EDITORIAL ANALYSIS: APR/04/2015, SSN;
In spite of the worsening economic and security situations and the projected imminent collapse of an already failed nation, the South Sudan warlord president Kiir and his malign and sycophantic SPLM/A are unashamedly persisting to hold on the reins of power to the very end.
No wonder that when the exasperated leading French scholar, Gerard Prunier, a former adviser to president Kiir himself, decided to resign in 2012 from the job in Kiir’s Juba inept and corrupt government, he aptly described it (quote) as “a government of idiots….rotten to the core.”
Truly, indeed, this ‘Kiir’s government of idiots’ deliberately started a totally unnecessary tribalized war that is now estimated at a humongous cost of as much as “$28 billion dollars if it continues for five years.”
Furthermore, as ominously described by the World Bank recently and corroborated by his financial personnel, Kiir’s misruled South Sudan nation is facing “a dramatic contraction of its GDP (gross domestic product), massive depreciation of its currency and exponential rise in inflation.”
With a shrinking economy, the much-coveted dollars (foreign reserves) are now scarce and Kiir has resorted to massive printing of local currency (the South Sudanese pound) in a hopeless effort to avert the inevitable financial collapse of the nation now happening and the faltering confidence from the financial markets.
Already, the nation’s oil production has drastically plummeted and it’s revealed that Kiir barely gets less than ten US dollars per barrel, and now experts and even Kiir’s own petroleum minister has confirmed the oil refineries are crumbling at an alarming rate with the unlikelihood that the foreign oil companies would ever attempt any renovations.
This senseless civil war being persecuted mercilessly and murderously by Kiir and exacerbated by the 3-year unconstitutional extension of his tyranny plus the illegally expedited imposition of the so-called Security Bill, all these actions should seriously jerk our collective national conscience and as such, it’s time for South Sudanese to take some serious reflections on the perilous future of our already collapsed nation.
For a fact, Kiir is now functionally an avowed dictator who’s heading a typically tribalized and tribally-dominated government that’s wittingly energized by a closely-knitted circle of tribes-mates sworn to viciously protect this Jieng dynasty at all costs.
Indisputably, the preponderance of evidence from different sources have now proven that it was tyrant Kiir who, along with fellow tribesmen, carefully planned the December 15, 2013 genocide against the Nuer and other South Sudanese nationals by secretively recruiting, training and finally unleashing the infamous Jieng (Dinka)-only ‘Presidential Guards,’ aka “Tiger Battalion.”
Characteristic of despots and without any moral compunction or constitutional restraint whatsoever, the illegitimate president Kiir has now incorporated his so-called ‘Presidential Guards’ into the national army not only to wreck more havoc on other citizens but also being engaged in this war to perpetuate the killing of more Nuer under his direct command.
Kiir’s shameful legacy exemplified and amplified by the gross crimes against humanity perpetuated by special tribal commanders in the tainted cloak of the SPLArmy perhaps equates in magnitude to Saddam Hussein’s or even Adolf Hitler’s.
Just imagine! What kind of nation is South Sudan today when the Army Chief of Staff, the Chief of National Security Service, the Head of the National Intelligence Service, the Chief of National Police, the Commander of National Prisons Service, the Chief of the Census Bureau, the chief of the Election Commission…etc..etc, all are the president’s own tribes-mates?
For a fact, this monstrosity known as the SPLM/A (including its entire leadership) wasn’t universally or popularly accepted or recognized by all citizens of South Sudan region as evidenced by the cornucopia of other militias that spuriously sprang up opposing it during the liberation war era.
Inevitably, with calculated reservations, many South Sudanese communities were only reconciled into joining and supporting this SPLM/A movement, after accepting the fact of its predominance during the bush war.
Also, the then prevailing military abuses commissioned and committed by this tribalized army and combined with the obvious “liberation war fatigue” among the people, Garang’s led SPLM/A emerged as the sole army despite committing numerous egregious crimes against humanity.
As a fact, Kiir’s SPLM/A leadership from the onset didn’t have the blueprint of the system of governance suited for the new nation, and since then, unfortunately, our nation under the SPLM/A, has been cruising blindly until it crashed against the rocks on December 15, 2013.
Looking back to 2005 when Kiir and the SPLM/A gangsters invaded ostensibly as ‘our own government’ in Juba, two outstanding issues that emerged were: the first was the “Mafiazation” of the twin SPLM/A dominant government and army and the second was the enforcement of a pervasive and contentious Dinka tribal hegemony in all facets of the government and the army.
Moreover, this new Kiir-led dominant SPLM party and its appendaged SPL/Army, unscrupulously manifested itself into a criminal kleptocratic organization from the top to the bottom, that’s from president Kiir himself and even to his then antagonistic vice-president Machar, down to the ministers and top army generals, they viciously set to loot the government.
Almost the entire appointments into top leadership positions were greedily filled by tribes’ mates who were completely inexperienced, unqualified, barely educated, but…so long as they have the recognized tribal marks …to enhance the mafiazation of the government.
Today, sadly for the nation, kleptocracy is the shining hallmark of the Kiir’s legacy across the entire nation, the top SPLM/A leadership quickly became sinfully rich while millions of citizens, including many relations of these top SPLM/A kleptocrats, shamefully wallow in abject depravity.
To the naivete, whilst the rapidly changing Juba skyline of multi-storied hotels and the V-8 SUV cars crisscrossing the pot-holed streets might seem like ‘some mirage of development,’ the naked reality is that South Sudan is retrogressing and sinking very rapidly so long as Kiir’s SPLM/A continues in power and the war remains unsolvable.
Most of those so-called investors and mafiasos jetting into Juba from all corners of the world are insidiously front-men or women for Kiir’s SPLM/A comrades, who use them to ‘invest’ their illicit monies stolen from our people.
Even though they look like and call themselves ‘comrades,’ in actuality, deep beneath this charade, they’re bitter rivals each one aiming to destroy and even kill one another due to lingering tribal or personal animosities.
This was what transpired exactly on December 15, 2013, ‘so-called comrades ruthlessly shooting, massacring, brutalizing, raping one another,’ we basically ceased to be a one-people, one-nation anymore.
It isn’t a national secret that practically and factually, every SPLM/A member from Kiir himself down to all the other ‘comrades’ have plenty of blood of innocent patriots they killed personally, or abetted, commissioned and sanctioned these murders, just as each one of them is practically a thief…thanks to the pervasiveness of the mafiazation and kleptocracy of their government.
South Sudan is unfortunately sinking down under because much of the oil wealth has and still is being callously stolen or being recycled among themselves into a patronage system; they capriciously reward those SPLM/A members personally loyal to Kiir.
In practical sense, every top official, be it vice president, ministers, governors….down the SPLM hierarchy, is potentially under severe likelihood of blackmail by Kiir himself or his close inner tribal circle.
For instance, millions of the SPLA soldiers and tribal militias’ salaries are first paid to the commanding SPLA generals instead of these salaries are paid directly to the soldiers, as is normal practice everywhere. Each general takes a big cut and the soldiers get peanuts!
Same practice within the ministries, embassies, co-operations and all government-affiliated agencies. The minister or ambassador or head just with absolute impunity takes all or most of the money allocated for his office. No accountability ever, but just a silence of approval.
No country being run by criminalized mafiaso leadership such as the Juba/SPLM/A government can survive, let alone sustain peaceful coexistence between themselves and the people for long.
Unscrupulously, Kiir’s SPLM/A government has severely mortgaged our nation to foreign money lenders such as the Gulf Arabs and international Mafia consortia, generations of South Sudanese will be seriously indebted to these money lenders.
The solution: In the light of the reality that any peace reached and any formulation of government agreed on that includes Kiir and Machar, or between their haplessly degenerate political protegees, e.g. Dinka/Nuer monopoly, that accord will never survive for long before another catastrophe recurred.
In their latest condemnation of the SPLM so-called leaders, the Catholic Bishops meeting in Juba lately, called this “war is being all about power and not being about the good of the South Sudanese people.”
South Sudan, unfortunately, remains an asphyxiated nation that is run by decrepit generals who have nothing with governing a country but only assiduously protecting their own interests by pillaging public resources and enriching themselves.
In summation, it’s time truly nationalistic South Sudanese citizens and the international community seriously embark on new, workable and consensually acceptable modalities for the resolution to the crises, specifically and basically governance issues.
Let’s try the Swiss-style of Federalism, by creating nation-states, for instance, whereby each state has majority control of all governance issues within its particular suzerainty, that’s complete ‘federal status.’
What is urgently and seriously needed is a newer and up-dated form of true federalism that will surely and equitably enhance our progress and cohesion separately as a people sharing a common past and perhaps a common but yet undefined and uncharted future.
That system, tried briefly in South Sudan in 1983 as ‘Kokora,’ or scientifically also christianed as ‘Federal system.’ In our current particularity, this would mean the current states (more can be consensually created, like upgrading the so-called Greater Pibor Administrative Area GPAA, into a federal state by itself) could by their own choices choose to become separate or voluntarily combine with another or others to become federal states.
We just have to look at former Yugoslavia or the once formidable Union of Soviet Socialistic Republic aka USSR, all have broken up into separate nations because of the rejection by others of domination, hegemony and misrule in the then so-called ‘united’ republics.
In USSR, the Russians people were utterly incompatible to the Tajiks, Uzebiks or even the Armenians; same in former Yugoslavia where the Bosnians, the Slavs and the Serbs were antagonistically dissimilar.
Sadly, today, the popular retired Bishop Paride Taban has seriously spoken out about the unmistakable incompatibility of the Dinka cow/IDPs pastoral invasion of his own agrarian Madi people who have visibly become marginalized in their own ancestral land.
This, like other similar scenarios happening among the Bari-speakers or others, where an aggressive and belligerent policy of ethnic domination is being enforced to the disadvantage of others could never exist in truly federated system.
In 1983, the then ‘Kokora,’ which incidentally was popularly promoted and accepted not only by Equatorians but even by many from Upper Nile and Bahr el Ghazel citizens, was unfortunately controversial due to the then evolving politico-military situation in the form of the SPLM/A war.
Then, in retrospect, the much detested Abel Alier’s Dinka-dominated Arab-North puppet regime in Juba, which itself actually precipitated the mass call for ‘Kokora,’ was rightly perceived by others, not only the Equatorians, as dictatorial, tribal and abusive of their human rights.
The situation today in the independent South Sudan nation is the exact replica of 1983 Abel Alier’s Dinka hegemony but this time, Kiir has surpassed Alier in the commission and persecution of gross abuses of human rights, murders, looting and egregious crimes.
Anyway, the centrality of the argument in the way of the resolution of our current crises lies in South Sudanese changing the modality of governance in this erroneously so-called “one-nation, one-people” country.
History abounds with successful examples of ‘Balkanization’ of once so-called great nations, Yugoslavia and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) are incontestable examples and even tiny Switzerland has a workable modality of federalism, these can be modalities that we can wisely and timely emulate in our bleeding South Sudan.
The current predicament the country as is unfolding, irrevocably proves that we were never a homogeneous nation at any one time, we’re basically an aggregation of tribes that were emotionally united by our combined historical rejection of and resilience against decades of Arab North Sudanese domination abetted by past British imperial interests in the Arab world.
Arguably, in spite of so-called African-ness or geography, the Azande or Moru in Western Equatoria have almost no cultural or linguistic commonalities with the Dinka, Nuer or Shilluk (Chollo), just as the Tajiks and Turkmens didn’t have much with the Russians in the now broken-up former USSR ‘superpower.’
Furthermore, why should the Dinka, for example, just boisterously dream that they can impose their detested Jieng ‘imperialism’ on the Kakwas or Madi or Moru, for that matter, just as the Russians Czars imperialists failed to do so over Tajiks and Turkmens?
As an example, it took centuries for the English, the Irish and the Scots to finally come to live peacefully in one country now called Britain, same for others like France, Germany… etc…etc.
Tragically, that modality of ‘Federalism’ we experimented with before didn’t survive to maturity because, one, the so-called leaders of South Sudan inside the emerging Khartoum Islamic caliphate became puppets, or two, those who rushed to join John Garang’s SPLM/A in the bush became sworn anti-Kokora propagandists, a psychological obsession that persisted till today.
Unfortunately for our nation and the predicament we are in, what we have in the domineering SPLM mis-ruling dynasty in Juba are severely post-traumatized and stressed (PTSD) generals who’re irreparably and irreversibly metamorphosed into devils who’re sworn to Satan himself to take the whole nation down the path of ruin and stagnation.
They say ‘if men were angels, no government would be necessary,’ and likewise, ‘if angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls would be necessary.’ END
By: Justin Ambago Ramba APR/04/2015, SSN;
South Sudan now in the second year of its new civil war, the country has since been a hotbed for militant politics thus making it one of world’s spots that has come to stay as reminder to all humanity that, “Do Unto Others as You Would Have Them Do Unto You,” or else we are all doomed to fail.
This trend has now just accentuated more than ever before as vivid diplomatic shuttles involving delegates from the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the European Union, the Troika (USA, UK and Norway) begin converging on the Ethiopian Capital City, Addis Ababa in a last attempt to hammer a peace deal for the world’s newest country.
It is for this important reason that all ears are now beginning to be turned towards that direction with everyone hoping to get hold of a first-hand news on what is seen as the likeliest most inclusive participation ever by the members of the human race to bring sanity to the devastated citizens of South Sudan.
The imminent outcome of the new initiative on peace in South Sudan is likely produce all that is needed to rekindle the hope of a better future to the country and its ten million people.
Optimism among a people traumatised by wars, often does come easily especial when these wars only stop only to start another. But gauging by the new dynamics involved in the new IGAD PLUS initiative that has now officially replaced its predecessor, the failed and much compromised old, Museveni –Dominated IGAD-ONLY Initiative, these are all set to change.
For the first in a long while a fresh hope of a new breeze of peace to the war torn South Sudan is becoming more of a reality than ever before, although real mountains of differences between the various warring factions remain virtually unaddressed.
The most important learning curve in this whole process lies in the fact that it was IGAD that came out openly to accept and acknowledge the reasons behind the failures of its first solo attempt.
Hence, the new initiative by default must be different from the first one both in substance and spirit. My readers will agree with me that with the replaced initiative in full swing, the old IGAD initiative represented the much dreaded top down approach.
Much has already been said about the cos and pros of the Old IGAD Solo initiative and why it had failed to yield any fruits of peace.
So, could the learning curve here be the organization’s own admittance of inborn conflicts of interest that compromised it previous one year’s attempt when on several occasions it actually knowingly or unknowingly tried to undermine much of the sensitive prerequisites for arriving at an all binding peace deal, by being conspicuously pro the government of the day in Juba?
This we will find out when the new IGAD PLUS Initiative officially convenes in a few days’ time.
Unappreciated also in the old IGAD solo initiative were damages done to IGAD’s image by the conspicuous hands of the Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni, which in fact were all over the place and actually at times too strong to be contained nor ignored .
All the above could be history now, for the news coming out of the Ethiopian Capital over the past few days has all the elements of a world community united for the first time to talk in one voice with the sole intention of salvaging South Sudan from the imminent demise that its failed leaders have chosen for it and its people.
Those of you who don’t know that a new dawn is likely to dawn on South Sudan very soon if all its friends act in good faith, should now prepare for the good news to come soon. You are all called upon to appreciate that something serious and equally great is now brewing in Addis Ababa in a way to tackle the 14 month old civil war in the new country of South Sudan. Africa and the word want to act on South Sudan and they want to act now!
So please instead of putting hurdles in the way of a just and inclusive peace, why not help them in this noble mission? After all the independent sovereign state of South Sudan is still to install in place it’s “first ever elected president, government and parliament.”
Stop killing one another over these rotten and rudimentary structures that you inherited from Khartoum. It is time we start the new independent Republic of South Sudan, with new philosophy, new vision, new institutions and above all new spirit.
A mission to stop bloodshed in our country is on the way. It’s meant to put an end to impunity by holding to account all abusers of human rights and spoilers of peaceful settlement and stop a whole generation of South Sudanese young people from being again reduced to mere fodders to feed a brutal war, when there is no winner in sight.
The dinosaurs of the geriatric Jieng “Dinka” Council of Elders and their clown Michael Makuei Lueith’s are aware of how the new initiative is likely to blow the top off their campaign to replace the aspirations of the people of South Sudan for a democratic republican system with their day dreams of a tribal fiefdom.
This is the reason why these spoilers of peace are finding it all too difficult to shut up their big mouths. You saw them shouting, yelling and wailing all over the place, didn’t! I bet you did.
Well it has long been said that,” The best way to suspect that an eminent natural incident of exponential magnitude e.g. earth quakes, tsunamis, total eclipses of the sun or sometimes even the collapse of dynasty or an end to a tyrant, is to watch out for signs of fear, restlessness and intense panic among animals like birds, cats, dogs or even the wildlife”.
In as far as South Sudan stands now, all you need to do is watch the behaviours of those believed to have perpetuated the ethnic cleansing of December 2013 and you can tell that their fates is about to be sealed once and for all.
In other words watch out for the reactions from Michael Makuei Lueth, the mouth-piece of the genocidaire regime in Juba and read between his lips that the regime is on real fire.
You should also watch out for reactions from the tribal & spiritual leaders of the same genocidal regime – its “Supreme Council” of the Ayatollahs – the so-called the Jieng “Dinka” Council of Elders.
If you watch them keenly, they are becoming jittery than ever before. They are rightly now the Jieng “Dinka” Council of Panicked Elders, for the fate set up for them in the AU Report, is something even a million centuries of history won’t wipe away!
It has now been confirmed beyond any reasonable doubt that the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) remains firm in its threats of sanctions to the parties which include asset freezes and a travel ban on individuals obstructing the peace process.
Again information coming from a reliable source in Addis Ababa suggests the next round of South Sudan peace negotiations to resume between 10 and 18 April in Addis Ababa.
As a deadly blow to Michael Makuei Lueth war of words, another very reliable source from Addis Ababa also maintains that the coming talks will definitely see the IGAD along with African Union, UN, EU, Troika and China as full participants and brokers.
The most unwavering part of the Addis Ababa new IGAD PLUS brew so far is that, this new initiative comes under a completely new expanded mediation mechanism and is intended to remain so for the rest of its life spun regardless of whether any of the protagonists likes it or ot!
Not only that, but the source also confirms that the IGAD-PLUS mediating body has prepared a draft proposal for a final peace agreement with the AU Report and its recommendations forming an integral part of its approach to transitional justice.
This forthcoming peace negotiations would be the last opportunity for South Sudan’s two warring factions to restore peace to the young country.
More interestingly is the revelation that both leaders’ president Salva Kiir and his former deputy turned armed opposition leader Riek Machar, are believed to fully accept the new draft proposal by the regional Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and strike a final peace agreement during the next round of peace talks in mid-April.
Both sides are expected to sign an agreement to stop the war, form a Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU) with clearly spelt commitments to an equal share of power and power within a federated system of government and carry out reforms?
So what will happen in the event that the two leaders and indeed the two warring sides refuse again to sign a deal?
It that event the stringent side will only has itself to blame. The immediate steps to be taken by the IGAD PLUS would be to push for an urgent and fast tracked Arms embargo, ban on foreign travels and freezing of assets for top officials and military generals and other noxious ethnically motivated groups e.g. the Jeing “Dinka” Council of Elders and the many other negative regional and tribal organisations operating across the political divides and beyond.
The neighbouring IGAD member and non-member states have also been promised sticks and carrots to cooperate in the implementation of these UNSC sanctions and embargos.
A well place African dignitary recently said that since the beginning of the year 2014, the African Union has recognised major areas of interventions to retain peace in Africa.
These are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Boko Haram of Nigeria, Al Shababa in Somalia and Kenya and now the civil war in South Sudan.
On the other hand the international community is more than willing to see this continental organisation scores its first ever success stories since it replaced its predecessor, the much criticized Organisation of African Unity (AOU) – an organisation better remembered for siding with dictatorial leaders in the perpetuation of oppression in the continent!
So are we about to see a radical change in the regional, continental and international politics in favour of hands on the ground to stop the bloodletting in South Sudan, reboot (overhaul) the country and start a new page of stability, accountability and human rights respect and reinstate the dream of a better life this highly promising part of Africa!
Author: Justin Ambago Ramba. A Concerned South Sudanese and a voice for the millions who ate voiceless in the country.
From: David Aju Kanyara
In Eastern Equatoria, the Ma’di corridor has been where the rule by force and by blackmail comes to full display than in any other part of the territories of the Jieng government!
The Kiir government has given a safe passage for their cattlemen with their cows, by most estimates over 100,000 heads of cows now thoroughly grazing the Ma’di farmlands and destroying their crops.
It should be noted, these cattlemen are illiterate and primitive, they do not know the Geography of South Sudan, and the only thing they know are anything and everything related to their cows, grass, water and AK47.
The question to be asked is who told them where the Ma’di corridor is in South Sudan? Look no further than Kiir and his cronies, who own most of these cows. By some report most of these cows belongs to the Murle and the Nuer, stolen and now being hidden in the Ma’di territories.
To give them legitimacy, the Jieng cattle robbers now settled in the Ma’di ancestral lands approached the Chiefs Okumu of Moli Andru Boma, and John Amba of Kerepi payam, with a prepared document to be signed by these Chiefs to give them grazing land which is already occupied by these cattle thieves and their animals.
The Chiefs informed these Jieng that the land belong to the people, they are Chiefs appointed by the government for the people’s affairs not over their properties, therefore they do not have the mandate to give land or takeaway people’s belongings.
It is only the people who can give the lands. They therefore refused to put their signatures on the document believed to have been drafted by the Juba government then given to their primitive cattle keepers.
According to the people in the meeting held between the Jieng cattle owners and the Ma’di chiefs, the chiefs said their mandates are to address Ma’di community well being in their constituencies than giving land to undocumented illegal nomadic people who deliberately graze their cattle in farmland.
To make the matter worse the language used in the document is not that of displaced persons seeking safety, but of force and carrying threats.
It was very clear from get go that a decision has already been made from the highest authority whether Ma’di people like it or not the land must be granted for the new influx, the drafted document was only ceremoniously presented to the chiefs to be signed, if they failed to sign they can be implicated, accused as supporters of general Martin kenyi.
That is the justification to be used against the chiefs so that they can be imprisoned.
In the absence of these chiefs, their Bomas and Payams will be left with leadership Vacuum, that will give the cattle owners easy access to penetrate some odd elements in the community who will fall for them and give a piece of land for a little money, essentially grabbing land for grazing and settlement without resistance from Ma’di youth as they are left without heads.
This method has been used before by the dinka who settled at Melijo locally known as Sau located close to Mugali Payam.
After the collapsed of the talks to sign the drafted document between the two chiefs with the cattle owners, the next thing the people noticed was the swarm of security forces which shocked and paralyzed the village in the early morning of 2 April.
The entire village of Kerepi was surprised by the presence of huge security deployment at the doorposts of the two government employees, the chiefs who time again and again have been doing their works without failing the Juba led government.
It is a case of government against government, highlighting the truth in South Sudan, that not all government workers are born equal, as some are Jiengs while other non-Jiengs, which is the Modus operandi of the Kiir’s government.
In the early hours of 02 April 2015, the South Sudan Security forces arrived at the homes of these chiefs immediately arrested the chiefs without issuing of arrest warrants, only later were told that recently they have been aiding rebel group under the overall command of General Martin Kenyi, though the people and chiefs have denied giving any support to General Kenyi.
No evidence has been produced to support these accusations.
The villagers were shocked but not surprised when the army arrested their chiefs one day after the chiefs refused to sign the illegal document drafted to give the illegal cattle owners legitimacy over Ma’di land.
The two chiefs are the very representative of the Kiir’s government and active members of SPLA in grassroots, because of their land they have been targeted and have been subjected to all sorts of government intimidation and harassment only to bend the Ma’di people to give in to these harsh treatments and relinquish the ownership of their land.
In yet another laughable and comical, if it did not carry death threats, as I write to alert you my fellow Countrymen of the plight of my people under the dictatorial Dinka militia leader Lt General Salva Kiir.
Another accusations has been brought against the chief of Pageri by the jieng occupiers, amounting to one of the most bizarre cases, that the Dinka cows are dying in hundreds in the Ma’di land, the Dinka asked why is this?
They want the chief to explain what did the Ma’di people do, did they curse the cows through their ancestors? Now even in the death of cows the Ma’di chiefs are in trouble and summoned to explain the mystery behind the dying of cows.
My fellow countrymen and Country ladies, you don’t need to have earned a Veterinary PhD to know when it is dry season, cows and other animals normally die due to poor feeding, unavailability of green fresh pastures, lack of available water sources for the animals, long distances covered in search of water and poor quality grass exposure is unfriendly food.
These and more will weaken the old and young cows to succumb to die suddenly, unfortunately in the land of the primitive were the life of a cow is valued more than that of human beings, they want to find answers from Ma’di people through harassment, imprisonment and death threats against the people as their chiefs demand answers to the mystery behind what is killing their cows.
Now All eyes are on this case to see what they will do with it, Classical case of the Jieng finding any little excuses to torture and silence the people, objective here is not brotherhood but dominance and grabbing peoples land.
This is at the heart of the Jiengs relations with fellow southerners. What they don’t realize is it is these behaviors that have turned others to hate them more even than the Jalabas who never did such things in South Sudan, they seemed to be the only people clueless about the suffering they are inflicting on others.
They believe they have every right to go beyond the well defined ancestral boundaries all over south Sudan in the name of a new nation but yet they go every where as jieng while wanting others to give up their very existence and their lands to make ways for them, intimidating and harassing others to forcibly occupy their land and grab their properties at no cost and at will.
In addition, to totally break the backbone of the Ma’di people, 5 young men are accused of being rebels, they are being held in Nimule in very deplorable conditions. They are tortured by unheard of methods.
These boys are thrown in Latrine pits, filled with feces/stools, with all the worms and suffocating gas and noxious smell, with the heat of South Sudan, these boys are drop in these feces neck deep with their skins burning, itching almost passing out!
They must confess and end up saying things they know their captors want to hear only if it will get them out of that deplorable conditions.
This is what the Jieng government has reduced fellow South Sudanese to, dumping them into feces. These Jings have never in the war of liberation tortured or treated Jalabas this way.
One of these 5 young men is a fellow comrade who suffers mental trauma from frontline brought back home to receive treatment and recover, now this fellow too have been accused of aiding the rebels while his superior in battle field relieved him to come for treatment, but now he is being dumped in feces.
Is this what president Kiir and his cronies repeat like parrots as defending the constitution of the country?
Fellow Countrymen, I declare to you today, a constitution that requires tortures to defend is worth dying to dismantle!
Never in our long history, in our very ancestral land, defended through the blood of our fathers and preserved from generations to generations, had we suffered this way in the hands of any outsiders not even Jalaba, yet we called the Jalabas enemies.
The Question is what makes the Jiengs Brothers??? Give me only one answer.
David Aju Kanyara
“The voice of the Voiceless”
Quote: “The rebellion without truth is like spring in a bleak arid desert,” says Khalil Gibran.
By: Simon Yel Yel, Juba, APR/04/2015, SSN;
Rebellions, by groups outside the military establishment of a country and which aim to overthrow a government, are the most common hitherto types of political conflicts in most African countries.
These rebellions are generally initiated by urban elites who are in state of sulky dissatisfaction with the way the government had treated them and their region or ethnic group. They mobilise a section of their regional or ethnic supporters, acquire arms clandestinely and often supported by a neighbouring country and sometimes by an outside power as well.
Initial grievances of the leadership of such a rebel group would vary from being blocked from achieving political power, under representation of their region/ethnic group in the government and administration of their regions, deliberate neglect of access to development funds, blockage of their ethnic group from the private sector and allocation of their land to other ethnic groups (of the ruling ethnic group), etc.
These grievances may be shared by other ethnic groups, in which the rebel group forms alliances with others and the rebellion becomes more widespread. T
he sustenance of such rebel movements is only possible if it is supported by a neighbouring countries from where it has bases and arms supplies. Their case can make sense because they are not after the interest of megalomaniac like white army but the interest of all people.
Hence, the youth become an important and accessible pool for recruitment at a very low cost to rebel movements. The most accessible youth to the power hungry rebel leaders are rural youth, they know less about the importance of life and therefore, one twisted word of politician can make them believe in him and follow him blindly.
More importantly, the easy availability of small arms has enabled such rebel movements to turn into powerful and destructive forces capable of causing serious harm and destruction in rural areas.
Since small arms do not need much training while their possession gives considerable power to those who posses them, rebel movements thus become very attractive to the youth, including those in their early teen years.
Conflicts between states and rebellions trying to overthrow them vary in intensity, scale, and duration depending on many factors.
These factors also vary depending on the depth of the grievances, the political indoctrination of the supporters, the quality of the leadership, the strength and weakness of the state, the seriousness of support from neighbouring states and the outside powers.
In Angola, the control of the diamond mines is very important for the sustenance of UNITA and support from other African countries to break the arms embargo has been and is also crucial, as revealed recently by a UN Report.
While the rebellions which want to overthrow the government are driven by the possibility of gaining political power and the prospect of economic gains. They can’t compromise anything rather then overthrowing the government by all means.
Sometimes helped by the Western powers to sanction the government, impose no fly zone and and even bombarding if the possibility of overthrowing the government is low.
The cooked rebellion in Libya ended in brutal killing of late Gadaffi because the rebels and Western powers were not looking for nothing else then power.
The same thing is now happening in south Sudan where the UNSC adopted the sanction regime and threatening the government of more sanctions should it fails to meet the rebels’ demands.
The rebellions seeking secession are often driven by their perceived political, economic and cultural oppression. Like SPLM was fighting for the secession of south Sudan due to political and economic oppression by Khartoum regime.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the vicious competition between the super- powers in Africa was an important factor, if not in starting conflicts, certainly in sustaining them. The Americans and the Russians in particular, and less so openly the British and the French, competed for (a) “the hearts and minds” of the African elites and their followers; (b) political and diplomatic allies; (c) strategic allies; and (d) mineral resources.
The rivalry and competition took various forms: supporting governments, overthrowing governments, supporting/opposing political parties, covert activities in support of or in opposition to governments, and supporting, if not initiating rebel movements.
What needs to be emphasized here is that, at the time, the support or opposition of one super-power or another was and still a very powerful force in the political survival or demise of an African government.
These cold war interventions that they set in motion socio- political forces in some of the strategic countries, processes that led to serious internal conflicts which have outlasted the Cold War itself and continued until today.
In Congo, the Americans intervened 1964 to remove Lumumba and install Mobutu, an intervention which has set in motion serious and unforeseen consequences which are still unfolding to this day where coup come after coup.
In Somalia, it led to the collapse of the state and production of Alshabaab which is now becoming threat to the whole region now.
In Angola, it has led to the long and tragic civil war. Similarly in Mozambique (through the proxy of apartheid South Africa), it has led to another vicious civil war which has fortunately been temporarily resolved.
In Libya, it has led to formation of more then one governments, Tripoli become headquarters of GNC running their own government, Tobruk becomes the headquarters of the so-called recognized government by Western powers where Benghazi becomes is headquarters of the Shura Counci of Benghazi Revolutionaries, meanwhile Derna has declared itself an Islamic Caliphate and becomes no-go zone to any government official.That is the imported Western democracy in action.
Internal divisions, external interference, colonial legacy, history of cultural oppression, intense rivalry and competition for political power, etc., a combination of these factors constitute the root cause of these major conflicts.
The forces which fought in the civil war can easily be mobilized to “go back to the bush” and the good examples are, Congo, south Sudan and Libya . How long the peace lasts will depend on: (i) how militarily strong the new ruling group/s are and how weak the opposition groups are, (ii) how acceptable the post-conflict arrangements are to the groups which have accepted to give up fighting and join the “power-sharing” arrangements.
Since 2005, the government of Southern Sudan by then embarked on absorbing all the militia groups and political oppositions in search of national unity of purpose among Southern Sudanese. Till 2011, when we obtained our independent the leadership established an open government system whereby all unreasonable discontented elements were accommodated.
Some took this style of leadership for granted and used their positions to betray the whole country to the world accusing the government and labelling South Sudan as a failed country. Many were either caught red handed in corruption or accused and yet believe themselves to be innocent of public looting.
False illusions and illiterate prophecy believed by the intellectuals to imposed themselves in a leading position are well realized by conflict perpetrators and built on, hence pushing our country into merciless loggerhead.
In the recent failed coup attempt, many foreign hands are either directly or indirectly involved in fuelling the situation to its current level.
The UN statements within the country and indecorous suggestions of Ambassador Cohen and AU leaked report of Obasanjo to place our country under UN trusteeship plus sanction drafted by US and adopted by UNSC are clear evidences of ill intentions within the international community.
Giving the above factors causing coups in Africa, Riek Machar and his loyalists failed to come out with a clear socio-political agenda to enable them negotiate the government with facts and build a political stance.
Their (rebels) negotiation begins with stepping down of the president Salva Kiir and ends with making Riek Machar either a ceromonial prime minster or first vice president with his own independent army loyal to him a part from the national army(SPLA). Something that common sense can’t buy at all.
Moreover, the tribal militarization from the rebel side and recruitment of underage boys to engage in power struggle against the legitimate government proved beyond doubt that the rebel groups lost the political direction to convince south Sudanese and world at large but continue to engage in whatever it takes to get power with support from the biased International community (Trioka).
To conclude, conflict resilience and nationalism (replaced by tribalism) which are almost gnawed in the current conflict remain the main pillars in restoring hope and confidence among the citizen of South Sudan and to easily defeat the SELF DRIVEN REBELLION in our country.
Oh God bless south Sudan.
Writer can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or 0955246235.
QUOTE: “South Sudan does not belong to SPLM rather it is the other way – SPLM belongs to South Sudan and it is a small part of its constituent parts.” Elhag Paul.
BY: ELHAG Paul, APR/04/2015, SSN;
The collapse of South Sudan’s peace talks in Addis Ababa under the mediation of IGAD on 6th March 2015 comes with mixed emotions. The failure in reaching peace is painful because it means the suffering and the senseless war will continue further laying waste to the resources of South Sudan including its people.
On the other hand the failure may be a blessing in disguise to allow a genuine process under an impartial body (not IGAD) to deal with the real problem of South Sudan which is the diversification of power and holding the SPLM to account.
The failed IGAD talks erroneously preferred to again concentrate power in the hands of the SPLM, a criminal organisation, to the exclusion of all other stakeholders in the country.
Although its 9th May 2014 agreement clearly and rightly so opted for an inclusive approach, breaching its own brokered agreement, IGAD deliberately set out to sex-out all the other stakeholders from the peace talks in favour of the SPLM-IG and SPLM-IO. Basically South Sudan and its people have been reduced to the property of SPLM.
Some of IGAD’s tactics for disenfranchising the people of South Sudan were very crude. For example, it invited the representatives of other political parties and civil society groups to Addis Ababa for the talks. Then it denies these groups of their per diem and travel expenses ensuring their expenses were impossible to meet.
On the other hand it pays the delegates of SPLM-IG and SPLM-IO thousands of dollars of per deim creating an unequal level playing field. Even things like stationery and support services for preparation of documents were denied to the others.
It is in this Dr Riek Machar’s advocacy of the exclusion of the South Sudanese people represented by the other political parties and the civil society groups, that Dr Riek Machar decimally failed the test of being a democrat.
In playing such a negative role, Riek just proved beyond doubt that he is not to be believed and trusted at all. He is not better than President Salva Kiir. Please see, ‘Like a leopard can not change its spots, Machar can not change’ http://allafrica.com/stories/201408080562.html
President Kiir and Riek with the support of IGAD were bent on amassing power to themselves repeating the grave mistakes committed during the negotiations of Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005.
The concentration of power in the SPLM then translated into creation of two dominant powerful tribes which is to the detriment of the country. Now these tribes are fighting it out using the state’s machinery and resources for a monopoly of power in the new country.
The leaked report of the African Union Commission of Inquiry in South Sudan (AUCISS) argues correctly that the CPA was responsible for the “creation of unchallenged armed power” in South Sudan.
Without doubt this is the problem of South Sudan and IGAD wanting to repeat the mistake it did a decade ago beggars belief. This is why the collapse of the IGAD peace talks may be a blessing in disguise.
Given the grand theft of public resources, the cleansing of the Nuer and the lawlessness of the tribal government in Juba, power of the state of South Sudan must be diversified if any meaningful peace is to be attained.
The failure of IGAD talks offers a golden chance for democracy to be appropriately built into the system that emerges after any peace talks, this is to be negotiated under any body taking the process over.
Thus it is critically important for the IGAD agreement of 9th May 2014 to be revived by the new body taking the talks over. All the stakeholders must be part of the talks to ensure diversification of the state power to the rest of the country.
Addressing this issue of power leads to another basic but vital problem relating to the foundation of South Sudan. The current foundation is laid on a very soft ground and that is why the country imploded in December 2013. For any country to survive, the foundation must be right.
So if South Sudan is to properly stand as a credible country that will withstand the storms and quakes of turbulent politics the foundation must be built on a solid ground.
The ingredients of a good foundation are a balanced constitution that accommodates everyone, bill of rights, fiercely independent judiciary and a truly self determined parliament. All these are things that exist in South Sudan theoretically but not practically.
A state can not be constructed on the tissue of a lie. For example, South Sudan under SPLM/A makes a lot of noise that it is a democratic country when visibly and practically it is a tribal dictatorship.
Another example is that SPLM/A falsely claims South Sudan is starting from scratch when the history of the country clearly shows the territory has since 1821 been under different administrations: Turko-Egyptian, condominium rule of Egypt/Britain, and the Sudan government.
SPLM/A fabricated this lie to allow them to mismanage the country while hiding their incompetence behind such a claim.
The importance of a good foundation must not be under estimated. Sudan broke into two and possibly it may break up into more countries because its foundation was faulty from the word go.
The elites in that country buried their heads in the sand and decided to give the country an identity that is not correct resulting in discriminatory policies and practices to fit the imagined false identity.
In contrast, even the United States of America which is founded on a solid Constitution to this date suffers from human imperfection. Issues of race, slavery and discrimination routinely surface as a reminder of human weakness in upholding noble principles in the US Constitution.
Nevertheless, it still progresses on a daily basis towards an ideal society because the majority believe and uphold those beautiful principles found in the Constitution of America. The US is able to withstand the cracks on its foundation because the principles and the practice to a certain extent balances out.
Please see President Barack H. Obama’s speech addressing the human imperfection of Americans when he was campaigning for the presidency, ‘A more perfect Union’ https://my.barackobama.com/page/content/hisownwords
In the mother continent Africa the late president of South Africa Nelson Mandela and former President Fredrik De Klerk laid a reasonably good foundation for post Apartheid South Africa in the 1994 settlement.
The racist Afrikaners with their Apartheid regime who came to power in 1948 nurtured a wrong ideology which undermined the concept of a state. Because of the wrong foundation of Apartheid South Africa crumbled under the resistance of the people.
Equally Dinkocracy in South Sudan like Apartheid in South Africa will crumble soon either by revolution or through the expected coming peace talks.
South Sudan has endured a lot of pain since 1821. It needs breathing space to recuperate from its traumas. The panacea for these traumas is democracy. The South Sudan of today as it is known is a product of a democratic process.
The choice of independence is a result of the people’s decision in a referendum in January 2011.
Although the SPLM usurped the power of the people and plunged it into chaos, the people have the right to have a say in its rebuilding.
The mediation set up under IGAD unfortunately was undemocratic. It pushed away the people of South Sudan (stakeholders: other parties and civil society) from the process. IGAD was happy to concentrate power and hand it on a silver platter to the SPLM to do whatever it wanted to do so long as it would stop the war.
IGAD appeared to have no intention of bringing real peace to South Sudan. That was not right at all because practically their approach meant postponement of the war to some future date.
South Sudan as a young country made its choice in January 2011 through the provision of the CPA to be a democracy.
The people of South Sudan believe in this ideology except the SPLM party which trumpets the ideals of democracy but brilliantly practices Dinkocracy, a tribal form of totalitarianism.
Although it is very sad that the SPLM plunged the country into chaos, good should be harnessed out of this tragedy to entrench democratic principles and practices in the country. This should start with the coming mediation process wherever it would be.
For democracy to take root the talks needs to be conducted by the “people” and it must not be made an SPLM affair.
South Sudan does not belong to SPLM rather it is the other way – SPLM belongs to South Sudan and it is a small part of its constituent parts.
Thus all the people must have a say in stopping the war and what the transitional government should be like. Which means all the stakeholders must be part of the coming talks without discrimination.
Ultimately if South Sudan is to overcome its ills including tribalism to achieve full security and stability it must whole heartedly embrace democracy with its element of free speech to act as a balance against the excesses of state.
Democracy provides safeguards against violence in all its forms because in situations where anger and frustrations builds up to a boiling point, it regulates the building pressure by releasing it through the in-built safety values and practices: routine elections based on the constitution; freedom of press and speech; and the rule of law.
These ensure security and stability which are important for economic and human development.
When the government of the day becomes a problem it is safely replaced/changed without traumatising the country. The beauty of democracy is that its structures are adaptable to various political opinions.
In contrast just see what Dinkocracy has done to South Sudan in only three years of independence. The reason the country imploded is simply because Dinkocracy unlike democracy has no safety valves.
The ideologies of totalitarian regimes usually have an assured end in self destruction no matter what development they achieve. Observe the destruction Iraq, Libya, and Syria are facing now. All those sky scrapers and magnificent buildings developed in those countries are being torn down in anger.
Will the wretched development in Juba survive the brewing anger now developing in people’s hearts? The virtues of democracy are proven by the stability and real development seen in the Western world.
In the IGAD peace talks the SPLM/A warring factions of President Salva Kiir, Dr Riek and Pagan Amum were treated favourably and lavished with gleeful per deim in thousands of dollars daily.
Worse still these murderous groups were allowed to dictate the terms. SPLM/A must not be allowed to monopolise power through the process of peace talks.
The failed IGAD talks had again like the CPA negotiations tried to concentrate power in the hands of the criminals of South Sudan. They pretend by claiming that they can bring peace.
This is nonsense. They are the very people who manufactured the catastrophe in the country and therefore they should not be rewarded by being listened to.
Where on this earth are criminals considered as negotiators in solving their crimes? What was happening in Addis Ababa is akin to asking accused foxes who ransacked a chicken pen to bring safety to the remaining traumatised chicken.
If the Hutus who committed genocide in Rwanda were not listened to; if Dr Radovan Karadic and General Ratko Mladic of the Bosnian Serbs who committed ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia were not listened to and made part of their respective peace talks, why then is President Kiir and his SPLM allowed to be part of the talks and treated like decent people?
Does the leaked AUCISS report not make clear that the Juba regime is responsible for the ethnic cleansing?
What is the difference between the ethnic cleansing of the Croats and Bosnians by the Serbs and the one of the Nuer by Jieng controlled regime of Juba?
The only difference as far as can be seen is that the former involves Europeans and the latter involves Africans. It may be this difference that blurs the eye with which the UNSC sees the problem of South Sudan.
The rush and desperation of the international community to broker peace before the expiry of the mandate of the President Kiir on 9th July 2015 does not bode well for South Sudan.
What is important should be identifying the right body and personalities to lead it rather than leaving the process yet again to the failed IGAD to try to revamp itself under their declared new – IGAD Plus body which seeks to incorporate the Troika with some other countries.
Please see ‘IGAD unveils new process to end South Sudan crisis’ http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article54254
The failure of IGAD simply is based on the fact that their strategy was wrong and unjust, and as long as it continues with this strategy they will never succeed in bringing peace with Troika and others or without.
IGAD’s hurry to rejuvenate itself appears to indicate anxiety, confusion and the poor thinking on the matter going on in the mediation team. They seem to be more interested in salvaging their already damaged reputation than getting the right and workable peace deal.
All along IGAD appears to focus on the short term rather than the long term. Like their already failed strategy they look certain to commit the same mistake, because they have not learnt anything from their failure.
Lesson number one for IGAD and the international community is that the talks must be an affair of all South Sudanese and the South Sudanese should be the ones to decide the agenda.
The importance of this point can not be overstated because ownership of the peace will translate to a lasting peace for South Sudan and the region.
Lesson number two is that Uganda must not be part of the talks because it is belligerent and on the government’s side, with Uganda’s troops on the ground involved in the war.
Lesson number three is that IGAD should not make threats that they are not ready to follow through.
Lesson number four is that IGAD must strictly follow the rules of mediation.
Lesson number five IGAD must treat all stakeholders equally.
Lesson number six SPLM must not be given any preference – It must be treated like all the other stakeholders.
Finally, it is unbelievable that the international community is bent on continuing with empowering the monstrous SPLM/A. The leaked report of African Union Committee of Inquiry in South Sudan (AUCISS) which IGAD is struggling to keep under wraps identifies the source of the current problem in the country.
In clause 89 the report argues that the Comprehensive Peace Agreement created SPLM/A as “unchallenged armed power in South Sudan” Please see, ‘Draft Report of the AU Commission of Inquiry on South Sudan.’ http://nyamile.com/2015/03/07/draft-report-of-the-au-commission-of-inquiry-on-south-sudan/
Therefore, the simple strategy for bringing peace to South Sudan should involves the diversification of power to all its constituent social groups through a democratised peace talks.
This entails the international community starting the whole process anew. Just as agreed and accepted on 9th May 2014 agreement in Addis Ababa, the new body without IGAD should invite all the stakeholders of South Sudan to hammer out a lasting deal.
The shenanigans of IGAD which favoured the culprit and discriminated against the victims (the people) should be thrown into the bin.
[Truth hurts but its also liberating]
TO: THE CHAIRMAN OF IGAD, CHAIRMAN OF AU COMMISSION, EU, UN SG, TRIOKA COUNTRIES (NORWAY, UK & US), CHINA & RUSSIA
CC: THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN
The Jieng (Dinka) Council of Elders wishes to inform the South Sudanese citizens and the whole world of an ominous cloud that has been gathering momentum regionally and internationally to destabilize South Sudan. The scheme was initially masked by the pretentious actions of a few neighbors who presented themselves as concerned friends of South Sudanese whose mission was informed by humanitarian need to help the Republic of South Sudan out of the ongoing situation.
This thin veil of pretentious posturing is slowly being lifted and the real faces of the conspirators are beginning to emerge. The ongoing unpredictable behavior of Kenya near our eastern borders is a case in point.
The real intention of the international community, which has been quite critical of the government since the commencement of the ongoing crisis, has now been unmasked by the recently leaked AU Commission’s report with its damning recommendations on South Sudan situation.
As much as they would want to officially deny it, this report has once and for all laid bare what the regional and international actors have been hatching covertly against South Sudan. It is unequivocally clear that the world is hell bent on thwarting the South Sudanese aspiration to be a free, and sovereign people.
2- If one takes a disinterested look at the leaked AU’s commission report, it is not difficult to come to a sad conclusion that what has been obstructing peace since the government unilaterally called upon the rebels to sit down and resolve their differences as brothers and sisters is not necessarily the intransigence of the warring parties, as we have continuously been made to believe, but the interference of external forces, which, like the rebels, want to see an elected president removed illegally.
This clandestine plan to thwart the progress of our nascent democracy by illegally removing an
elected President is coupled with an even more sinister motive that seeks to destroy the historical legacy of our people’s movement, the SPLM, its achievements, and the whole literature of our liberation struggle.
It appears now that South Sudan is locked in weird whirlwinds of intersecting regional and international interests that are divergent, yet unified on one thing – the destabilization of South Sudan and the need to dismantle the existing government.
This may appear to some as being alarmists, but the truth is that there is enough evidence to suggest that the plans to revoke South Sudan’s sovereignty and make it ungovernable are now complete and set.
Three main reasons support this conclusion:
–(1) The leaked African Union Commission Report,
–(2) The behavior, speeches, and actions of some regional and international actors, and
–(3) The recently leaked IGAD Plan of Action.
II. The Leaked AU’s report and its recommendations:
The recommendations of the leaked AU commission report clearly show that the Troika countries are unanimous in their view that President Kiir and his government can no longer lead the country. Hence, the South Sudan’s problems can no longer be negotiated and settled through a peace agreement.
According to Hilde Johnson, former Special Representative of Secretary-General in South Sudan, UNMISS, the whole system “needs a reboot”, as one would intentionally crash a stalled computer ostensibly to restart it afresh.
In political lingo, however, ‘Rebooting’ the system means dismantling the existing institutions of governance and restarting them from scratch. The only problem now is what they called “a central conundrum”, which is that the Jieng and Nuer nationalities would not accept any actions that negate their hard won independence.
Sadly enough, the African Union Commission of Inquiry, which was tasked to investigate human rights violations and the causes of the conflict bought into this thinking, taking a cue primarily from the Troika countries and the UN Secretary-General Representative to South Sudan.
The AU Commission pulled out a common hackneyed mantra called, “an African problem needs an African solution”, essentially accusing supposedly naïve Western counterparts for the inadequacy of their understanding of complex and intricate African problems.
To the Commission, the problem of the Troika members and other western allies is that they lack social context, which is something they believe is necessary as it allows the actors in taking stock of historical, political, economic, social and moral spheres related to a peculiar African problem before one ponders on how to resolve it.
What seems to inform this line of thinking is the thought that South Sudan was going to precipitously fall and so it will be up for grabs. The AU Commission seems decided to prevent the Troika and UN from picking up the pieces as the two are unqualified and so the more qualified regional body, the AU should take South Sudan’s sovereignty to the Union’s custody.
Fortunately, South Sudan still has a government and its sovereignty remains with its people. To arrive at an African solution in South Sudan, in the thought of AU Commissioners, one must isolate the so-called planners of the political violence from their constituencies.
One of the ways in which such sequestration could be effected is the creation of Transitional Government that excludes those that are considered politically accountable for the crisis. The reasoning is that South Sudanese have lost their sovereignty because of the violence.
Therefore, the AU Commission proposed a transitional period with three distinctive features: (1) A High Level Oversight panel (non-South Sudanese) to guide the period of transition,
(2) A transitional government that excludes those politically accountable for the crisis, and
(3) A transitional program that addresses the question of justice in different forms.
Since South Sudanese sovereignty will be housed at the continental Headquarters in Addis Ababa, the Oversight Panel shall be answerable to the Peace and Security Council of the African Union and its members to be appointed directly by the Peace and Security Council of the African
Union, mandated by and shall report to both the AU and the UN Security Council.
The panel would be made up of three persons; finance expert, security expert and an expert in statecraft all under a permanent Chairperson.
The assumption here is that South Sudan has been mismanaged in three areas – the finance, the military and South Sudanese are clueless about governance.
These plans could not come into effect unless there is an absolute silence of guns. In their view, the best way to put the conflict to an end is to engender in an interim transitional period for five years, led by a Transitional Executive. Members of the Transitional Executive shall be South Sudanese.
Thereafter, a collegial presidency drawn from three broad geographical constituencies of Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria, and Upper Nile regions and shall be chosen through a process overseen by the High Level Oversight Panel, which shall be instituted through a three-step process:
-(1) There shall be broad consultation, leading to nominations by different sectors of society in a process designed to identify “persons of consensus”,
-(2) Vetting by a reconvened all-South Sudan Political Parties Convention expanded to include representatives of civil society, churches and chiefs,
-(3) Ratification by parliament.
The said Executive Council shall constitute the cabinet and shall be appointed by the Collegial Presidency in consultation with the Parliament and the High Level Oversight Panel.
The Commission recommends that anyone who was in the cabinet in the past before the dissolution of government in 2013 shall be excluded from any government. The Commission seemingly suggests the dissolution of all government institutions, except for the parliament. The reason for the dissolution of these institutions is not given.
It is not clear how the formation of the Transitional Executive would actually end the
Conflict. There are a number of undeclared assumptions underpinning some of these recommendations.
Perhaps, one of the assumptions is that the people of South Sudan are so fed up with the government and so they will sit and watch it being dismantled and taken over by neocolonial usurpers.
Another assumption is the idea that there is no national army and so no person would put up a resistance to an African Union takeover.
Notwithstanding the condescending nature of such assumptions, they are dangerously wrong. Any person who underestimates the will of liberators to defend the price of their liberation struggle is simply toying around with fire.
What is not also so clear is what this transitional executive, serving under the African Union would actually do for the people of South Sudan.
The Commission recommends three sketchy tasks of the said Transitional Executive as:
-(1) Political justice through state reform. In the view of the commission, the key to the pursuit of the political justice in the transitional period is the exclusion from high office of all those held politically accountable for the mass violence. The political justice would be achieved through a two-pronged process of demilitarization and democratization,
-(2) Resettlement of refugees and IDPs as well as
-(3) Criminal Justice.
Regarding the Security Sector reform, the Commission recommends the establishment of an African Oversight Force, comprised of troops from African countries beyond the surrounding region.
The said force would operate under the AU command, but under UNMISS and thereafter, the High Level Oversight Panel shall appoint a joint African/South Sudanese Military Commission, whose members are to be drawn from senior military persons from both the South Sudan and other African countries and whose mandate is to draw up a program to build the capacity, screen, reduce, reorganize and “where necessary”, retain the forces that currently exist under the umbrella of the SPLA.
The Commission holds the view that the army should be diversified like the parliament through democratization process at the local level.
The Commission’s view is informed as alluded to in the previous section by the assumption that there is truly no national army and that South Sudanese are of course assumed to be incompetent and so the African Oversight Force with the help of some handpicked military personnel from
South Sudan and other African countries shall form and run the army.
This of course would complete the destruction phase of the liberation history and the re-writing of the history will begin from there.
The most glaring question here is how the AU Oversight Panel and the Oversight Force are going to be financed. The Commission certainly believes that South Sudanese oil and mineral resources should fund AU operations.
To this effect, the Commission recommends that the African Development Bank, in coordination with the World Bank and the International Monitoring Fund, establish an active and continuous
oversight over all key public financial institutions in South Sudan.
The Commission further recommends that all oil proceeds be placed in an escrow account under the oversight of this joint committee, and that these funds be used to finance both the recurrent expense of government and administration, and the funding of the triple transitional mandate, including the cost of the African Peace-keeping Force.
Therefore, South Sudanese are not only going to be robbed of their sovereignty, independence, and the erosion of their liberation history, but their resources are up for grabs and plunder by the continental body and its cohorts.
What is evident from the foregoing summary of the recommendations of the Commission is the revocation of South Sudan’s sovereignty, which shall be placed under a fuzzy leadership of the African Union and the UN.
The Commission does not acknowledge the existence of an elected government and failed to make reference to our historic and collective decision to self-determination.
It is not clear how the AU and its three-person panel would handle resistance that will surely be erected against their doomed ploy to take over our country. This proposal is of course
similar to placing the country under UN Trusteeship; the only difference is the vocabulary.
The world should know that South Sudan’s sovereignty and its independence are irrevocable and that those who will try this shall meet the rage of men and women who liberated this country.
When these recommendations are read together with the UN resolution 2206/2015 on the imposition of sanctions on individuals deemed to be obstructing the peace, it is clear that the international community is decided that South Sudanese crisis needs no diplomacy but coercive measures.
Obstruction of peace is of course an obscure abstract whose meaning is only fully understood by those imposing sanctions. In our view, imposition of sanctions and laying hurdles in the way of negotiations are the clear definitions of obstruction of peace process.
III. The Troika and IGAD hands in the peace process
The reviewed clandestine actions of AU Commission of Inquiry and its sponsors shed more light on the recent statement by John Kerry, the U.S. Secretary of State, on March 2, 2015 in which he questioned the legitimacy of the government and that of the President of the Republic of South Sudan when he said, “Legitimacy is not a presumed right of any government. It is
conferred by the people, and it is sustained only by demonstrating leadership to protect and serve all citizens – responsibilities the government has neglected”.
This statement stands in sharp contrast with Secretary Kerry’s statement on May 2, 2014 here in Juba when he declared that there should be “no moral equivalence between an elected president and a rebel leader”.
What informed the change of the Secretary’s position? How much worse has South Sudan government done since the last time Mr. Kerry was here?
This position has to be read together with President Obama’s speech that addressed the people of South Sudan directly, bypassing the South Sudanese leadership, a direct violation of diplomatic etiquettes, but is part of the scheme to try to undermine the country’s leadership.
This is where the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia picked up his cue in his inflammatory speech on March 5th, 2015 where he directly incited the people of South Sudan to rise up against their leaders, who, according to him, have abdicated their responsibilities.
This is the man who is the head of IGAD, the body that is mediating peace. How do you mediate between two leaders for whom you hold no respect? It should be obvious that when a mediator despises its own clients, it goes without saying that the mission would certainly fail and so the causes of the failure of the IGAD-led peace talks should be sought within the premises of
All these conspiracies are converging in the so-called IGAD-Plus peace initiative. The leaked IGAD action plan shows clearly that the peace process is no longer a South Sudanese affair, but it will be a hijacked peace process in which many in the international community are going to hold their sticks high on the heads of the warring parties.
Should the two leaders fail to sign an agreement they did not negotiate, this will be used as
a pretext for the invasion of South Sudan and the implementation of the African Union recommendations.
IV. Misunderstanding of the current unrest as a Nuer – Jieng war:
The question that sorely begs asking is: Why is the international community trying to destroy South Sudan? We the members of the Council, based on our extensive analysis of the prevailing international opinion, are convinced that the international community’s opinion is ill-advised
The international actors seem to have succeeded in painting the current conflict as a war between the Jieng and Nuer. This is a terrible superficial understanding of a conflict that is complex and historically deep-rooted.
The war that is raging in South Sudan has its roots in the internal intrigues of the SPLM party; it has nothing to do with Jieng and Nuer, however much of it is misconstrued internationally and regionally.
The Nuer and Jieng are societies with historical and political ties. These societies harbor no genocidal intents toward each other.
Between these two communities, people have been taken and given through inter-tribal marriages; there are intricate webs of relations between these two communities that cannot easily be thrown into the dustbin of political paranoia.
Although it is erroneously being spread that in the midst of this conflict the Jieng are out to ethnically cleanse the Nuer, the facts on the ground speak to the contrary. This is a terrible propaganda that demands disapproval.
For instance, presently, the displaced Nuer civilians are taking refuge in the two Jieng dominated States of Warrap, Lakes, and even in Jonglei state were the Jieng are also a sizable majority. The Jieng civil populations in these three states have received the Nuer IDPs with open arms. There have been no incidences in which these Nuer IDPs were lynched by their host
Also, the Nuer who have not bought into Riek Machar’s political ideology continue to serve in the government, which is erroneously being portrayed as a Jieng Government. These Nuer nationalists are exerting powerful influences to bring back peace to the country.
If there is a war between the Jieng and Nuer, and if the present government is a Jieng government as it is being alleged, why then are these Nuer politicians partaking in the alleged genocide against their kin and kith?
It should therefore be admitted that what the Republic of South Sudan is dealing with is a sad political unrest, which stemmed from a failed coup attempt by Dr. Riek Machar and cohorts. This group of disgruntled politicians sought to usurp people’s power militarily.
A similar situation happened in 1991 when Riek Machar’s coup against Dr. John Garang polarized the two communities of Nuer and Jieng. Eventually, these communities managed to contextualize the conflict and were able to reconcile.
These grassroots efforts eventually culminated in the return of Riek into the SPLM in 2002.
In order to attain a just and lasting resolution to the present war, the international mediators need to give the people of South Sudan a chance to work out a solution, starting from the grassroots levels all the way to the national levels. In fact, similar efforts are being exerted at the grassroots levels.
Currently, there are ongoing community dialogues between the Jieng (Dinka) Council of Elders and the Nuer elders. There are also talks going on between the Jieng and other South Sudanese communities to find ways in which a common alliance of progress could be forged.
We believe that these dialogues will eventually culminate in a homegrown solution to the current crisis. We are also confident that the leaders will eventually listen to the voices of reason originating from these community dialogues.
We believe without any shred of doubt that it is through these grassroots efforts that this conflict could be amicably ended. Also, the government is committed to dialogue with the rebels and other dissidents unconditionally.
Given a chance, these efforts will bring about a peaceful resolution to the current conflict, and the suffering of our citizens will be alleviated.
However, these efforts are being blatantly ignored by the regional and international actors who are trying to push for their agenda, which is now beginning to emerge as an attempt to obstruct the peace process to justify the forceful takeover of South Sudan.
V. The Council’s vehement opposition to re-colonization of South Sudan
Given this situation, we would like to alert the world of the inherent complications that will be engendered by this planned invasion of our country. Our country is very fragile, socially, economically, and politically.
The long bouts of the relentless civil wars that our people have gone through have shaken our country to the core. Any disturbance in the present setup will drastically send our country, and by extension the region, spinning dangerously into the abyss.
Despite the prevailing rhetoric in the international circles that this external intervention will bring the ongoing conflict to an expeditious end, the fact of the matter is that the current situation will be worsened by this external meddling. Given the tribal nature of the current insurgencies, armed and unarmed dissidents, it is conceivable that these groups will be emboldened by their newly found power, as they will definitely attack other tribes.
This will encourage an arm race among various tribes, as every tribe will be trying to acquire means of self-defense. What will then invariably ensue is a complicated web of tribal warfare at a scale never before witnessed in the history of South Sudan.
This will send our population fleeing to foreign countries to seek refuge in the refugee camps where they will reside in subhuman conditions.
Not only that, the governance vacuum that will be created will encourage non-state actors such as terrorists’ organizations to establish training camps where they will launch their campaigns against the free world.
The neighboring countries may also feel bothered by the lawlessness near their borders and may choose to invade parts of South Sudan just to push the chaos away from their borders. It is also conceivable that these neighboring countries may start extracting South Sudan’s vast natural resources illegally.
If this is allowed to happen, the struggle of the martyrs who laid down their lives to free this country would have been wasted; the lives of our citizens would have been plunged into unnecessary risk, the dignity of the South Sudanese and that of the African race in the entire Sudan would have been insulted, and the United Nations, that assembly of free nations, would have abdicated its obligation to serve as the shield for the weak and the preserver of peace.
By allowing this to happen, the UN would have instead purveyed an unfathomable violence against one of its members.
Given the pending destruction of our country and our dignity as a people, we would like the world to know that, like any other people in the world, the South Sudanese reserve the right to defend themselves against unjust aggression anywhere and at any time. Our internal contradictions notwithstanding, the world must understand that the South Sudanese will unite in their resistance against any imposed agreement.
It should also be made known to IGAD and the African Union that South Sudan will not become a testing ground for crude and new governance theories and that such attempts will be resisted to the fullest.
As for the proposed African Oversight Force, it should be clear to the continental body that such a force could only touch ground in South Sudan only with the government’s permission.
Any movement of such force illegally into South Sudan would be an act of war and will be met with a tested resistance. We want peace, but it has to be our homegrown, not a regional or international peace that undermines the sanctity of our sovereignty.
Signed on behalf of Jieng Council of Elders:
1. Justice, Ambrose RinyThiik
2. Hon. Joshua Dau Diu
3. Hon. Aldo Ajou Deng
4. Hon. Deng Dau Deng
5. Hon. Charles Majak Aleer
6. Hon. Parmena Awerial Aluong
Quote “It is bad that a rebel leader in the person of Riek Machar should be given red carpet reception in Nairobi as that might portray Kenya as a partial peace arbiter” say 5 CORD Kenyan MPs, Hon. Stephen Mule, Hon. Ken Okoth, Hon. Abdullahi Diriye , Hon. Agustino Neto and Sen. Daisy Kanaiza.
By: Simon Yel Yel and Bol Madut Ayii, APR/02/2015, SSN;
When one talks of history of south Sudan and all liberation movements, be it SANU, SSLM/Anya Anya, SPLM/A, against the Khartoum regime, one can’t escape to mention the name of Ethiopia and Kenya and acknowledge the pivotal roles they had played supporting the liberation movements, politically, diplomatically and economically.
These two countries were and still friendly to south Sudan since the liberation movements started in 1947. Their support will never be forgotten at all. They hosted and supported war refugees in Kakuma and Gambela. They were very welcoming and friendly to south Sudanese who were in Kakuma and Gambela refugee camps and also in big cities.
The two governments didn’t see south Sudanese with disdain and xenophobia during liberation struggle but they see them like their citizens. Some of south Sudanese who were able to be in boarding schools with Kenyans and Ethiopians were very well treated like citizens with no discrimination at all.
The relationship of security organs with south Sudanese at large in Kenya and Ethiopia was not piercing. Some south Sudanese young men got private scholarships from good-hearted Kenyans and Ethiopians. The big percentage of educated youth now in south Sudan had acquired their education in Kenya and Ethiopia. But the strange thing now is in making.
Since the foiled coup attempt on 15th Dec. 2013, the stand of Kenya and Ethiopia remain questionable on this crisis. It was June last year when Riek Machar started what he called ”diplomatic tour to neighbouring and friendly countries.”
He went to Djibouti, Sudan and Kenya plus other countries. President Kenyatta was the only president who received him in “RED CARPET” among all the countries he toured. Kenyatta broke the record as the first democratically elected president to show his support of rebel leader to the world by welcoming him with RED CARPET. Something which has never happened in world history.
Presidents Arap Moi, Mwai Kibaki and even his own father Jomo Kenyatta have never done that before to any rebel leader that they supported be, William Deng of Anya nya one or Dr. John Garang of the SPLM.
President Kenyatta have gone far beyond the US which is known of regime changes by supporting the rebels but have never welcome any rebel leader with RED CARPET in white house. US supported the Libyan and Syrian rebels but they have never shown their support in that form at all.
We can vividly remember Nov 2012 when President Kenyatta came to south Sudan with his team to engage president Kiir to help Kenyatta ascending the presidency. President Kiir promised him to help and work with him if he is elected by Kenyans and denounced the ICC as never been fair with Africans. President Kiir even went to witnessed his swearing in ceremony and that shows he (Kiir) is committed to working with Kenyatta.
Kenya is investing in south Sudan more than any other country in Africa, Kenyans have banks and hotels plus others. Many people were shocked in Oct last year to hear that Kenyan government was considering sanctions against the government of south Sudan.
Hon. Michael Makuei and Hon. James Kok went and conducted press conference in Nairobi explaining the genesis of the crisis to the Kenyan government officials and warned them there would be consequences if Kenya would sanction south Sudan.
We couldn’t believe Kenya planning to do that. Every country can be Jekyll and Hyde but no one expect Uhuru’s regime to show us such ugly and brutal face to south Sudan when we opened up everything for them. Every month Kenyans who are making business in any part of south Sudan do send billions of shillings back home to boost their economy. What other good thing do Kenyan government want south Sudan to do for them? Everyone astonishes, why did Kenya become a rebels’ den?
Any person who wants to join rebel Riek Machar always makes announcement in Kenya and then proceed to Ethiopia first and then comes back and stays in hotel being paid for by the Kenyan government. ”We will mention few people, like Dau Aturjong and Edward Lino who are suffering from male menopause and megalomania.”
Kenya has become permanent home for the G11, no more going ahead nor returning back. They are being well provided for by the Kenyan government. Eating free lunch, breakfast, dinner and sleeping freely in very expensive Windsor hotel.
Thanks to opposition MPs who felt that the Kenyan government is doing what it shouldn’t and decided to table motion to the parliament requesting the government to expel G11 and we quote, ”The said leaders were to help in the peace process and the negotiations taking place in Ethiopia, and not live in opulence at the expense of the Kenyan taxpayers.”
But for whoever in the government is fine with and what the government is doing. Though they didn’t win the motion, it still shows that there are some Kenyans who feel bad seeing their government playing cheat and hide politics in south Sudanese crisis.
Their (G11) work is just to demonise president Kiir and push for the IGAD peace mediators to consider the biased report of Obasanjo not to involve president Kiir and Riek in proposed transitional government of national unity. They considered themselves to be impeccant and true national leaders that can only bring unity to all south Sudanese and end tribalism and corruption if they are allowed to lead the transitional government.
The Kenyan government is hypocritical holier-than-thou to show it really stand on this crisis. It is in dilemma and could not be able to take one side to support, either G11 or Riek Machar.
Looking at the historical background of Kenya, it has been used to support any rebellion like that of Sudan when its (Kenya) opened her doors to accommodate SPLA generals, so it seems like becoming a mind set for Kenyan government that helping rebels is something good even if the rebels (SPLM in government) that they had supported to come into power still they engage helping another rebel to topple that government.
What do the Kenyan government expect the SPLM in the government to do? Can the SPLM government give them some ministerial positions or the share in oil? What else do every country that had supported the rebel movement to ascend to power expect than business cooperation in return?
Now in South Sudan the market is being control by Kenyans from commercial banks to hotels, therefore any proposal by Kenyan government to sanctions South Sudan means it sanctions itself.
Ethiopia and the current peace negotiations between two warring parties in South Sudan:
Ethiopia has never brought peace to south Sudan since the genesis of the civil war. Though literal meaning of it is new flower that smells so sweet and romantic, people still wonder why it always gives us the smell of the rotten egg when we need something fresh. We thought it would give us the pleasant and fresh smell of sweet oxygen of peace not carbon dioxide of war.
Since 1972, the peace brokered by Ethiopia has never been materialized though all means exhausted even to the extent of scarifying a bull still comes out with no sweet smell of flower. What flower will it really, could it be Rafflesia arnoldii?
The peace between the president Nimery and Anya Anya turn not peace to be respected as it was clearly demonstrated by the Sudanese then president Jafaar Nimery that it was not Quaran or Holy Bible which the peace means to be like.
Although the Addis Ababa peace accord was not implemented by the Sudanese government as it was agreed, the support by the Ethiopian government in initiation of peace should not go unrecognized, the then Ethiopian Emperor engaged the two warring parties in the Sudan to reach an agreement in Ethiopian capital Addis in 1972, this shows that the regime in Ethiopia has been playing and still playing vital role in searching for peaceful settlement of any dispute within any African conflict.
The one year peace mediation in Ethiopia under the auspices of Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin has been viewed by South Sudanese as well as the region at large that it will not bear fruits due to partiality of the mediators and impossible demands always put by the rebel.
To the surprise of many rightful thinking members of Society, the mediators proved to be biased beyond any reasonable doubt. Whenever the rebels violated the secession of hostilities, it has been always the government who is to be condemned by mediators and the international community but not the rebels.
The mediation in Ethiopia is being viewed by many people as a smart coup in making against the government because the mediators do propose always every items of rebel’s demands that are not even subject to any mediation at all if the mediators are really impartial.
Throughout the process of negotiations, the government has been always giving up everything by accepting the power sharing government with Riek,s rebels but still IGAD coaching the rebel mediators to ask for the position of executive prime minister which seems to be another way of implementing Riek’s failed coup attempt in negotiations table.
After the failure on the 5th March to reach an agreement, the IGAD mediators have come up with another way of compelling the government to accept unbecoming demands of the rebels by announcing that they will invite Troika, UNSC and AU to participate directly in the next round of talks in Addis.
This new move is not really to bring peace to South Sudan but to install Riek Machar to power by threatening the government with sanctions and military action should it fail to accept the rebel’s demands.
The recently adopted sanctions regime on South Sudan was proposed by troika and presented by US in the UNSC meeting. Since the above mentioned bodies had already taken their positions, will they be impartial in the next peace talks scheduled to take place in Addis?
In conclusion, since the negotiations in Addis seems not be bearing fruits due to partiality of the mediators and the involvement of the western powers through Ethiopian government, we recommend that the next round of peace talks should be relocated to other country within Africa, either Zimbabwe or Rwanda and to be headed by the new chief mediator.
For the Kenya, the Kenyan government has done many diplomatic fouls and it is high time for South Sudan government to revise diplomatic relationship with Kenya.
The writers are south Sudanese concerned citizen citizens.
Simon Yel Yel can be reached at email@example.com or 095524635,
Bol Madut Ayii can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or 0956252721