswana is now set and prepared to stage official complain in form of monitoring and evaluation report on the hindered implementation of the ARCSS, to be presented to the TGoNU’s Council of Ministers, the Chairperson of the IGAD Council of Ministers, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the African Union Peace and Security Council, the Secretary General of the United Nations and the United Nations Security Council.

The report shall be accompanied with recommendation for remedial actions, perhaps including punitive measures against those individuals who are obstructing the progress of ARCSS implementation and working for its collapse.

This reminds of Eleven Thesis by Karl Marx in his Theses On Feuerbach: “Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.”

The JMEC has descriptively analyzed the worrying Situation of South Sudan. The conclusion is almost drawn: the parties to the agreement, especially the principals who have the monopoly of means violence, are unable to develop the desired and expected Political Will to work jointly and responsibly to implement the ARCSS fully and in time.

The tough question is: What next if the intransigence against peace realization in the country continues?

The Open Options:
1) Resignation by JMEC and other peace-lovers who are getting frustrated with lack of full implementation of the ARCSS so that war is given another chance to consummate the remaining breath in South Sudan (a country so far that doesn’t have a dignified countryside because of its loosened social fabrics due to the senseless war), or
2) External Intervention to prevent more humanitarian and warmongering catastrophes under the world responsibility to uphold the Principle of Protecting Vulnerable Civilians against humanity crimes and other serious bad news that are punishable by international law (the R2P).

The recent toughened language of the Spokesperson of the UN Peacekeeping Operations Department in New York regarding the UN release of official report of the attack on civilians in the UNMISS’ Malakal PoC in February 2016, is already painting a grey writing on the wall as to what might befell South Sudan if the ARCSS collapses.

Both options are very bitter but the second one could be a lesser evil if the worst comes to the worst.

Now for the two options to be avoided, I am appealing to the top political leaders not to compromise the fate of new country on the globe by refusing to change the old political mindset in order to embrace peace sincerely.

Oh, Oh, Oh My Leaders; Soften Your Hearts and Make Peace Sooner Before it Becomes too Late for You to Continue Letting Down Your People Without Consequences.

Oh, Oh, Oh; It is Now Time for Courageous Action Towards Rekindling the Hope of Peace Before the Outsiders Come in to Do it for the Downtrodden People Who are Part of the Dignity of the Humanity as Well.

Put your Act Together and Take Charge of Bringing Dignity of Our People Back and Quickly So as to Close the Window that Justifies the Intervention of Foreigners into Our Internal Affairs.

The Essence of Any Government is to realize for its People the Security from Fear and from Wants so that they don’t contemplate deserting and wishing a downfall by any means to their very government of the day.

If indeed some individuals are obstructing peace why should they not be distanced from power positions?

While we keep dragging our feet, people are dying of hunger and curable diseases, the economy is collapsing, and insecurity is becoming rampant all over the country. Even areas that used to be peaceful are now flashpoints of insecurity.

If Malakal was gone long time ago and Wau is now being deserted, will Juba not be the next in the line if ARCSS implementation continues to remain a myth?

What will we call the triple historical centers of politics in South Sudan if these cities are no more?

What other signs are we waiting for to get convinced that we are fast sliding into an abyss if we don’t revert from this tipping point in the coming few days if not weeks?

The exit is peace and not war. Listen well my leaders!


Dr. James Okuk is lecturer of politics reachable at

“Deal with Pres. Kiir, don’t kill yourselves or rob others:” Advice to unpaid SPLA soldiers


Sadly, because of Pres. Kiir’s SPLM misrule, South Sudan is today a nation morbidly in a state of exacerbated schizophrenia. A few days ago, an SPLA national army soldier in Juba, after helplessly watching his children die of hunger because he wasn’t paid his salary for months, reportedly “decided to shoot himself dead after realizing that he’s nothing at hand to support his remaining family and there was nobody willing to pity his situation and offer psychological support after losing some of his kids due to hunger.” (Quoted from Sudan Tribune, June, 21, 2016)

It is not uncommon in Juba and across the country these days to hear stories of soldiers and other citizens walking around like zombies having not eaten any proper meal for days. Many incidents have been reported of SPLA soldiers, especially Dinka from Aweil and other areas of Bahr el Ghazel, who’re recently deployed to Juba, impulsively walking into a restaurant and occupying a table but have no money to make an order.

Pathetically, these severely desperate soldiers sincerely confess that they’re seriously starving for days because they’d no salaries paid and hence no money; thereby, the restaurant owner and other sympathetic patrons would cash in and pay for these soldiers’ once-in-a-life-time-chance of a good meal.

Without any doubts, the blame for such tragedies and abomination squarely lies with their leaders, specially president Salva Kiir himself, his ministers and the Army Chief of Staff, Gen. Paul Malong, and it’s they who’re morally and politically responsible for the reported deaths of the soldier himself and his kids from starvation.

Yes, it’s they, these aforementioned so-called leaders who should deservedly get the blame or the bullet for their egregious crimes of misruling the nation, misappropriating the monies and redeploying to an evidently alien Jubek State of these soldiers at a time of supposed peace, unless, of course, if them leaders have a hidden and sinister agenda.

It’s utterly unimaginable that the world’s newest nation which at its inception in 2005 had billions of dollars at hand and was the envy of all its neighbours as it had a promising future to rise up as the Qatar or Dubai of the whole Eastern and Central Africa.

More billions of dollars poured into the newest country’s coffers from sympathetic and benevolent nations across the world, all this aid was meant to speedily expedite the economic and social recovery of the long disenfranchised and oppressed citizens of the South Sudan nation.

Unfortunately, a bunch of senseless, selfish and unpatriotic so-called ‘leaders’ in this monstrosity known as the SPLM/A who in 2005 usurped the power in Juba, criminally ex-sanguinated this promising nation to death.

Today, the South Sudan is visibly and palpably in a state of political rigor mortis, the economy has totally collapsed with a valueless currency, the government is practically dysfunctional as the two antagonistic factions of the ruling SPLM are impeding each other’s efforts and there is no national, moral or political cohesiveness.

The nation, without any argument, is on unstoppable path of mutual destruction, politically, economically and socially. From the judges, doctors, teachers and other sectors of the government, workers are on strikes because the government simply has no more money to pay salaries or provide basic services.

Of course, South Sudan isn’t the first country in Africa to experience the disappointments and disasters of post-independence misrule by own national rulers, however, we are exceptionally unfortunate in the sense that unlike the other African countries, no soldiers have intervened by means of a coup to rid us of these hooliganistic rulers in Juba.

In our particularity, nonetheless, eleven years (??probably more to go) of Kiir’s SPLM tyranny is obviously too long a time to endure and by all means it mustn’t be needlessly extended as this will only bitterly and painfully exacerbate the deplorable suffering of our people.

Post-independence across Africa, as their previously perceived leaders who rightly usurped power from the colonials became corrupt and dictatorial, the countries’ soldiers toppled these presidents to save their own particular countries from disaster.

One by one, those once highly esteemed and famous independence leaders from Egypt to Sudan and Algeria, from Ethiopia to Somalia and Zanzibar, from Lumumba’s Congo, to Chad and Central Africa, and from Kwame Nkrumah’s Ghana, Guinea’s Sekou Toure to Dahomey, all were shamefully deposed from power and were either incarcerated, exiled or deliberately assassinated.

Even our immediate neighbors, Jomo Kenyatta’s Kenya, Milton Obote’s Uganda and Julius Nyerere’s Tanganyika all suffered foiled attempted coups at that time and each of these had to dramatically change his political compass to ensure some political longevity.

Of the three, only Uganda’s Obote eventually succumbed to a military coup as a result of his perceived ‘dictatorial reign of terror’ but he luckily escaped with his life.

South Sudanese are seriously in extreme state of melancholia, despondency and wretchedness that have been irresponsibly brought and imposed on them by those of president Kiir and his corrupt clique in the country.

Sadly, the road ahead is heavily mined with difficulties as recently decried by President Festus Mogae of Botswana, who is heading the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission to expedite the implementation of the peace accord.

Mr. Mogae is sadly pained with “a heavy heart” over the impending risks facing the implementation of the peace in South Sudan which is currently in a stalemate because there’s no tangible progress that has materialized on the vital issues, namely:
1- Revocation of the Establishment Order regarding the number of States
2- Reinstatement of Civil Servants
3- Release of prisoners and detainees
4- Cantonment areas creation in Equatoria and Bahr el Ghazel regions and lastly,
5- The expanded National Legislative Assembly formation.

Obviously, it’s president Kiir’s pigheaded intransigence to accede to the above changes that is proving the greatest impediment to the realization of peace in the country and the major obstacle to the flow of financial assistance into the country.

In short, perhaps it’s rightly the time to call for a second liberation struggle to finally rid from power in Juba of Kiir and his regime who’ve undoubtedly proven themselves as the main causes to all the suffering, desolation and wretchedness now needlessly brought on the once heroic freedom-fighters SPLA soldiers in particular and the rest of the citizens in general. END

Are we having ONLY sixteen corrupt Officials in South Sudan?

BY: Peter Gai Manyuon, JUN/24/2016, SSN;

Although the major corruption scandal since the beginning of the self-rule in Juba has been the so-called “Dura Saga,” there have been dozens of other significant instances of a similar wrongdoing, like corruption in the Presidency and the entire branches of the government in South Sudan. The problem is compounded by serious lack of transparency in South Sudanese government records and business information, whereby requests for official data can be arbitrarily turned down with impunity.

Corruption has been the top priority among the Ministers, Governors, and commissioners across the entire Country. The question which always come up is whether corruption is rooted in South Sudanese blood or it’s something adopted from other Countries or cultures?

In most cases, president Kiir has defended his commitment to combating corruption in his administration, pushing the blame always to global community for failure to support his drive to recover public funds stolen and stashed in foreign accounts by his former Ministers, Governors, Army Generals and some within the current Cabinet and their business associates before and after Independence.

The officials who stole the money got approvals from the central bank in the name of security matters at the presidency over the past years up to now and still the President is not taking serious action/measures against the group, instead he is promoting corruption in the country.

Who’s to blame now? Who are the right criminals that should have been prosecuted in South Sudan? Why not including the seventy five 75 criminals who took over 4 billion dollars and stashed them in foreign countries?

In reality, the nation has lacked any and all regulations to combat frauds and malfeasance among the senior officials especially among the government procurement officials within the Central Bank of South Sudan and ministry of finance and economic planning.

These episodes have often been shrouded in confusion and have almost never resulted in proper prosecution of individuals or in good punishment as required by the supreme law of the Country.

Why prosecuting only junior criminals and fearing to prosecute senior criminals? Something is wrong somewhere within the Presidency and the entire leadership of the Country!

However, Penal Code Act 2008, Chapter 2, mentioned very clearly the conviction for offences committed within South Sudan, only that most of the senior judges are not following their judicial litigation as many wish, rather they are misinterpreting laws wrongly.

All the court cases that have been there since 2005 up to date, no single case has been handled well, instead judges are using assumptions and interests to decide cases of great concern. What a disgrace?

Nevertheless, the same Penal Code Act 2008 mentioned life Imprisonment clearly only that judges in South Sudan don’t read laws sometimes. The penal code says a sentence to life imprisonment shall be equivalent to a term of twenty (20) years, moreover the judgment by the so called Judges in the Republic of South Sudan against the prosecuted sixteen (16) corrupt individuals within the Presidency is not a binding judgment.

Rather; it is a politically motivated scenario accompanied by sectarianism, greediness, primitiveness and lack of intellectual dynamism within the Presidency and Judiciary in the Country.

How can a judgment be passed without elucidating the law that should guide the litigation? Judgment was supposed to be different based on the number of the alleged corrupt officials within the presidency. There should have been senior thieves who came up with the idea of forging the signature of the President and the rests follows….. but giving a equal judgment is wrong and not fair and absolute.

Nullification or revisiting laws again is the only option at this particular period of time. If we really want fairness in our judicial system, then from the Presidency up to grassroots, we should be frank and honest of where the 4 Billion dollars stolen by these leaders are at the moment.

Covering up realities and facts will always jeopardize our growth as the country. Every judgment by Judiciary or any court, the President and his cabinet always impede with the court’s proceedings.

In fact, corruption, nepotism and hooliganism are the mission, vision of the government beginning from the time Dr. John Garang died in confusion between Uganda and South Sudan in 2005 up to date.

In summary, the issue of the seventy five (75) and sixteen (16) corrupt officials who took 4 billion dollars and 14 million dollars respectively should have been given the same judgment of life imprisonment if at all; the Presidency or Judiciary is really advocating for free corruption in the Country.

Giving life sentences to only sixteen (16) individuals alone without the criminals who took huge amount of 4 billion dollars is not absolutely right. The prosecuted individuals took money from Presidency using the forged signature, than they are supposed to be asked to return the money back to the Presidency and if they don’t want to return the money; they should be in prison for not more than twenty years as stated by penal code act, 2008 of South Sudan rather than life imprisonment without number of years. Fairness in judgment should be observed by the Judiciary of South Sudan once again!

The author is an Independent Journalist and Columnist who has written extensively on issues on Human Rights and Democratization. He can be reached on

Urgent Solutions to South Sudan Economic Crisis

BY: Bullen Mony-Awut, South Sudan, JUN/24/2016, SSN;

We, Economists, advise the government of the day but it is usually up to the government to either take an advice and salvage its reputation or ignore it and later say that we wished we had implemented the previous advice that we received.

First and foremost, politics and economy move together, that is why there is what is called political economy which is the combination of politic and economy. Worldwide these days, the role of both is very profound. In Africa here, the Late Gadhafi was cherished by his people because he focused on the economy before he died.

Libya was almost like the West because the oil money was well managed, there was free university education in Libya, free apartment for newly wedded couples, free health care, tarmacked roads and so much more.

It was because of those good things that he ruled Libya from 1969 to 2011. Another example is from our neighbor Rwanda, which after 1994 genocide, Paul Kagame focused very seriously on Rwandan Economy and as I write this article, Rwanda’s economic development is a role model in the whole of East Africa if not Africa as a whole.

This explains why he was voted in several times, because what matters to the citizens is not who should rule them but who addresses their economic needs.

The above examples give you a clue of how important focusing on the economy is to every citizen worldwide.

Back to the above topic, I have not taken interest to pick up my computer and write ever since peace was signed, and government of national unity formed. The reason is that I wanted to see how the government would address matters of our Economy, after a lengthy period of time without any action seen.

I have been compelled to write this opinion article because I have seen the direction where things are heading to is not right. Everyone of you who is reading this article will concur with me that there are economic problems facing us, from high inflation, lack of payment for public servants’ salaries.

Also, lack of government investment in what are called government parastatals, lack of good roads with exception of Nimule road which is now said to be wearing out, lack of proper education and health care that explains why millions of dollars are sent to neighbouring and abroad for education and health purposes respectively.

Last but not the least, the high cost of living in Juba and various cities simply because of high inflation rate, absence of lending to general public by commercial banks which emanated from failure of central bank to implement credit creation through its bank rate and high government expenditures evidenced by lack of funds in our treasury.

Because of the economic mess, our nation is being threatened now by the donors, ‘Sudan Tribune’ has it that donors want 28 states to be dropped if they are to donate some money to the government, that cannot be the case if government really gets serious in exploring possible ways of getting the money to revive economic recovery.

Yeah, where will the money for funding government of national unity come from? This is one of the most frequently asked questions, however with a serious plan backed up by actions but not words (lip service), a permanent solution can be found, otherwise 28 states are now being criticized based on their economic non-viability but not on political grounds.

Alternatively, if they were criticized on political grounds, we would have heard citizens demonstrating as a means of exhibiting their dislike for the creation of more states.

In contrast, we are seeing most of them celebrating, for example in the creation of my new state.

It should be noted that our government’s problem is coming from low government revenue, with oil prices falling almost daily, and no additional export for the republic of South Sudan, the government is bound to run out money as it is now.

Government expenditure must be matched with revenue otherwise if its expenditure is higher than revenue generated, the government may enter into debts. If it spends less than it generates, an economic recession would occur.

For our case in south Sudan, our government is spending more than it gets given that our single export (Oil) has gotten its price falling hence it is generating low revenue.

The followings are the suggestions if and when they are implemented all, we shall see south Sudan getting back on its feet:

1. Focusing on refinery with the intention of exporting its output to the neighboring countries and for local consumption. If the government leaves everything and focuses its investment on refinery, it would be a matter of time for us to have a strong economy, because upon finishing construction of the refinery, the output of our refinery would be exported to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, Burundi, Ethiopia, and Sudan among many other neighbouring countries that would be in need of our oil.

As the construction of the refinery would be going on, the government could choose from the following options to sustain our economy temporarily, that is, it would use expansionary monetary policy by using fiat money. Or it could borrow some money from international lending institutions.

I prefer the former to the latter because addressing the former could be easy i.e. through contractionary monetary policies such as selling of treasury bills to general public.

Therefore, refinery should be number one priority for the current government.

2. The ministry of Health through medical commission can evaluate the type of diseases that take our people outside for treatment and the corresponding countries that treat those diseases. If the data is found, the ministry would urge those countries through their embassies here to establish their branches in Juba so that hard currencies are not used for medical reasons abroad. As a result, the few hard currencies we have could be saved and channeled to other ventures. The similar approach can be applied to education section as well.

3. Cutting down government expenditures and reviewing other means of generating revenue. The government should after 2018 elections focus on reducing its expenditures by reducing the size of the army through demobilization and integration, reducing the size of its ministries, reducing its embassies to only those that are of high importance to us, reducing foreign travels for its senior staff, and more importantly, fight corruption in action rather than in words, stop accommodating government officials in hotels but have them stay at their homes, and review the budget for the office of the president among others.

The government should also avoid by all cost purchase of luxurious vehicles for its senior staffs, vehicles like V8 are very expensive in cost and maintenance. By doing so, enormous revenue could remain in our treasury necessary for meeting other expenditures.

4. Adapting stringent system that ensures accountability and favors transparency. All ministries should have financial systems and approved budgets, in that regards, expenditures should only be as per the approved budget lines. It should be noted that systems are implemented by people, as such, the likes of current bank governor and minister of finance should be removed and replaced with people who would stick to financial regulations but not those who would be busy looting and depleting government treasury.

5. Exploring other sources of revenues other than oil. Our government should embark on exploring other means of generating revenue such as extraction of gold in Eastern Equatoria, exporting of teak that is in Western Equatoria, exporting meat from our castles to countries that do not have enough of it, establishing agricultural schemes that use irrigation and that are funded and owned by government as government parastatals, reviving major government projects such Simsim factory at Eastern Lakes state, Nzara cotton farm among many other ventures.

All that the government has to do is to prioritize and then achieve the results.

In conclusion , it should be noted that there is no permanent friend nor enemy in politics, the same applies to the common man, citizens do not mind who is ruling them regardless of the time he/she spends in power, all that they care are matters that affect their daily economic activities.

For example, Gadhafi became president of Libya in 1969 and ruled up to 2011 when he was ousted by Western powers on economic grounds. I, therefore, call upon the presidency to wake up and listen to voices of its people.

The tendency of relying on politicians for economic solutions is misleading and ought to be stopped if good relations with citizens are to be maintained. As I said above, we economists do advice and it is usually upon the government of the day to either consider that advice and succeed or ignore it and later regret (we wish we have heeded the advice).

The writer is South Sudanese Economist at and can be reached by phone : 0927099778

Greater Dok Nuer Community is under attack: A response to Gordon Buay’s unfounded Truth against the well –behaved Community

By J. Nguen, CANADA, JUN/23/2016, SSN;

In normal circumstances, the Greater Dok Community would normally ignore drummed up truths and false political rants from a mad ambassador without assigned title of ambassadorship.

On June 22, Gordon Buay Malek has written a false allegation accusing members of Greater Dok Community’s lack of participation in the SPLM–IO during the war and occupants of security sector in the same institution.

In earnest, the Greater Dok Community chose to respond to Buay’s article titled, “Riek Machar’s discrimination of the Nuer.” Gordon Buay’s ambassadorial title and the fact that he is stationed at the South Sudan’s Washington D. C. mission where a wrong person can be taken seriously are the main reasons we decided to deal with Buay’s madness.

Buay’s title and station of work may fool some quarters particularly those who may not know Mr. Buay’s mental status. People might be under false assumptions that he is ambassador and credible.

In a real world, in a legitimate government, it’s expected that ambassadors behave right and to conform to international affairs’ rule and regulations and strictly must not lie. Ambassadors by definition supposedly are the eyes of credible government in foreign lands. They often write or state credible information with reliable source to avoid nation’s embarrassments and false assumptions.

However, in South Sudan government, President Salva Kiir has decreed in ill–educated individuals including madmen into South Sudan’s foreign missions, representing the people of South Sudan. Unmistakably, Gordon Buay Malek is one of the mental ambassadors appointed by President Kiir to represent people of South Sudan in Washington D. C.

The Greater Dok Community’s response will specifically tackle points raised against members of Dok community and community’s good name. We will sparely address matters pertained to the SPLM –IO and its military hierarchy. We will touch instances to make our points clearer and add emphasis.

To start with, Gordon Buay alleged that “Dok Nuer fighters in IO are not more than 150.” This is a downright lie and ingenuous statement which could only be stated by a madman.

For example, in Renk County, Upper Nile State, in one battle alone, Greater Dok Community was affected heavily. In that one confrontation our community lost more than 20 brave men and more than 200 strong officers sustained injuries including Major Gen. C. Gatwech.

Therefore, if the Greater Dok community has lost 20 men besides other Nuer Nations and more than 200 brave officers were wounded in one battle alone, one would come to his/her true sense that Gordon Buay is lying about his numbers that less than 150 Dok Nuer fighters are in SPLM-IO.

Similarly there were also other battles that members of Greater Dok Community fought including the battles in Northern, Western Bhar El gazal and Mundari, Easter Equatoria where Major Gen. Tito Biel was killed with other 24 strong men from our community. We are only mentioning these few examples to prove that Buay was lying.

We must also stress that all Nuer participated and contributed immensely in these battles while defending their loved ones from Gordon Buay Malek and his illegitimate government’s war of bellies.

Regarding communal representations in the SPLM–IO and the government of South Sudan before the war and present, the Greater Dok Community was and still marginalized. In the SPLM –IO for example, no one person from the Greater Dok Community assigned by SPLM-IO leadership as a chairperson of any commission. But, our community did not complain because we know downright that the war was not about positions.

When the peace agreement was signed and ministerial portfolios were assigned, the Greater Dok Community was again left out. No one person from the Greater Dok Community was appointed as a minister, deputy minister and undersecretary, deputy of undersecretary, deputy or head of a commission, for that matter. Again, we didn’t complain.

In the government of South Sudan, before and present, our community is grossly marginalized. In the diplomatic core for instant, no one person from the Greater Dok Community was appointed as an ambassador, deputy ambassador, first, second and even third secretary in the diplomatic core. Our community didn’t complain also.

In these instances, common sense would dictate that if it happened that there is one person appointed from this marginalized community to lead a lower position like Director General of Internal Security, as a partial part of unity government, what a sane human being would do is to be appreciative for the fact that a marginalized community is finally represented than drumming up a false accusations of “Dokanization of SPLM –IO,” which doesn’t exist.

This false perception that the office FVP, Dr. Riek is occupied by members of Greater Dok Community is ludicrous and baseless. As a matter of fact, we can attest that there is no single person from the Greater Dok Community who is holding a leading position in the office FVP.

To our knowledge, members of Nuer were even scarce in the previous FVP office. For example, two main leading portfolios such as chief protocol and executive director in the office of FVP were held by non-Nuer. Dr. Riek Machar’s office was run by non-Nuer from kitchen table to the executive Director and there was no member of Greater Dok Nuer Community in the office.

To think that comrades like Ding Yual were jettisoned and replaced by Dok’s boys coming from Khartoum is nothing than misrepresentation of facts. However, we leave this to comrade Ding Yual to straighten the facts because Mr. Yual is on the ground and well versed with these developments.

Regarding Lt. Gen. Thoi Chany, it’s true that hierarchy matters in the military, and therefore, Lt. Gen. Thoi Chany can never be demoted to the rank of Major Gen. Mr. Chany is a qualified and credited general of the SPLM–IO. Considering his ranks he is over qualified to work with or under Maj. Gen. Akol Kor, Director General of Internal Security from the government’s side.

Gen. Akol Kor needs an SPLM-IO’ cadre who has the same rank like him to avoid power imbalance.
Because Gordon Buay was not trained militarily and has no idea how these institution’s hierarchies works, coupled with his mental status, he rushed to judgement without sufficient analyses to chains of command in the SPLM-IO’s military hierarchy.

Lastly, the Greater Dok Community is a well –behaved and disciplined community run by able men and women. We must attest that members of community are independent minded, hard working and often cherish or harvest what they have had work for. In short, there is no free ride in our community.

Furthermore, we must underscore that there is nothing wrong for members of our community or others community to fish in order to support themselves and their families. This is what it means to be a hard worker and able individual, if indeed the “fish men” saga is blindly considered to be true.

At this point, the Greater Dok Nuer Community focuses and its priorities are to bring to account criminal perpetrators for crimes they have committed for the past 2 years of conflict in South Sudan.

In closing, the Greater Dok Community reserved the right to protect its members and itself from ill slanders and we urge members of our community to deal with Gordon Buay Malek accordingly should he continued to tarnish the good name of our community.

We also urged members of Nuer Community, South Sudan community, regional and international bodies to disregard South Sudan’s mad ambassador. All he has alleged against the Greater Dok Community are nothing but white lies.

J. Nguen is a Chairman of Greater Dok Nuer Community Crisis Management Council and President of Nuer Supreme Council. He can be reached at

Why doing nothing not an option: Open letter to Minister of finance & economic planning

BY: Agok Takpiny, Australia (Melbourne), JUN/21/2016, SSN;

The financial crisis is getting deeper by the day. The judiciary and Universities lecturers are on strike because they have not received their salaries for months. The army, the police and other government employees are doing it tough. Food prices in the market are almost out of reach of everyone; this is because the country’s currency (SOUTH Sudan pound or SSP) has lost nearly sixty percent (61%) of its value against the US dollar.

Currently, one dollar ($1) is equal to 51 SSP. As South Sudan is 100% dependent on imported goods, traders need dollars to go overseas to buy goods. Typically, merchants purchase good at one price and then sell the good for a higher price.

Markup pricing is a cost of goods plus desired profit. By having the markup on products, a trader can earn profits. If the importer sells the goods for what they cost, then he or she will not make a profit, the selling price would just match expenses, thereby not earning any profit.

So how do the traders do it to ensure that they get their benefits? Well, the traders monitor the exchange rate of the SSP against the dollar in the black market. Traders don’t rely on the official rate simply because it is only on the black market the dollars are available.

So, if the exchange rate in the black market goes up in the afternoon, the traders would automatically increase the prices of the goods to reflect that. Hence, the prices of goods in the country become notoriously unstable; this is the core issue that causes the current economic free fall.

Therefore, to rescue the economy from total collapse, the government will need to find ways to bring in more dollars and find it fast, not an easy task. However, if there is courage to make tough decisions, it can surely be done.

Dear Hon. Deng Athorbei, as a minister of finance and economic planning, it is 100% your responsibility to advise the president and the entire government about what needs to be done to stabilise the economy. I do not believe that the president is in your way in applying much needed economic reforms.

Minister, your creditability and legacy are on the line here, people are starving in most parts of the country including in Juba. Show the country what you are capable of doing. And if the president refuses to take up your plan, you can explain it to the citizens and then resign in a dignified way.

What you need to do is to cut government spending by half. The following are my suggestions about areas that the government can do without but save the government a significant chunk of money:

1. Reduce the number of South Sudan embassies from current 24 to just 13. Close down eleven (11). As a finance minister, you and your team will need to explain to the cabinet in details how much the government would save by closing down 11 embassies. If we have all the money in the world, we could have an embassy in a very country. Unfortunately, we don’t have enough money to be able to sustain a huge number of embassies around the world.

Therefore, the thirteen diplomatic posts I suggest are the vital ones for us. Here are the thirteen countries which are strategically important to South Sudan: Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Egypt, Ethiopia, South Africa, Israel, USA, UK, Norway, Belgium, Russia, and China.

2. Amalgamate ministries from 30 to just 12. Minister, to achieves this, your argument would have to be stunningly convincing. The opposition would need to be involved in reaching the consensus. Yes, there is a fear or belief that the current thirty (30) ministries were created merely to accommodate everyone. People think that if 18 ministers or whatever number loses their jobs, they would immediately take up arms and rebel. However, there is a way to tackle it, the 18 ministers who would lose their jobs would still be receiving their ministerial salaries (this would silence them).

The government would save a lot of money here. The running cost of 18 ministries and allowances for the ministers is bigger than the officials salaries. All the other junior staffs in those 18 departments should be laid off; this would reduce the government workforce significantly which would save the government money.

Here are the eleven (11) ministries which their services are of immediate need: Health, Education, Finance, Petroleum, Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Agriculture, Transport, Interior, Ministry of Security in the office of the president, and Information.

3. Cease all unnecessary overseas travel by government employees. At the moment, even those who should still be on a graduate program (gaining work experience under supervision), are using government money to travel in first class to none essential workshops abroad. These workshops are not helping the country in one way or another; they are a total waste of money.

Minister, at times like this, luxury is hugely unaffordable, this means that only the president and his two Vice Presidents should use the first class if at all there is a need for them to go overseas.

The multiple embarrassing thefts in the office of the president and the police HQ were unacceptable. Therefore, it is time to introduce strict control measures in all government transactions. While the President should be banned from writing cheques that would be cashed out at the central bank, the amount of money kept in any office including that of a president should not be more than the equivalent of $10,000.

Minister, all the government employees including the army and police, should be head-counted; this would unearth ghost employees in the system. It is a good thing to be generous when you can afford to do so. However, our current situation does not allow, that; hence, releasing an employee with his or her salary for a four year study is not sustainable. All forms of government sponsorship need to cease.

Furthermore, Tax collection needs a review. A sound taxation system would generate considerable revenue for the government. Therefore, an extensively qualified tax commissioner is needed. And he or she must be given full powers to pursue tax evaders in the courts of law. End