Archive for: September 2015

First Vice President: Power Sharing and the Agony of Rebellious Politics in South Sudan!

BY: Mayak Deng Aruei, USA, SEPT/30/2015, SSN;

The revolving news in South Sudan centers around the pulling out of the SPLA-Government forces in various Barracks in Juba. In order for a meaningful Peace to return to South Sudan, Regional powers and world’s superpowers have concluded that forces loyal to the Government are to be relocated to some 25 kilometers (15.6 miles) away from the South Sudanese Capital (Juba), and to allow for the reorganization of all the armed forces after the first 18-months of the Interim period.

Thy shall not fear the national army more than the common enemy up north. The fear is deeply rooted in all that took place in mid-December, 2013 and early-January, 2014, a very contested account that shattered the nation’s economy, bewildered citizens and created a power vacuum throughout the country.

For close to two years, unapologetic Government’s supporters fooled around, misled themselves, failed to sell their nationalistic agendas to the world at large, and the Region through the remote control of the world’s influential nations rewarded the man South Sudanese called a “serial Killer” with a very powerful position in the upcoming government.

The sharp turn in diplomatic puzzles led to the negotiated peace, and then came the designated First Vice President of the Transitional Government of National Unity(TGNU) of the Republic of South Sudan.

What followed shortly thereafter was the invitation of the Rebels’ leader (Riek Machar) by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), and subsequent failure by the elected president to attend the meeting of world’s leaders.

The already ailing and unpopular Government of President Salva Kiir dished further when the real vice president of the Republic of South Sudan (James Wani Igga) was not received by US diplomats at the Port of Entry.

Peace is here, but the reputation of the Republic of South Sudan has been tarnished. Our oneness as South Sudanese remains more like salt in the deep Sea.

First of all, South Sudanese loyal to President Salva Kiir are very frustrated to see Dr. Riek Machar return to Juba powerful than when he left on a hot pursuit, but these angers are end-results of the unpatriotic running of the national programs.

The ongoing mocking of the supposedly elected government is residue that can best be credited to uncle-ism that have engulfed South Sudan for the past 9 years and left the nation to the mercy of scavengers.

When the political deadlock was at its highest peak during the peace negotiations, US Secretary of State, John Kerry, had this to say about the conflict in South Sudan: “Legitimacy is not a presumed right of any government. It is conferred by the people, and it is sustained only by demonstrating leadership to protect and serve all citizens—responsibilities the government has neglected.”

That was a bombshell on the South Sudanese warring factions, and it has been shown in conduct.

A nation cannot employ incompetent Representatives & still expect the Government to be respected around the Globe.

As of now, South Sudanese are famous: they are known as brutal killers in Africa (thousands killed in 6-weeks time), the most corrupt people in the Region ($ 4.5 billion stolen by 75 officials), and they are Tribalists of all time (tribal militias murdered innocent and torched villages mercilessly).

In relative terms, what does Dr. Riek Machar’s new assignment mean to South Sudanese?

For those who have been following the political development in South Sudan for the past 21-months, there is good reason to be worried.

In couple of weeks, South Sudanese will have the most powerful First Vice President ever. His new roles have already shaken the foundation of the political establishment in South Sudan.

Just two days ago, the two leaders (Kiir & Riek) made very unusual moves.

On the side of the Government, President Salva Kiir Mayardit assigned Lt. General Bapiny Monytuil of the South Sudan Liberation Army(SSLA) to the post of deputy chief of general staff for Moral and Political orientation, a position once held by General Isaac Mamur, later given to General George Athor Deng, then General Chol Thon Balok and now to General Bapiny Monytuil.

With Dr. Riek Machar taking on the second position next to the president, he promoted prominent warlords (General Gatwech Dual, General Dau Aturjong Nyuol and notorious General John Olony Thabo).

The fact that the two armies would be managed separately for the first 18-months of the Interim Government, people should be very concerned.

Adding to the already fragile political situation in the country, Dr. Riek Machar of the SPLM-IO is to appoint two Governors (Unity & Upper Nile states).

Having said that, Caretaker Governor Joseph Nguen Monytuil of the Unity state is gone, and Caretaker Governor General Chol Thon Balok of the Upper Nile state and who’s position has been given to Joseph Nguen Monytuil’s brother is also gone.

In the words of Burkina Faso Revolutionary, Captain Thomas Sankara, “a soldier without any political or ideological training is a potential criminal.”

That is exactly what South Sudanese militias have been doing for the last 9 years of self-governing (2006-2015).

Since Dr. Riek Machar’s new national role is likely to affect Government’s armed militias, the gear is likely to go in reverse, and today’s Government supporters would be tomorrow Rebels.

Having emerged from many decades of long and devastating war with the Sudanese governments in Khartoum, South Sudanese were supposed to be vigilant about things that undermine effective governing and destruction of nation’s economy.

Twice in the history of South Sudan, the IGAD nations stood by our side: negotiated the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA-2005), and again negotiated what is now termed as the IGAD-Plus Compromise Peace Agreement, and which ends the senseless war in the Republic of South Sudan.

It is time for South Sudanese to recognize the importance of living harmoniously in a multi-ethnic State, get to learn to live as nationalists, divorce tribal mindset in its entirety and keep up with their neighbors.

How long are South Sudanese going to be refugees in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and elsewhere?

Good life is not measured by paying too much attention to one’s own tribe and blindly supporting failed leaders just because they hail from one’s own tribe.

Of course, your eyes turned dark-brownish & skin turned purple-bluish for all the reasons known to you. The fact remains that most people representing South Sudan in foreign nations do not see international standards as models that they should be adopt, and the youth who have been politically marginalized are now left with bad experiences, memories that would be known as part of the bitter past come 2025.

Just three days ago, Mark Zuckerberg of the Facebook disclosed to the gathering of world’s leaders that his Company will partner with other wireless carriers, and make sure that people around the world have access to free, basic mobile phones in 5-year time.

But without real peace in the Republic of South Sudan, those kids who are now five years old would not be able to learn in an environment where connectivity is no longer a problem.

And for that matter, South Sudanese around the world must do something about the rebellious politics in the country, and where dissatisfied politicians join hands with armed gangs to make a forced change.

Mind you that when the wicked take over the country, sectarian violence becomes the new norm (C.A.R, DRC and Somalia are prime examples of fragile nations in Africa).

The current state of affairs in South Sudan is unpromising, the dissenting voices & the diluted voices have destroyed the country, and not much that people should be hopeful for, and under the combined leadership of the duo (KiiRiek) who would be the principals in the Transitional Government of National Unity(TGNU).

In the hearts and minds of desperate South Sudanese is a stable South Sudan where citizens would resume their farming and rearing of cattle. But, do we really have a leader to restore the lost hopes?

Prior to South Sudan being set ablaze, majority of South Sudanese were in need of real institutional reforms, but presidential contenders and those who had much to lose mishandled the SHOW, and the whole thing went out of hand.

The war of words was supposed to be over misappropriation of nation’s developmental funds to support for armed tribal militias who have been operating in remotest South Sudan’s areas for almost a decade.

While many South Sudanese in both camps (Government and Rebels) are worrying about jobs in the upcoming TGNU, what worries this author and few others is a kind of nation’s unity that eliminates INTELLECTUALS.

In the watch of Dr. Riek Machar, young learned South Sudanese were murdered by security agents (notably John Akuach and Isaiah Abraham).

In the same catch all chase, countless have been humiliated, intimidated to stop advocating for equality before the law & others instructed to quit reporting on government’s activities and institutionalized corruption.

How can we possibly have a functioning democracy if the educated are subjected to all sorts of humiliations?

Politicians, Dr. Riek Machar included, keep telling the world about their love of democracy, but they are short of practicing the very principles that promote and protect real democracy.

With its many forms, DEMOCRACY has one objective: rule by the people and respect for democratic processes.

Given the way leaders have kept the war alive for a very long time without a political solution, the return of peace to the Republic of South Sudan ought to be considered as a golden chance to prepare the nation for a new bright future.

It is fair to say unequivocally that the designated First Vice President of South Sudan is a huge liability on the people of South Sudan, a curse on those who keep supporting him to wage fruitless wars against his own people.

Up until the time President Salva Kiir reacted to his unseating by his deputy (Riek Machar), the two leaders were more like pepper and salt.

When Insiders pressured the President to let go his longest serving vice president, the political landscape tilted and tribal sentiments begun to take their unconventional course.

The national convention meeting (2013) as many recall, was the beginning of the real political transformation in the country.

Unfortunately, the unwillingness of the ruling elites to allow for institutional-structural change led to what the world terms as senseless war, and which has consumed many innocent lives in a very short period of time.

In any political wrangling, tones shift and citizens are rewired, and they see politics as a game of raw numbers.

With world’s pressures having dismantled desires to win the war militarily, the factions resorted to character assassination.

A civil war in a country where 98% of the economy is dependent on Oil, 21-months of arms race is a major disaster.

A number of rebels who ran out of money switched sides, and shamelessly appeased the President and repented their ill-acts in front of the only State-owned Television (SSTV).

You know what? All peace-loving South Sudanese who care-less about nepotism in government will have a chance to return to South Sudan, chill with their country-chicks and contribute to nation’s economy by putting their hard-earned education to work in private sector.

Too bad that that those who make living by collecting intelligence in Bars and Nightclubs will lose their Hotels fees.

How about earning a living by means of innovative activities, creative thinking and entrepreneurship?

From the rocky areas of the Sub-Sahara Africa to the cold deserts of the Northern Hemisphere, South Sudanese are waiting anxiously, and to have a unified national government again.

We grieve, bleed in hearts, shed tears, but at the end, finding a politically mature leader would be the only way for South Sudanese to restore the lost hopes, and for them to resolve South Sudan’s national political discourses once and for all.

In concluding this heartsick ramble-lock, South Sudan is seriously hurt and majority of South Sudanese are tribally polarized to see the real cure.

When darkness takes over the only source of light, visibility become a major problem.

To the dismay of those who know where the battery can be recharged but don’t have the permission to restore the power, they become the losers of tomorrow’s madness.

The world as a whole has witnessed the awful atrocities committed by warring factions in South Sudan. In the words of renowned Journalist, Nhial Bol Aken, “when they (SPLM’s leaders) unite, they loot the nation’s resources, when they disagree, they kill people.”

Junubiin, what are we hopeful for? We know for sure that Dr. Riek Machar is not a returning Messiah and President Salva Kiir is neither a good Shepherd nor a visionary Leader.

There is one thing to bear in mind: the first 18 months of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) would be a hell of a wait. Thy shall not trust self-confessed repeat offenders.

The author is Mayak Deng Aruei, a concerned South Sudanese currently in the USA. He is a Doctoral Student in Organizational Leadership: Organizational Development. He is also the author of the ‘Struggle Between Despair and Life: From Sudan’s Marshland’s Village, Child Soldiering, Refugee Camp and America.’ He can be reached at Kongor.da.ajak@gmail.com

Women held as sex slaves by Kiir’s South Sudan army ‘rape camps’

BENTIU, SOUTH SUDAN: Daily Nation, SEPT/28/2015, SSN;

IN SUMMARY: The plight of perhaps thousands of South Sudanese women and girls from just a single state, Unity State, abducted and subjected to repeated, brutal rape and slave-like working conditions by Kiir’s SPLA soldiers and allied militia, has remained hidden until now.

One woman was abducted by soldiers and taken to a military camp, tied up and raped repeatedly for two months.

Another was kidnapped with her 15-year-old sister and raped every night for five nights. A third was taken to a forest with her 12-year old daughter where both were raped.

The abduction of women and girls for use as sex slaves — some of them held indefinitely, tied up with hundreds of others in secret rape camps — is a disturbing new aspect of South Sudan’s 21-month conflict, already characterised by well-documented war crimes and human rights abuses.

Nigeria’s ‘Chibok girls’, abducted by Boko Haram in April 2014, and Iraq’s Yazidi women taken as sex slaves by Islamic State are well-known.

But the plight of perhaps thousands of South Sudanese women and girls from just a single state, abducted and subjected to repeated, brutal rape and slave-like working conditions has remained hidden until now.

Dozens of interviews conducted by AFP in the northern Unity State reveal a systematic pattern of abduction and rape perpetrated by government soldiers and their allied militia during a recent offensive.

The investigation focused on attacks by government forces but both sides have perpetrated ethnic massacres, recruited and killed children and carried out widespread rape, torture and forced displacement of populations to “cleanse” areas of their opponents.

SYSTEMATIC ABDUCTION AND RAPE

Nyabena’s experience is typical.

The 30-year old mother was seized when soldiers attacked her village in Rubkona County in April. Men and boys were shot. Homes were looted and burned to the ground. Women and girls were rounded up. She was among 40 taken from two neighbouring settlements and wells up with tears when she talks about being torn away from her five children.

They were marched to Mayom County. Nyabena was held in Kotong, a stronghold of Major-General Matthew Puljang, commander of a tribal Bul Nuer militia aligned with South Sudan’s army, the SPLA, which has been battling rebels since December 2013.

From April to July this year the SPLA and Puljang’s militia carried out an offensive that United Nations investigators described as a “scorched earth policy” in an August report.

Fighting and flooding limits access to large parts of South Sudan, leading aid workers to refer to southern Unity State as “an information black-hole”.

A human rights investigator said: “Nobody knows what’s happening in Mayom County,” where many of the women were taken. One military expert estimated that “thousands of women” were abducted during the offensive.

“In all the southern Unity counties it’s been the same: those women who escape are lucky. Those who don’t are raped and abducted or killed,” said the rights investigator. “The abduction of women seems to be systematic. It might be for a day, or longer, or forever.”

Those who escaped recount their stories with numb, quiet voices. Nightmares plague some who wake up terrorised, thinking they are still captive.

After her abduction Nyabena was put to work during the day, carrying looted goods and food, collecting water and hoeing farms. She was guarded constantly during the day and tied up at night with other women.

“When one of the soldiers wanted to have sex he would come, untie us and take us away. When they were finished they would bring you back and tie you to the post again,” she said, stretching her elbows behind her back to show how she was bound. She said being raped by four men a night was common.

Women who refused to work or fought against their rape would disappear. “In the morning we discover they are missing,” she said. Of the 40 she arrived with in April, 10 disappeared this way.

VICTIMS AS YOUNG AS 12

Nyamai, a 38-year old mother of five, was taken from her village in Koch County. She was guarded constantly and tied up frequently. As many as 10 soldiers would queue up at night for their turn raping her.

“Please, let one guy deal with me, don’t come all of you,” she pleaded, and was beaten with a stick in response.

In another case, three of Nyatuach’s unmarried, teenaged daughters were abducted in May during an attack on their village in Rubkona County. Two are still missing, but her 17-year old daughter escaped with three of her nieces.

They returned “very sick, very thin”.

“Their bodies were weak and they were leaking fluids from so many men having intercourse with them,” Nyatuach said, a common symptom of fistula, an incontinence-causing tear in the wall between the vagina and bladder or rectum, that can be caused by particularly violent rape.

Others were raped repeatedly until, bleeding and unable to take any more, they were set free, or killed.

“When the girls were broken they would dispose of them,” said Nyatuach.

Rebecca found her 12-year old daughter again the day after their village in Koch County was attacked.

“When they took me, those people used me,” the girl told her mother. Rebecca boiled some water and washed her daughter with hot cloths.

“We can do nothing,” she told her. “It’s like that.”

*Names have been changed to protect the identities of those interviewed.

The message behind President Kiir’s press briefing

BY: Elhag PAUL, SEPT/28/2015, SSN;

15th September 2015 was a day of anticipation for the war battered people of South Sudan. The country was earlier prepared through the media to expect a special speech from the President of the republic, Salva Kiir.

Radio Tamazuj like other media outlets informed the country a day earlier about the intended President’s address through an article under the heading ‘President Kiir to address the nation on economic hardship’ https://radiotamazuj.org/en/article/president-kiir-address-nation-economic-hardship.

Eventually when President Kiir delivered the speech, it turns out to be a squelch of a man being dragged screaming and kicking to the implementation phase of the Compromise Peace Agreement he wholeheartedly detests. file:///C:/Users/Rosemary/Downloads/STATEMENT%20OF%20H.%20E.%20PRESIDENTSALVA%20KIIR%20MAYARDIT.pdf

The heroics he attempted to display in Addis Ababa on 17th August 2015 by refusing to sign the agreement ended with his tail between his legs. In less than a week, President Kiir begged IGAD to bring the agreement to him in Juba to sign.

Since then the president has been whingeing like an insecure toddler. Being in that state, President Kiir disingenuously claims in his speech that “the purpose of his press briefing is mainly to share ideas with you (the public) in order to find the best strategies to restore lasting peace in our country.” Really?

If this press briefing was for finding the best strategies, how would it be operationalised and achieved? Crucially, the president has not explained the mechanism for achieving such strategies.

This supposed purpose for the press briefing ends in the introductory part of the briefing and it does not cascade into the body and the conclusion. It stands out alone, disconnected from the other issues the president raised and emphasised.

As is the case with any written work, the public receive it and interpret it according to their understanding based on their own historical knowledge, values and beliefs. Regardless of the types of lenses or tools used to make sense, President Kiir’s message conveys three points clearly.

First, is the capitulation of the regime to the regional body (IGAD). The song of ‘reservations’ and explanations about violation of South Sudan’s sovereignty is an acknowledgement of a reality that he president Kiir has no power to stop the gathering clouds of peace.

Here, he is between the rock and the hard place. Power is just slipping away gradually as the agreement gets implemented. The absolute powers he gleefully wielded in the last decade issuing decrees left and right, threatening members of parliament with ‘roaming the streets’ and sacking elected governors have been drastically curtailed in the agreement he signed.

The act of signing away one’s own illegally obtained powers is the ultimate humiliation of the man and the Jieng Council of Elders. It is the loss of this power and the status that goes with it which the agreement has brought that is making President Kiir shout: ‘Help please! Help please! Our sovereignty is being violated!’

He and the JCE expect South Sudanese to be receptive to their cries and rally behind them. No, Sirs. Nobody is getting duped. Nobody is buying his crocodile tears.

True, South Sudan’s sovereignty is being tampered with but why should South Sudanese care since he (President Kiir) and the Jieng Council of Elders (JCE) were the first to violate it. The JCE is a body of Jieng elders composed of Jieng intellectuals and semi-illiterate self styled military officers whose objective is to further the interest of the Jieng tribe at the expense of the whole country.

It is not far fetched to argue that it is the JCE that actually has been running the affairs of the country. Unlike elders anywhere in the world, the JCE is violent and kleptocratic.

In contrast, the global elders composed of dignitaries such as Mr Martti Ahtisaari. Mr Kofi Anan, Mrs Ela Bhatt, Ms Gro Harlem Bruntland, Ms Hina Jilani, Mr Lakhdar Brahimi, Mr Fernando Cardoso, Mr Jimmy Carter, Mr Nelson Mandela, Arcbishop Desmond Tutu etc devote their invaluable time to promoting peace and harmony among the people of the world.

They work tirelessly for world peace and they handle issues with care and prudence. This is what is expected from real elders and not the violence of the JCE.

Back to the issue of sovereignty, President Kiir and the JCE have hijacked the sovereignty of South Sudan and they freely use it to advance Jieng interest in detriment to the whole country. The Compromise Peace Agreement is actually a product of abuse of sovereignty of South Sudan by this same group.

Right after IGAD took over the mediation of the talks, President Kiir with the advice of JCE consistently denied the other stakeholders in the country to partake in finding a solution to the conflict.

For example, the denial and violation of the right of travel of people like Mr Peter Sule, Dr Lam Akol and others from going to attend the talks in Addis Ababa. The question now is: why is President Kiir and the JCE seeking support from those they trashed and abused? The centuries old adage – you reap what you sow applies here.

The president and his Jieng short-sightedly antagonised the majority of South Sudanese. They never thought there would be hard times. Now, hard times are here, they want support of the very people they abused and deprived. No, that support will not come.

In fact they first need to account for destroying the country. As they have sowed killings, hatred, mega theft of public resource, ethnic cleansing, expansionists policies etc they now must reap “rebooting” of governance in the country with thorough accountability.

Thus as South Sudan is being rebooted South Sudanese really do not give a damn about a ‘hijacked sovereignty’ serving the interest of a single tribe: Jieng.

The second message President Kiir is passing to South Sudanese is that SPLM/A has ceased to be what it was. This is most welcome news because this Jieng machine (SPLM/A) is the real cause of all the sufferings of South Sudanese people. There is no need to talk about its evil because it is obvious.

Time and again South Sudanese have been warned that the SPLM/A will destroy them, but this message keeps falling on deaf ears. Its leaders in the person of Pagan Amum and his group are now on the run for their dear lives from it.

For those who do not know much about the SPLM/A they should check the World Wide Web for the plethora of information about this criminal organisation.

President Kiir declared, ‘It must be stated clearly that the reality of political difference within the SPLM which has been cemented in the peace agreement, and accepted cheerfully by our colleagues in the opposition; requires us all to organise ourselves on new basis. This simply means “The SPLM will never be one again as long as we follow the implementation of this Compromise Peace Agreement.”’

While this notification comes as a massive relief to majority of South Sudanese, President Kiir must be held to account for the role he played in destroying their beloved machine of terror. The whole calamity that hit South Sudan ignited by the SPLM meeting of 5th March 2013 is a direct result of his gross negligence, poor leadership, and refusal to accept to be guided by party rules. His obsession to remain “the flag bearer” without following the party rules landed the country into the current chaos.

President Kiir can not just now use the bitter pill of the Compromise Peace Agreement administered to them to place the blame of SPLM/A break up on Pagan Amum and Riek Machar.

He laments, “This IGAD prescribed peace document on the resolution of the conflict in the Republic of South Sudan is the most divisive and unprecedented peace deal ever seen in the history of our country and the African continent at large.”

This may well be the case but President Kiir should look himself in the mirror on the issue of division. This ‘scarcely literate’ President forgets that he has been one of the most divisive figures in the country.

Since he came to power in 2005, Kiir has presided over the division of various ethnic groups in the whole country to promote Jieng expansionist policies. For instance, in Upper Nile, he blatantly decreed Chollo land of Pigi county to the Jieng of Padang. In Nimule, Eastern Equatoria, he promoted through violent means resettlements of Jieng of Bor and so on.

On the area of law and order he has allowed the Jieng to kill members of other ethnicities without accountability. Tragically, in December 2013, President Kiir displayed his hateful traits by ethnically cleansing the Nuer in Juba. Not only that but he imprisoned the survivors in the UN Protection camps to date.

So what division is President Kiir talking about? The Compromise Peace Agreement actually unites all the people of South Sudan if anything. Cynically, President Kiir attempts to convey a false picture to the world that South Sudanese before the Compromise Peace Agreement were united. He and his JCE are the architect of divisions in the country with their vicious practice of violent tribalism.

As the SPLM/A is now heading towards a break up, the members of this dysfunctional organisation from the other ethnic groups should seize on this opportunity to free themselves completely by severing ties and joining other political groups.

This will ensure that the state powers the Jieng capitalised on under the SPLM/A becomes something of the past. Let the JCE remain with their “SPLM “ and let the people see how they will gain votes from other ethnicities to accede to power again in a genuine election.

The third point subtly delivered is a threat or rather a declaration to obstruct the whole process of the transitional period. President Kiir is a well known hypocrite. He is fond of doing the opposite of what he promises or says.

During the celebration of South Sudan independence on 9th July 2011 he emphatically promised South Sudanese peace. Before his words could be forgotten, he embarked on disarming all the other ethnicities and re-arming the Jieng. The Nuer being the majority in the army by then also did the same.

Within five months after independence the country was thrown into a tribal war between an alliance of Jieng and Nuer against the Murle. President Kiir and his Vice Riek did nothing as if nothing seriously damaging the credibility of the state had happened re its duty to protect.

Neglectfully, neither of the two called or instituted an enquiry. That was the first sign of failure in leadership of both President Kiir and Riek and the failure of state to protect its citizen.

Fresh from this debacle, President Kiir unnecessarily went into a wild adventure of invading the Sudan and eventually retreating to remain in the disputed Panthou. He crowed to Mr Ban Ki Moon that he would never withdraw.

Within a day he pulled out. Please see, ‘Panthou war: the reflections of unnecessary war’ http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/opinion/articles/panthou-war-the-reflections-of-unnecessary-war.

In 2012 President Kiir promised to address the problem of rampant corruption. He even produced a list of 75 alleged thieves. What has he done? Nothing!

Then in 2013 he recruits a private militia popularly known as Dootku Beny/Mathiang Anyoor/Gelweng. It is this militia that became responsible for the cleansing of the Nuer in Juba sparking the current vicious war that has consumed tenth of thousands of lives and displaced over two million people.

It is clear from these few examples that President Kiir is definitely a hypocrite.
Now read this excerpt from the Lord of Darkness’ briefing.

“Having made our reservations and expressed our disappointment on the provision of the Agreement, I (President Kiir) finally signed the Peace Document with reservations to return our country back to peace and development. With that signature, I had fully committed the government to faithful implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. All institutions of government in the country shall be bound by this Agreement and shall be expected to carry out the functions stipulated for them therein. I believe you are aware of that National Council ministers has already endorsed and adopted the Agreement and that the National Legislature has ratified it as well. In my capacity as Commander-In-Chief of the SPLA, I have already issued a cease fire order for SPLA troops to stop any military offensive in the conflict zones unless on self defence.”

Anybody who is a close observer of the president will be worried by what he has outlined. His weasel words signify troubles. President Kiir as a hypocrite may not be promising peace. He may be declaring obstruction to the implementation of the peace agreement.

It is not a surprise therefore to see his troops aided by Uganda People Defence Forces using helicopter gunships to decimate the Chollo villages in Upper Nile and Unity states to clear land for resettlement of the Jieng. This is a serious violation of the peace agreement.

Equally, he has unleashed his dogs of war on Equatoria while deceptively preaching peace as in his press briefing. Equatoria now must face the reality of its predicament resulting from non active political engagement in the country.

The three points in the message sums up a declaration for a protracted obstruction to derail the Compromise Peace agreement. In effect SPLM-IG and the evil forces running it have wedged themselves on the road to peace in South Sudan.

The implementation of the peace agreement is not going to be an easy one. The road ahead will be bumpy with unexpected dangers along the way.

Will Dr Riek Machar manage travelling on this road? There is a big question mark. Riek does not appear to grasp the dynamics emanating from the new reality created by the agreement.

In some state of lullaby dreaming of becoming a president, this pretender without any skills and knowledge of leadership is a disaster waiting to happen.

Instead of taking serious note of the violations by Juba so far denting the agreement and making it questionable, he is nowhere to be heard or seen.

Riek should by now vigorously be engaging the IGAD, South Sudanese people and the international community by delivering relevant national statements and holding conferences to highlight the numerous violations of the peace agreement with recommendations of what should be done.

Unfortunately, he is nowhere to be heard or seen. Sadly, he leaves this vital job to his spokesman.

Riek now jubilantly goes around with wide smiles deluding himself that he has achieved a victory. Anybody who followed Riek’s behaviour after he signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997 can not fail to see the same naive behaviour surfacing again in him.

Back then he carried himself as if he wielded real power in Khartoum. His tribalistic actions were everywhere to be seen with posts dished out to close family members and some favoured Nuer.

That experience in short ended bitterly as he had to run to Dr Garang in 2002 with his tail coiled. South Sudanese are about to be administered a dose of similar behaviour in a very fluid and dangerous circumstances whereby the oppressors of the people are geared to fighting to the death.

If Riek wants to win this battle in order to realise peace for a democratic transformation in the county, he must be pro-active, constantly alert, highly communicative and actively engaging the stakeholders, drafters and guarantors of the deal to breath fire on the regime in Juba.

Otherwise his credibility and limited support will be a foregone conclusion.

In conclusion, President Kiir’s press briefing is a serious message of a wounded bull whose future has been blown by the IGAD document. It is a declaration of a fight to the death. Therefore, South Sudanese, the drafters of the agreement and the international community must take note and be prepared for the worst.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]

Elhag Paul
elhagpaul@aol.com

PHD holders not needed in South Sudan, says president Kiir’s press secretary Ateny

By Daniel Juol Nhomngek, Law Development Center, Kampala, SEPT/26/2015, SSN;

It was a sad day for me when I heard the Press Secretary of the President of the Republic of South Sudan, Mr. Ateny Wek Ateny, stating confidently that it was a waste of time to go for PHD while bachelor degrees could do in South Sudan. To him PHD was no longer necessary in South Sudan.

Such statement was really bad and ill-intended. It was not made as a matter of opinion but it was intended as a clear campaign against PHD Holders who Ateny Wek Ateny thought that holding PHD or doctorate in any field was the cause of South Sudanese problems: forgetting that it is misgovernment that is the source of all troubles vexing South Sudan today.

In making such statement, he was indirectly referring to Dr. Riek Machar whom he thinks to be the cause of all the problems of South Sudan. Therefore, the solution according to Wek was to brainwash all aspiring South Sudanese so that they dropped their desire for going for PHD where they would become another Riek Machar in future.

The above statement was made by Ateny Wek Ateny when he was invited to Kampala (Uganda) to preside over the dissolution of Bhar El Ghazal Youth Association. During that day, it happened by coincidence that the Patron of the Association by the name Bol Muorteer was a PHD student from Kampala International University (KIU).

During the introduction, Patron Bol Muorteer was introduced as the “only PHD student from Bhar El Ghazal studying in Uganda.” In addition, Bol was given to address the community of Bhar El Ghazal that was invited in which he annoyed the guest of honor, Mr. Ateny Wek Ateny.

As he was giving the speech, Bol said a thing that I thought to be the cause of annoyance to Mr. Ateny Wek Ateny. In his speech he stated that the PHD holders or professionals in general can play a positive role in the country for giving expert’s advice and carrying out researches that the government could use in its national policies and plans, which was a very valid point.

However, Ateny Wek Ateny whose experiences have been defined by 2013 Incident in which Riek, one of the South Sudanese PHD Holders was accused of attempting to overthrow the government of Juba did not make out any sense of what Bol was saying since he believed that Riek was a destructive force in South Sudan because of his doctorate. A view and feeling shared by many South Sudanese officials.

Instead of appreciating the struggle of a young man to PHD level, Ateny Wek was worked up by the statement and as soon as he was called to address the community, he could not waste his time.

He started by narrating the event that took place in Juba in 2013 and then related it to PHD holders whom he accused to be the trouble-makers of South Sudan.

After that he started discouraging the students not only from Bhar El Ghazal but also from all over South Sudan, saying that going for PHD is a waste of time and he also further stated that he would never encourage nor support any person to go for PHD.

That statement alone annoyed me. It annoyed me because at that point I saw South Sudan future being sacrificed at the altar of ignorance, selfishness and lack of proper reasoning due to the lack of proper education.

Such a statement was very childlike and self-centred that “educated men like Ateny Wek Ateny would have not entertained.”

Any reasonable person would dismiss such reasoning within a second. In fact, it was an erroneous statement full of misgiving and prejudice.

What Ateny Wek Ateny did not understand with his high level of education in journalism is the fact that journalism teaches objectivity.

Journalism teaches that any occurrence should be treated on its own facts and generalization of things without any conclusive proof should be avoided by all means.

The fact that Riek Machar and few other South Sudanese who are doctors disturb the government should not make the government of South Sudan or her officials to conclude that PHD is the problem of South Sudan.

Ateny would have thought twice before sacrificing future of South Sudan for his primordial interest of eliminating Riek Machar.

As I have stated in the foregoing sentence, Ateny has effectively sacrificed the future of South Sudan in a way that many students who had believed in what he was saying will never dream of going for PHD, which is bad sign for the young nation like South Sudan.

The damage is already done to South Sudan by Ateny Wek Ateny based on the fact that he is closer to the President, which means that he already intoxicated the president with wrong philosophy and unless the president is an objective man, he will never support Sudanese in pursuing their professions, which in future will deprive South Sudan of expertise that is necessary for its development.

I believe, there is no smoke without fire, the falling value of education in South Sudan has its root in reasoning of Ateny and his associates who share the same view. Ateny does not appreciate the role of experts in development of South Sudan.

The roles of experts such as engineers, journalists, lawyers, teachers and many others and above all, PHD Holders and Professors are prerequisites for the development of any nation because a nation that does not have enough experts in all fields is a nation that is doomed from the start.

South Sudan is one of such nations, which lacks enough experts and would have been the interest of the government of South Sudan not only to encourage South Sudanese in all fields to study to the PHD levels but to also set aside budget that will make it possible for those who are interested to go on to the highest levels with their studies.

As a matter of fact, the development of all nations depends on the correct diagnoses of the inherent problems that tend to hinder the development, which only the experts who are proper persons endowed with the ability and skills to make correct research and give proper recommendations or pieces of advice to the government as to what should be done to progress.

The USA, Germany, Australia, Canada and many other developed nations developed because of good education which produces independent experts. Thus, it means that PHD per se is not the problems or source of the problems of South Sudan, but the source of the problem of South Sudan is the type of education received by some of the PHD Holders currently in South Sudan.

Education that was given to South Sudanese by then was not helpful for the building of South Sudan. The type of education given to South Sudanese looked only at the ends not the means of achieving such ends.

Or South Sudanese were educated to fear of telling the truth and worship the authorities no matter how wrong they might be. In other words, there were no rights of citizens but all rights viewed as privileges granted by the state and could be withdrawal at any time by the state.

Hence, education provided in Sudan by then in calculated values of secrecy, biting and destruction of the imagined enemies in politics and to grab power as soon as the opportunity avails itself.

Therefore, education was seen as a power of destroying one’s opponents, accessing political power and amassing wealth at the expense of the poor and vulnerable.

Thus, instead of looking at PHD Holders as the source or problems by the government of South Sudan, the government should critically analyse type of education that children receive and also should adopt good education because individuals like Riek Machar are not trouble makers because of PHD but because of the type of education that was given to them by the Northern Sudan or the government of Sudan by then.

The government of Sudan by then did not intend education to impart good values in the individuals that encouraged objectivity and service to the community but it was based on subjectivity in which the receiver of it looked at things in the angle of gain and positivity at all the times.

It is the same kind of education that Ateny Wek Ateny has received, which made him to reason the way he did today.

That was the reason in my opinion why on that day Ateny Wek Ateny was not ashamed to utter such a statement and the question that has been haunting me since I heard that faulty statement was:
Did the Press Secretary of the President of the Republic of South Sudan, Mr. Ateny Wek Ateny, mean what he was saying or was it a slip of the tongue?

Of course, the way he was saying it, he really meant it and there is no doubt about that.

Then, if Wek meant what he was saying, what is going to be the implication of his statement on the development of South Sudan given the fact that the development of any nation depends on the levels of professions the country has?

As already explained above in paragraphs 10, 11, 12 and 13, South Sudan will not develop unless the political leadership encourages education and specialization and at the same time remove people like Ateny Wek Ateny from influencing the policies of the nation and put the people whose interest of the nation is in the heart.

In summary, what I wanted to say is that Ateny Wek Ateny made a very wrong, prejudicial and erroneous statement that any person who has interest of the nation in the heart would have not made.

What Ateny Wek must know is that it is not PHD or Doctorate that is the problem of South Sudan but the kind of leadership and education such leadership received in the past that have had a lot of negative on South Sudan before and after her independence.

All in all, education matters a lot. If children are, for instance, taught that education is for political power and wealth, then they would grow up using education to grab political power and wealth but if they are taught that education is for services then they would use their education all the times to serve the people.

Thus, Ateny should avoid taking effect for the cause. The problem cause by PHD Holders is not PHD but how such PHD was received. I encourage all South Sudanese who might have given thought to Ateny’s advice to rethink their position and start dreaming of becoming doctors in the future and fight against someone like Ateny Wek Ateny.

It is therefore important for all youth of South Sudan to get united and demand an apology from Ateny Wek Ateny for destroying their future within a minute and campaign for good education system to be introduced in South Sudan.

NB// the Author is a South Sudanese Lawyer admitted to the Bar Course Training, at Law Development Centre in Uganda (LDC) and he can be reached through: juoldaniel@yahoo.com

Political future of South Sudan should not be pegged on Kiir and Machar’s ambitions

BY: Andrew BARUNGI, African Review, FRIDAY, SEPT/25/2015, SSN;

South Sudan has been engaged in a civil war since December, 2013. The main protagonists are President Salva Kiir and former vice president Dr Riek Machar. On the surface, the war has ethnic dimensions— the Dinka vs the Nuer, the two being the largest and most influential ethnic groups in South Sudan.

Wars and civil strife seem to be common in new states, especially in Africa. There are very important questions that have to be asked about South Sudan. Has the South Sudan project been a failure? The peace talks we have been following in the news since 2014, have they turned into peace jokes? Whom do these peace talks benefit?

The South Sudan project was something many human rights defenders, both in Africa and the international community, had envisaged. Why? South Sudan fought a civil war with (North) Sudan because of marginalisation.

The Sudan, which was a creation of the British in 1956, set the precedent for South Sudan’s current problems, by bringing in completely different groups (such as Muslims, Christians and Animists on the one hand, and Arabs and Africans on the other hand), together.

The leaders of the north seemed to be privileged or favoured during colonialism and thus imposed their chauvinism, which resulted in a war. In 2011, South Sudan voted for independence and many thought this was a new dawn.

But could this have been another case of placing the cart before the horse?

As noted earlier, South Sudan was marginalised before and after independence when they were part of the Sudan. It was under-developed; there was hardly any infrastructure, education or healthcare for the population.

However, that did not stop some South Sudanese such as the late John Garang and Machar, among others, from going to school and pursuing PhDs in the West. That said, it is possible that the root of the conflict is lack of development.

Also, alarming levels of corruption have been reported in South Sudan, which might be fueling the conflict because some selfish individuals want to control and profit from the country’s natural resources such as oil.

This corruption is viewed by the majority as an act of impunity perpetrated by the minority – in particular people with power derived from their positions in the military.

Civil war

Let us not forget that the civil war is a conflict between ethnic warlords who use ethnicity as a bargaining chip. Another issue is that South Sudan did not establish a national and professional army; it just merged different rebel groups— this was common in post-independence Africa.

Which brings me to the question, have the negotiations between the warring parties been peace talks or peace jokes? There have been many peace agreements only for clashes to resume. History in post-independence Africa shows that warring parties rarely honour the peace agreement and absolute gain is in the interest of the protagonists.

These peace talks seem designed to appease the international community but in reality only benefit the warlords, not the South Sudanese people.

Take for instance the major concessions being exchanged at the so-called peace talks. How will cabinet posts, federalism or the number of guards one person has bring development to South Sudan? Are these issues really addressing the core issue of under-development, nepotism and corruption?

Remember peace is not the absence of war, so if these concessions result in some kind of peace agreement, it may only benefit a few elites and perpetuate the current semi-feudal state in South Sudan, which is a harbinger for another civil war.

The international community should also understand that sanctions do not bring peace. The warlords will still find a way of fighting to protect their personal interests (as opposed to the wider interests of the State).

What alternative remedies are at our disposal? South Sudan probably needs a fresh political dispensation – a new constitution bereft of the personal influence of the main protagonists – President Kiir, Machar and their allies.

The peace talks should focus on establishing a transition and timetable for developing a new constitution that caters for the interests of all of South Sudan’s ethnic and religious groups based on principles of fairness and equity. Such a process should hopefully bring new faces of leadership to South Sudan, people who are patriotic and have a vision for the country.

The political future of South Sudan should not be pegged on the personal ambitions of President Kiir or Machar. And the new constitution should give a voice to all ethnic and religious groups and not just the two dominant tribes of Nuer and Dinka – as it seems to be the case today.

Mr Barungi is a social scientist. ankal1@alumni.morgan.edu & Twitter: @andybk82

Stupidity or Irresponsibility? What’s become of Central Equatoria State governor and ex-governor?

EDITORIAL, SEPT/23/2015, SSN;

Whilst thousands of innocent and traumatized citizens in Wonduruba, Katigiri and the surrounding areas have been forcefully displaced as victims of ethnic cleansing, and whilst many are still being murdered by the day by none other than the so-called national army, the very SPLA, a situation which the Episcopal Bishop Paul Wani Yugusuk aptly described as ‘totally disastrous,’ there emerges ex-governor Clement Wani Konga and his protégé, Governor Juma Ali Malou, in an unprecedented charade donating millions of South Sudanese pound houses to ex-presidents Lagu and Alier.

The unprecedented incident took place on September 21, 2015 broadcast on national television, perhaps intentionally calculated by Konga and Malou, in collaboration with the genocidal government of president Salva Kiir as a deliberate diversion from the plight of the suffering Wonduruba and surrounding areas citizens who barely have no food, shelter and security.

Untimely irresponsible as well as stupid the occasion was, these two self-seeking Central Equatoria so-called ‘leaders’ have no business donating gratis such ostentatious luxuries to the two national ex-presidents when that should rightly be the responsibility and jurisdiction of the national government of president Kiir to take care of such charity.

But more painfully, however, for those refugees of Wonduruba and precincts, neither governor Malou nor his godfather, ex-governor Clement Konga have publicly condemned the so-called national army, SPLA, for the perpetuation on this targeted ethnic cleansing and more irresponsibly, neither of the two ex-militia/military men had the guts to personally and officially visit Wonduruba massacre scene.

Fortunately, Bishop Paul Wani Yugusuk, who visited the crime scene though himself not a native of that area, pointedly described the situation this way: ‘This is a total destruction where even the Central Equatoria flag was pulled down and torn.’

Further, the Bishop regretfully surmised about the devilish actions of the SPLA: ‘I don’t know what kind of heart do we have as South Sudanese.’

First, going back to the deliberate and inopportune diversionary action of the Central Equatoria governor Malou and his godfather, ex-governor Konga, perhaps any Central Equatorian and any concerned citizen has the right to ask the question: Under what mandate or law did ex-governor Clement had to build houses freely for ex-presidents using state money?

From his own mouth and loudly reiterated by his prodigy, governor Malou, ex-governor Clement revealed on national television that he had always “promised to do something big for the two ex-presidents.”

Surely, by his own confession, this was seemingly either a personal delusion of magnanimity to atone for some past bad political/human crimes he commissioned/committed or just sheer stupidity and irresponsibility to callously misuse state money by the two governors.

Certainly, one can conclude that the money used was not approved by Central Equatoria State parliament or by the people themselves in full transparency.

The sensible alternative for this redundant expenditure, if indeed it can be so described, would have been for these two fortunate Mundari tribesmen to utilize that money to build a secondary school in their under-development Mundari land, an area just north of Juba that has been substantially and perpetually neglected by the rulers in Juba.

As a matter of fact, among all the Bari-speaking tribes in Central Equatoria State, the Mundari tribe has been unfortunately ‘marginalized’ since the earlier 1950’s, with only one elementary school.

Incidentally, the same Abel Alier, as first president of the Regional government in 1972 contributed in the marginalization of the Mundari by not building a single school in the large area of the Mundari.

Down the years, the Mundari under governor Clement Konga became recruits to militia gangsterism raiding neighboring tribes and finally, in the last war, the Mundari fell victims to Islamist recruitment as jihadist fighters for Khartoum Islamic government till the comprehensive peace was concluded in 2003.

With their latest political fortitude of having two consecutive governors of Central Equatoria state from Mundari, one would have thought that Clement and Juma Ali Malou would have prudently utilized any money available to help their own misused and exploited people by building at least a senior school and some college in Terekeka town or good roads, anything would be better that building presidential palaces.

Second, since these two former presidents of the extinct South Sudan regional government were constitutionally retired and fully pensioned by their former employer, the Sudan government under the Arab North in Khartoum, one thing is sure, that’s Lagu and Abel were both gratuitously and graciously recompensed in cash and kind in spite of their legendary antagonistic politics.

Moreover, never once has news come to the public that Lagu and Alier were going naked, thirsty, hungry or homeless, and neither was it reported that their families were eating from the trees or the garbage, in comparison to the majority of the less fortunate South Sudanese orphans and widows!

It might be of interest to recall that by the time both Lagu and Alier were bitter rivals who never saw each other eye-to-eye, they both in alternation served as presidents to the detriment of one another, be it in Juba or in Khartoum.

Then, at the time when Lagu and Alier were cutting each other’s throat for political survival against the other, Clement was just a middle level Sudan Army officer nowhere then in the South Sudan regional political limelight, whilst the younger Juma Ali was in utter oblivion.

Third, not only has governors Maloud’s and Konga’s combined irresponsibility and stupidity gone wilder and bizarre, but shockingly and incredibly, these soulless and unrepentant duo publicly promised that in perpetuity of their foolishness, the next South Sudan presidents, starting with Kiir, when they retire, will likewise be automatically accorded the same generosity of free millions-of-pounds houses, thanks again to the generosity of the same Central Equatoria State, Amen!

If anything, this is the direct responsibility of the so-called Government of the Republic of South Sudan to gratuitously provide the lawful amenities like houses and pensions to those ex-presidents and other constitutional post holders, by law.

Oh, God, president Salva Kiir must be graciously counting his blessings brought about by the sheer stupidity of these two Equatoria political buffoons…. he will be now planning renting out his numerous properties in Juba and Yei and across East Africa, reaping billions more on top of the alleged 1.5 billion dollars already allegedly stolen, according to his former comrade, Edward Lino, now in opposition.

Isn’t that what is truly prophesied in the Scriptures about the rich getting richer while the poor getting more poorer, as even the little they have will be taken away!

Certainly, the Central Equatorian poor will be impelled into more poverty, thanks to the stupendous blunders of their supposed son/leaders!!!!

Lastly, whilst making it publicly abundant that I have nothing personal or political with the two beneficiaries of the irresponsibility and dumbness of the governor and his ex-governor and current mentor, my deepest concerns relate to the unfortunate timing of the occasion and, secondly to the perpetuation and the formalization of this uncalled for tectonic generosity.

In all reality, Central Equatoria state, under the blatant corruption regime of the ex-governor and that is now being palpably replicated by the new governor, who is a direct appointment of the evil Kiir’s government, is neither the Kuwait nor Dubai of South Sudan.

Central Equatoria, admittedly, is a microcosm of the kleptocratic government of South Sudan under president Kiir, and as such it closely duplicates all that is bad and despicable within the Kiir’s government.

With its own share of gross iniquities and misrule, theft and pillaging of its limited resources for the benefit of a few in the Clement Konga’s government circle, Central Equatoria is the last one state to offer such exorbitant benefits to the ex-presidents in ‘perpetuity’ as elaborated by both Konga and baby-governor Malou.

For the information of governors Konga and Malou, it’s indisputably apparent that President Kiir is now on his final “political death-bed,” the man is beyond any feasible political resuscitation and whatever happens, he’s starkly facing the one-way out into oblivion.

Moreover, after irresponsibly and callously exacerbating the ethnic/tribal animosities as well as fatally murdering the solidarity that once enabled our people to resist the Northern Jellaba Arabs during the struggle for independence, Kiir has devastatingly turned his guns on fellow citizens.

What just recently took place in Wonduruba and surrounding areas is a glaring reflection of a so-called leader who has irreversibly turned into a serial killer of his supposed co-citizens just for the survival of himself and his tribal clique.

South Sudan is an asphyxiated nation run by the decrepit SPLA and militia generals who’re clearly now behaving like hired tribal assassins killing for a pay.

God forbid, another Wonduruba could be soon unsurprisingly replicated anywhere, anytime sooner in Central Equatoria or the other Equatorias.

Clearly, it seems Governor Juma Ali Malou doesn’t look like a responsible and serious leader of the state to press for total redress, justice and prosecution of those SPLA soldiers and their top commanders who went on rampage raping and killing young boys and old women for no reason whatsoever.

Central Equatorians should rightfully demand from governor Malou the immediate eviction of all the so-called land grabbers and property grabbers from Central Equatoria state even if he has to put his job on the line.

In conclusion, rise up, governor, if you really care for your people or else this proves the rumor that you are just a puppet of the fading, soon-to-be-extinct president Kiir.

Glimmers of Hope in South Sudan

BY: Dr. Lako Jada Kwajok, SEPT/23/2015, SSN;

The title of this article may seem too optimistic to many people or indeed premature to others given the dire situation in the country at the present time. The burden of a decade of a kleptocratic regime on people’s lives should not be underestimated.

It’s only human that some would fall into despair and look to the future through dark glasses following the ordeal.

10 years of rampant corruption, nepotism and insecurity, culminating into a greed-driven civil war, had left bad memories that would need some time to be forgotten and wounds that would similarly need the same to heal.

But before the long process of healing and rehabilitation could start, people should understand fully why we ended up in this catastrophic situation in the first place. What are the root causes ? Could it have been avoided ? And what is the way forward to prevent repeating the same mistakes in future ?

We are gifted with a country that has a variety of unlimited natural resources waiting to be utilised. Some of the resources do not need much effort to exploit and the costs would be extremely low.

When you look around the world you would realise how fortunate we are in terms of availability of natural resources. Here are some examples; a Palestinian colleague once told me with a look of disbelief on his face ” El Yahood harathu el bahr !” which literally translates in English to ” The Jews ploughed the sea “.

He was referring to the process of reclaiming land for farming which is being practiced in Israel because of lack of land. Israel has got one of the most advanced and prosperous agricultural industries in the world.

Some of you might have come across the boat people in Hong Kong and other Asian cities. They are different from the refugees fleeing conflict areas by sea. These are people who live their entire lives on boats at sea.

Again it is due to lack of land; what I don’t know is where do they get buried when the die. Maybe they live all their lives at sea only to be buried on land when they die.

The third example comes from the Arabian peninsula, where there is no single river in an area more than double the size of South Sudan.

While we have numerous rivers and streams they got nothing. There was a time there when a litre of bottled water was more costly than a litre of petrol. Most parts of the peninsula are desert lands while our land is green and covered with forests and grass lands in most of its parts.

We are already exploiting the oil reserves and most likely there will be more discoveries of new oil reserves all over South Sudan. The gold is already there and being looted by foreigners. Other minerals are in abundance but yet to be tapped.

When you add the huge animal resources to the list then the following question will be in your mind, what else could we ask from God to give us ?!

Even the Jews who were mentioned in the bible as God’s people do not have the kind of resources we have. Our situation is akin to some one living in abject poverty while the wealth is all around him.

With the above resources there should be no poverty in South Sudan. The land simply has plenty to offer to its own people. There is enough for everyone; everywhere in South Sudan. We just need a visionary leadership that understands the country’s potentials.

With the right strategy and sound policies, South Sudan could have by now leaped one or more steps forward rather than going with the reverse gear. We are where we are because of the following reasons :

1. Weak leadership and lack of ideas and plans to lead the country towards prosperity: 10 years in power is quite a long time to bring about some positive changes and achievements. Most of the prosperous countries in the world have a maximum of 8 to 10 years for a presidency or a premiership.

Their people expect achievements during the said periods. We have seen nothing tangible from the current government in terms of projects, schools and hospitals.

From the beginning of its tenure it gave the impression of a government composed of people who are only after enriching themselves rather than caring for their fellow citizens. They built big mansions, acquired fancy cars and sent their children and families abroad for schools and health care.

The irony remains that some houses in Juba are comparable or even better than the majority of houses in the west but located in a shantytown. The whole situation was made worse by people or some members of a tribe believing that “it’s their time to eat”.

What good could come out of people harbouring this sort of notion?! It is no wonder that corruption has become an acceptable exercise in the government of South sudan.

2. Adopting a divisive and non-inclusive policies: It is here where the smaller tribes were completely marginalised and ignored. The government pursued the policy of hegemony by the Jieng tribe with total disregard to the damage it could cause to national unity.

It also fell under the influence of the Jieng Council of Elders (JCE), in fact it became a tool in executing its divisive policies including land grabbing and pastoralists belligerent acts.

The notion that the Jieng are liberators and the rest are collaborators is disseminated among the Jieng population by the JCE. It is a divisive and short-sighted political tactic that would backfire in the long term. It is certainly not helpful in a multiethnic and multicultural society like ours.

The Equatorians for example may say they were the pioneers of the struggle against the Mundukurus (Arabs) and without their contribution the SPLM/SPLA would have perished following the 1991 rift.

The Nuers and the people from the Cholo Kingdom may on the other hand say they were the first to introduce self-determination into the SPLM/SPLA politics and their contribution was pivotal in the path towards independence.

Many of you know that between July and August 1992, many Equatorian officers and intellectuals were executed in Juba by the Bashir’s regime for being the SPLM/SPLA fifth column. Some were thrown off planes en route to Khartoum. I personally know some of the victims who were my colleagues at school.

People from Upper Nile and Bahr El Gazal regions including some Jieng who were not in the bush also faced the same fate. How would their families feel when they are called collaborators?! Will it not call into question our evolution into a nation?!

The independence of South Sudan was accomplished through a collective struggle of all the tribes and communities in South Sudan. The decisive action was their votes at the referendum which brought about our independence.

3. Impunity and absence of rule of law: What defines a government is the upholding of the rule of law. Without this fundamental duty, it descends into a different category, more closer to the rule of warlords.

Indeed when criminals are set free from jail by members of their tribe and killers are left at large then it means our society is divided into two classes, the helpless majority and the mighty untouchables.

It is the reason that some people think they owned the country and are above the law. It is a recipe for chaos and the unravelling of South Sudan as maintaining law and order is paramount to the survival of any country.

4. Greed and selfishness: Civil wars are not uncommon in the history of nations. However, they are usually due to a widespread conflict within a country.

It is often triggered by a showdown between two parties with their supporters on both sides facing each other or a widespread discontent that pits the people against the government.

The case of South Sudan is quite unique as it was due to a power struggle between the president and his deputy. Both happened to be from the same party and carried the positions of chairman and deputy chairman respectively.

It was a division within one party between those who wanted a change in direction with implementation of reforms and the other group led by the president who wanted to maintain the status quo.

We do remember clearly that Dr Riek Machar and his colleagues planned to address a rally in Juba prior to the fighting. It was a peaceful and democratic way of taking the case to the people in order to gain their support in future elections.

That was not the approach a coup plotter would choose. The people were very keen to listen to what Dr Riek Machar and his colleagues were going to say. They were not allowed to proceed with the rally.

The president, who was clearly unpopular, sensing imminent loss of power came up with the ploy of coup d’etat. Whether he was coached by Museveni or not is yet to be unearthed.

The fact that he went ahead and allowed the massacre to happen displayed how greed and selfishness could take control of a weak leader. There was no thought about the people who were tired of half a century of wars in their country.

This war has relegated south Sudan to a low status among the world nations. Even a country like Djibouti would stand as a giant when compared to us. Our friends and backers are quite embarrassed even angry.

Our leadership is being viewed across the world as a bunch of irresponsible, clueless and selfish politicians who have no regard to the welfare of their people.

Those who did oppose our secession now feel vindicated. Some of our supporters are now wondering whether they made a big mistake in advocating our secession.

We are the laughing stock of Africa or indeed the world. The old phrase “The sick man of Africa” may soon be conferred to South Sudan. It has been the property of the Sudan for decades.

Recovery from the devastation caused by war is bound to happen and peace would ultimately prevail. In the lives of nations there are no disasters that would last for ever. People always rise and overcome the difficulties and consequences of wars.

The question is what kind of recovery and peace we should have that would guarantee non-recurrence of the cycle of violence. What we got now could just be a lull before the next cycle of violence if little or none at all is done towards addressing the root causes of the conflict.

The way forward is:
Firstly- To ensure that no single tribe is allowed to dominate the government to the extent that it could run the executive branch on its own. In essence no single tribe should be allowed to set the agenda for the whole country.

Secondly- The army, the police force, wildlife and prisons should not be dominated by one or two tribes. The massacre would not have happened if the SPLA was truly a diverse force. Therefore it is imperative to represent all the ethnicities and states proportionately in the armed forces.

Thirdly- There should be reforms in the judiciary while safeguarding its independence. All citizens should be on equal grounds before the law of the land. We can not outlaw carrying a gun in one community while allowing it in the other. Selective justice should come to an end.

Fourthly- Justice for the victims of the December 2013 massacre either through the proposed hybrid courts or other means should be a priority in the transitional government of national unity (TGoNU). There will be no meaningful peace if this matter is inadequately dealt with.

Fifthly- Government officials who are found to be involved in corruption should be made accountable. It should include all culprits across the board before, during and after the conflict. It is the only way to eradicate the culture of corruption or at least minimise it.

The period from the late 50’s to mid 70’s was the golden era of our national unity. Leaders like Clement Mboro, enjoyed a universal support from all South Sudanese, many of them didn’t know which tribe he hailed from. It didn’t matter then because there were no tribalistic councils of elders to divide the people.

The 1991 SPLM/SPLA split and the recent conflict were serious threats to our existence as one people. The recent war inflicted a significant damage to the social fabric of the country.

Our national unity remains in limbo. We simply can not afford another major conflict in the country. It will certainly lead to total disintegration of South Sudan should it happen again.

Apart from stopping the bloodshed, signing the peace agreement gives everyone a breathing space from 20 months of political and social turmoil.

Perhaps it will be a time for reflection for those politicians who really care about their country. They would have to think about what could have been done differently to avoid the civil war and what should be done to prevent it happening again in future.

George Santayana, the Spanish-American philosopher said, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it “.

My optimism stems from the fact that the transitional government of national unity (TGoNU) would be a consensus government. There will be no more dictatorial decrees over the SSTV.

The JCE will have to change its job description as it will have nothing to do with the TGoNU. Even if it tries to influence the state of affairs through the would be Jieng members, it will fail to achieve what it wants unless there is support from members of the other tribes.

With the end of the defunct regime of Salva Kiir, the restrains on civil liberties and freedom of speech would be lifted. People will at last live with dignity in their own country.

The international community is very keen to see positive changes on the ground. It is a naivety to think that engagement and intervention by the international community is only for the purpose of exploiting our natural resources.

While we cannot deny the presence of such motives, they are by no means the only reasons. The current refugee crisis in Europe gives a clear picture of what the international community is trying to prevent happening in South Sudan.

The regional leaders including president Museveni, are all on board the peace agreement. It is in their best interest not to allow the situation getting out of control where thousands of refugees cross the borders to their countries.

The peace agreement is backed by super powers who would not relent seeing it going through to establish peace and stability in South Sudan. Any ill-advised attempts to derail their endeavour would be detrimental to the perpetrators, in other words they would bite the dust.

Dr Lako Jada Kwajok

Uganda Army to start withdrawing from S. Sudan starting next week

THE MONITOR, KAMPALA, SEPT/23/2015, SSN;

Uganda will start withdrawing its forces from South Sudan next week.

This is according to the SPLA Deputy Chief-of- Staff for Logistics and head of the government delegation to the recent IGAD Security Workshop in Addis Ababa, Lt. General Ruben Malek.

UPDF troops were deployed in Juba and other hot spots of the country in December 2013, when the conflict broke out.

Lt. Gen Malek said this was resolved during the discussions last week between generals from both the government and the opposition sides, as part of the implementation of the peace agreement.

According to the agreement, all foreign forces allied to both the government and the opposition sides are supposed to leave the country within 45 days after the signing of the peace agreement.

Lt. General Malek further noted that the timeline of their withdrawal is stated between 27th, up to 10th of October.

However, he was quick to add that the UPDF forces deployed in Western Equatoria state will not be removed, because they are under a separate arrangement. END

Did the President’s Recent State of the Nation Address Meet the Threshold of an Ideal State of the Nation/Union Address?

BY: Juma Mabor Marial, Advocate, SEPT/21/2015, SSN;

Sometimes, one gives up on public affairs when the nation has ended up on a road to nowhere. This is the conclusion I made when I stopped writing and concentrated on my private businesses. I deliberately stopped writing to avoid putting myself into loggerhead with those who thought I might have been infringing on their authority.

But even as I was busy with my private businesses, I didn’t neglect my civic duties of sharing with colleagues and other like-minded intellectuals the challenges and wrong path our nascent country was taking.

I didn’t however share a lot on the on-going conflict and its dynamics or the peace negotiations basically on the assessment I had made and against the experiences and the difficulties those who contributed faced as most of them were easily branded as rebels sympathizers or government mouth-pieces.

It was and it is still a risky venture to undertake and that is why I decided to remain neutral at least until the objectivity and rationalism is restored.

This may not be the topic of discussion but I thought about this disclaimer because I wish to once again share with the public my reaction to the recent State of the Nation/Union Address by the President of South Sudan, General Salva Kiir.

For some of us who may not be familiar with the meaning and objectives of the State of the Nation/Union Address, I want to share a little bit on the theory before we could move on to the content and analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the recent State of the Nation/Union Address by the President.

A State of the Nation/Union Address (SoN/UA/) is a political model in which the President reports on the status of the nation. The address not only reports on the condition of the nation but also allows the President to outline his or her national agenda and national priorities.

It is here that the President can recommend any measures that he or she believes are necessary and expedient.

The SoN/UA is often broadcast to inform the nation about its present economic, political, and social conditions. It is also a vehicle for the President to summarize the accomplishments and plans of his/her program of government both for a particular year and until the end of his/her term of office.

In the United States of America, the President addresses a joint session of the United States Congress, typically delivered annually.

The address not only report on the condition of the nation but also allows the President to outline his or her legislative agenda (for which they need the cooperation of Congress) and national priorities.

One Senator, Miriam Defensor Santiago, blasted the organizers and called the event a “thoughtless extravagance” where “peacocks spread their tails and turn around and around, as coached by media in a feeding frenzy.”

This criticism is too heavy to be replicated in South Sudan or one risked other consequences, but let us now move back to the situation and critically look at the state of the union address of our President.

Unlike in the United States of America and many other countries of the world, the State of the Nation/Union Address of the President of the Republic of South Sudan is not delivered through the legislature or given on a specified calendar date. This may be by design or default.

It is unfortunate that, the few technocrats that control the timetable of the President sit and decide any weekend that the President should address the nation on this date and rush the announcement to the media thus obliging everyone to anxiously wait for what the surprise state of the nation address would deliver.

This can of course not be blamed on these secretaries in the office of the President but it should be blamed entirely on the framers of the Transitional Constitution and the legislators for not having thought it important to incorporate a specific calendar date for the state of the nation address as an integral provision of the supreme law and other enabling legislation.

Their attempt to cater for this event is vaguely articulated under article 78 of the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011 which states that ‘the President may personally or by a message, address the national legislature or either of its houses.

The national legislature or either of its two houses shall accord priority to such request over any other business. The President may also request the opinion of the national legislature or either of its two houses on any subject matter’.

This is the highest ambiguity that any constitution would allow because the letter and spirit of this provision is to the extent that, it gives the President the privilege and the freedom to call on parliament any time he deems fit and appropriate to address the nation, i.e. If the state of the nation address is to be given through the parliament.

Again, if one looks at article 101 (t) of the Transitional Constitution on the functions of the President, this is where you would find the proviso on the annual state of the nation address but whether this one is being implemented is another glaring question because for instance, how many state of nation address did the President made since South Sudan gained independence, one would likely suggest four on approximate but whether they were four or more is another area that need research.

But that is not the issue of contention here; the question is the substance of what the context of the State of the Nation/Union Address that the President has been giving and is yet to be giving entails.

Having said this, one would not be surprised by the substance of what the content of the address entails as it is prima facie a rush and unplanned event where some note takers think it is just but a bullet point exercise that is not worth wasting time to prepare.

Throughout his state of the nation address, the President has continued to keep the nation (citizens) glued to the televisions and their ears fixed on the radios waiting for something that never come at the end of the day.

In his recent state of the nation address, the President was expected to inform the nation (citizens) about the relationship with the foreign and diplomatic community and affirm whether the gaps that were apparent have been bridged after he signed the peace agreement.

People were also eagerly waiting to hear the security status of the country and what are the developmental and infrastructural plans for the country, the commitment to peace agreement and the challenges and achievements that the government is able to report.

He was also expected to talk about the economy.

The President didn’t do much in all the above areas except that he spent his entire time talking about the Compromised Peace Agreement that he had signed and reiterated his insistency on a number of reservations that he made when he signed the pact.

This is not a bad elaboration to have been made by H.E. because, as the head of state, he must share his commitment on the peace by enlightening the citizens on the deal and asking them to support him in the implementation in order to have a sustainable peace in the country.

The President scored highly on this item and he was applauded across the country and around the world for this statesmanship. Those who assisted him from his office on the literature and philosophy in giving the world and the people the assurances of his commitment to peace were equally appreciated.

However, it was unfortunate to realize that the state of the nation address was only organized to talk about the signed peace agreement and left out other crucial issues like the state of our foreign relation as a country, our development master plan, the achievements that the President and his government might have made despite the strife in the country, the infrastructural plans, the economic status and the challenges that the nation faced as a result of the conflict and other external factors.

Precisely, the President was expected to assure the citizens that his decision to append his signature on the Compromised Peace Agreement (CPA) has improved the foreign relations of South Sudan and her international friends.

He was also expected to give a rough summary of what his government has achieved despite the on-going conflict, talk about the northern corridor project, the EAC engagement, the cooperation agreement with Sudan, the implementation by his government of the GPAA peace agreement, the improvement on the healthcare, education and infrastructural development.

The President should have also taken it as his government achievement the declaration of cease-fire even if it is being sabotaged by the enemies of peace.

He should have informed the nation of his government short and long-terms plans. The recently pasted vision 2040, what it entails in terms of development, infrastructure, education, healthcare systems, democracy, security and other well-fare issues.

After that the President should have talked about the challenges that his government is facing in its attempt to deliver services to the nation and this is where it would have been convenient for him to justify his calls for the nation to support him in the implementation process so that the country can return to stability and redefine its destiny.

Again because the organizers of this event thought it was just a breakfast activity, they made the President, someone I have always considered a Wise man and hold with highest respect repeat himself over and over again on one item called the implementation of the peace agreement.

My ultimate discontentment came about when the President came to the end of his address with regard to the state of our economy and informed the nation that and I quote; ‘I know some of you wanted me to talk about economy, but I decided not to talk about it purposely because I know, even if I talk about it [economy], we will just be discussing it here, but there is nothing that can be done about it’.

This is where he scored NIL, as a President, you are like a doctor, a teacher, a father in the house and everything.

You may be aware of the difficulties and the challenges just like all of us knows that the economy of the country has nearly collapsed but the last person to declare that is the President because like a doctor, you cannot tell the patient that the disease is incurable lest you risk them taking their lives before you leave that room.

As a father, you cannot tell your children that, I know you are hungry but there is no food and therefore, you have to live with it.

I know the President was giving this statement from the position of honesty but what he should have known is that there is more to his office than just being honest, he didn’t have to express himself in the negative but rather, he should have turned it positive by informing the nation that, he is aware of the economic difficulties the country is facing as a consequence of the conflict and the only way out would be for all the citizens to join him in implementing the agreement that he has signed with the rebels as this will enhance improvements in the economic sector.

This statement would not mean doing something about it but rather, it will help in restoring hopes among the citizens and that is why the Presidents are called the fathers of the nations because they are the symbols of hope for the nation even in situations where the people are in despair.

The President should have realized what his actions and his statements could do when he signed the peace agreement on 26th August, 2015, the market reacted positively to this development and the dollar that was exchanging at 17 SSP in the black market lowered to 11 SSP just in a matter of hours, this is doing something about fragile economic situation because economy usually reacts to political developments.

His statement that there was nothing that could be done about the worsening economic situation opened flood gates for unscrupulous business practitioners to abuse the market and after that day, the dollar that was trading at 14 SSP shot up to 16 SSP while the local shopkeepers increased their prices by 40% and when asked about why they are doing that, they would simply reply, ‘there is nothing we can do about it’.

It is not surprising though that our President is not known for motivating the citizens in the situation of despair, for instance, when the first graduation ceremony was made in the University of Juba early this year, the President told the graduants that they should not hope for being absorbed into the government since there are very few positions in the government.

This was not to encourage them to be job creators because he felt short in declaring that aspect, instead, he was telling them that there was nothing his government could do about the high rate of unemployment even as most of them graduate into the job market.

Summed up together, it is unfortunate to conclude that the recent State of the Nation/Union Address by the President just like many other statements that he gives in public occasions failed to meet the threshold required by an ideal state of the union practice.

Most importantly, the President and those who organize these functions with him must also understand that the hopes and expectations of the people of South Sudan are usually anchored upon their office and anytime they come out to say something in form of the state of the nation address, people eagerly anticipate a solution to a number of challenges that are facing them.

But for the President to declare that there is nothing that can be done about something like economy is suicidal and to some larger extent an absolute declaration of despair.

Finally, I can’t blame the President so much because he cannot do all by himself but my disappointment goes to those who are in his office, they should be the ones to read the minds of the public and advice the President to tailor his state of the nation address in such a comprehensive manner as to cover all the aspects regarding the country’s political and socio-economic situation.

They should also advice the president to usually gives assurances and guarantees where the citizens are about to give up. These are the tasks for which they are being paid and maintained.

Otherwise, if they allow the President to speak the way he did in the recent state of the nation address, then, they could be deliberately sabotaging his relationship with the citizens or altogether showing ineptitude. I don’t know which one of these is relevant but a serious investigation must be made on those two scenarios.

Juma Mabor Marial is an advocate
Reachable at jummabor@gmail.com

Why the U.S Carrots and sticks policy won’t work in South Sudan

By John Bith Aliap – Australia, SEPT/20/2015, SSN;

Under the recently “Imposed Peace Agreement” signed on 17th and 26th August in Addis Ababa and Juba respectively, by rebel chief Riek Machar and President Salva Kiir, a cease fire was due to enter into force in the following week, but fighting continues in Upper Nile, a region that historically pumps aimless, destructive and tribally–oriented rebellions in South Sudan.

On Friday Sept 4th, the 15 – member council met at the request of the United Nations after John Kerry, Secretary of the United States singly warned Kiir, an internationally law-abiding man whose forces are constantly attacked in their defensive positions by Machar’s rebels to respect the ceasefire agreement during a phone conversation.

However, as the nation desperate to bring the government of South Sudan to its knees, the United States had requested that a global travel ban and assets freeze be imposed on South Sudan’s army chief Paul Malong Awan and rebel commander Johnson Olony for their role in the continued fighting, but a million thanks to Russia – a Security Council veto-wielding member and Angola for blocking that US – driven, evil, ill-timed risk of achieving the reverse and ill–conceived sanctions against the government of South Sudan.

However, with threats of sanctions still lingering in the air, the question which begs answers from us is – will the threats of sanctions impede or expedite the peace process and subsequent healing and reconciliation in South Sudan?

The path of punitive action which the United States and its allies are currently pursuing in South Sudan won’t silence the guns. It will rather retard conflict resolution mechanisms already put in place by South Sudanese themselves.

The United States should be warned that any sanctions against the government of South Sudan will likely make it more intransigent. For example, the sanctions imposed on Burundi after the coup led by Pierre Buyoya in 1996 emboldened Hutu hardliners, undermined Tutsi confidence in reconciliation and strengthened extremists’ positions within the army and minority community by heightening their sense of vulnerability and persecution.

One key lesson we can all learn from history is that punitive action should not be taken by or associated with the peace mediator and the United States and its IGAD partners are not exception in this equation.

A mediator such as the United States which resorts to coercion has a reason to be mistrusted by the people of South Sudan as surely as a soccer team mistrusts a biased referee. The United States sacrifices its status as an ‘honest broker’ and it becomes a party to the conflict due to its support to Machar’s rebels.

The job of the United States as a peace mediator in South Sudan’s conflict should have been to build the government of South Sudan and the SPLM–IO’s confidence in negotiations as a means of meeting their needs.

Given the fears and mutual hostility that exist between the government of South Sudan and the rebels led by Riek Machar, their trust in the United States as a mediator is crucial.

The United States is expected to be non-partisan and fair, not a biased mediator which imposes a conflict-ridden agreement which grants one greedy minority tribe a lion share of power – 40 per cent.

In practice, strict adherence to non-partisanship has been a core feature of successful mediation. Sant’ Egidio’s strength as a mediator in Mozambique ‘was exactly not having to defend any vested interest in the country, but the one of a solid peace.

Conversely, the United States’ mediation in South Sudan has been severely hampered by its perceived bias in favour of Machar’s rebels.

However, instead of punitive action such as sanctions and threats, the United States should pursue other healthy options if it’s serious about bringing a sustainable peace in South Sudan.

The United States should be aware that its frequent threats of sanctions on the government of Sudan only sends a message of hostility and it will likely generate resistance that could result in non–implementation of the agreement.

Sanctions can have unintended consequences. Alexander George in his book Forceful Persuasion: Coercive Diplomacy as an Alternative to War, published by United States Institute of Peace in 1991, discusses the potential “boomerang effect” of coercive diplomacy when he suggests that Japan’s decision to attack Pearl Harbour, and the subsequent entry of the United States in to world war two stemmed from economic sanctions.

Alexander argues that the oil embargo the United States imposed on Japan in July 1941 was so credible and so potent that it quickly provoked Japanese leaders into making a very difficult and desperate decision to initiate war rather than capitulate to Washington’s extreme demands that it gets out of China and gives up its aspirations for regional hegemony in Southeast Asia.

Similarly, Louis Kreisburg, Constructive Conflicts: From Escalation to Resolution, 2nd edition, Rowman & Littlefield 2003, New York, explains that sanctions can widen the conflict, add to its destructiveness and sometimes prolong it.

Louis and Alexander are not alone when it comes to destructiveness of sanctions. John Mueller and Karl Mueller – Sanctions of Mass Destruction, Foreign Affairs June 1998 argue that sanctions are destructive to the targeted societies. A 1999 study suggests that post-Cold War sanctions have contributed deaths than weapons of mass destruction used throughout the history.

In Iraq for instance, it has been estimated that hundreds of thousands of children died between 1991- 2001 as a result of sanctions. Threats of sanction inherently cause stress and can affect problem –solving ability – Frontline Story: The Debate Over UN Sanctions available at www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/iraq/sanction.

John Gatung, the author of On the Effects of International Economic Sanctions, World Politics, April 1967 also suggests that sanctions can increase domestic support for targeted leader. The population under threat can unite behind its leader and become hostile to the international community.

External pressure can be used by leaders to ignore domestic troubles – placing the blame for economic instability on outsider, and providing political cover to further repress domestic dissidents, while directing resentment toward those who impose the sanctions.

But to Daniel Fisk, in Economic Sanctions: The Cuba Embargo Revisited, economic sanctions are policy instrument with little, if any, chance of achieving much beyond making policy – makers feel good about having done something for a particular domestic community.

The above literature review paints a grim picture about unintended consequences of sanctions and the United States should unconditionally abandon its frequent threats of sanctions against the government of South Sudan if it needs peace to bounce back to South Sudan.

The human costs of sanctions are unacceptable to people of South Sudan who have experienced untold suffering during the course of their struggle.

John Bith Aliap holds two Bachelor Degrees in Social Work & Social Planning. He can be reached at johnaliap2011@hotmail.com