Archive for: July 2014

SPLM: A Party that’s awaiting Horrible & Clumsy Political Burial!

By: Dengdit Ayok, JUBA, JUL/31/2014, SSN;

When the greatest soldiers of our nation launched the second glorious revolution for the emancipation of our people from the yoke of Khartoum’s slavery and marginalization in May 1983, which resulted into the inception of the SPLM/SPLA in July of the same year, the masses of this vicinity responded massively and joined the people’s liberation army, when the SPLM declared clear rational political objectives in its first manifesto.

Those objectives were very sound and had magical magnitude that attracted our people from every corner of our vast territory. The struggle for freedom and dignity continued long.

The war raged in the southern part of the country and reached the north partially. Peace was achieved before raging long there. We struggled for freedom, justice, equality and prosperity. We paid the ultimate price of the struggle. More than 2.5 million offered their precious lives as martyrs for liberty and independence.

When we hoisted our flag in July 2011, everybody jubilated in pride for the birth of our nation, but the SPLM wolves in sheep’s skin were planning to fail the nation and turn the developmental aspirations of our people into a nightmare.

The political differences that were postponed during the 2008 SPLM second national convention resurfaced in March 2013 and finally culminated into the current chaotic situation in the country last December. The result of those differences is now death of more than fifteen thousand and displacement of more than twenty thousand civilian population.

The result is the current game of feed dragging being played by the both sides of the conflict and on the mediators in achieving a lasting peace for the suffering people of South Sudan.

The result of this war is has put our country top on the list of the fragile states. The phrase ‘fragile states’ is a decent wording for ‘failed states’.

The parties to the conflict have clearly rejected giving up delivering hate speeches and war propaganda in order to give room for peace. The result of this now is that the nation is going to loss bigger number of its innocent sons and daughters than those it had lost in the last seven months of the strife.

The SPLM has failed to run itself and run the nation. Though Dr. Garang de Mabior was a great eye opener and a visionary African and world leader, his disciples who had been with him for more than 21 years, didn’t learn anything from his ideological unique political school.

They became like the 12 disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ who didn’t understood him though they had been with him for 3 years and half before his crucifixion, until they received the baptism of the Holy Ghost.

Comparatively speaking, Jesus’ disciples were a little bit better then the SPLM and Garang’s boys, because Simon Peter had correctly answered Christ’s question: ‘who do you think the Son of Man is?’ on behalf the eleven.

They have drastically failed their party and divided it into SPLM-Juba, SPLM-HL (SPLM-historical leaders), SPLM-IO, SPLM-G11, SPLM-DECENTRALISATION, SPLM-FEDERALISM and before all these factions, SPLM-DC.

The worst part of the scenario is that they have failed the nation and plunged it into abyss and oven a terrible war! Acts of killings continues on day after day regardless of the apparent IGAD-led peace efforts to halt the war.

The SPLM has given credibility to Khartoum analysts’ views that had claimed that, “South Sudanese cannot rule themselves; they will divide themselves along tribal lines and butcher themselves as soon as they get the independence”. It should have proved them wrong.

Those who could have been the anointed Messiahs of South Sudan a source of blessing to their people have become a source of curse to them! This is a disturbing fact to many of them, but it must be said. It must be courageously said.

The only hope for the people of South Sudan is getting rid of this party called SPLM and sending it to the dustbin of history. It isn’t impossible. It is possible because the people of this nation have a power and they are the source of sovereignty. They have a giant power that can conquer a political party produces death than delivering services.

A party that has stolen the resources of the nation and now engaged in killing the nation with impunity must go to the dustbin of history.

A party that gives credibility to prophets of doom and enemies of the nation and prove them right, though they are wrong, and continue to kill its people on day after day; is approaching horrible and clumsy political burial!

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article represents the opinions of the writer.
Mr. Ayok lives in Juba and he is reachable at

Jieng community elders’ giant leap for federalism in South Sudan

By: Jacob K. Lupai, JUBA, JUL/31/2014, SSN;

When the demand for federalism first surfaced it was met with outright hostility and rejection. That was because federalism was apparently associated closely with the experience of kokora in the 80s. Federalism was also being associated with the recent rebellion that sparked off on 15 December 2013. This might explain why the demand for federalism was about to become a criminal offence. People who were genuinely calling for a federal system were alleged to be supporters of the rebellion. However, there was no grain of truth in such allegation. Instead there was a support to the government.

Outright hostility and rejection of the demand for federalism reached unexpected level when newspapers were being confiscated and journalists taken for questioning. However, opinions in favour of federalism persisted and were expressed openly in newspapers and in the Internet. Intimidation did not work as the call for respect for freedom of expression was very loud. As expected the hostile stand against federalism fizzled out as the expressed opinion for federalism was coming from many angles.

Notable and of importance was the opinion expressed by concerned Jieng community elders in favour of federalism for South Sudan. It was a giant step forward that couldn’t have been ignored. Things were moving faster against the minority opponents of federalism. The National Community Leaders’ Forum comprising representatives of Equatoria and Jieng from Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile States met and passed resolutions, adding their voices positively on federalism.

In one of their resolutions the National Community Leaders’ Forum calls upon the President to form a High Level National Technical Committee to study Federalism and Governance to inform and enhance the Constitutional making process without prejudice to individual or group discussions. Clearly federalism has become no longer a taboo but an accepted fact to be discussed openly for a consensus.

Jieng giant leap for federalism

In seeking a solution for acceptable administration to the people of South Sudan, the concerned Jieng community elders have proposed that South Sudan should be administered as a federation of 23 states. This is yet a clear endorsement of federalism as a solution to problems of governance and development in South Sudan. The proposed states are the equivalent of the 23 districts in South Sudan in the colonial era. This is nothing but a giant leap for federalism by the concerned and visionary Jieng community elders.

The proponents of federalism must be delighted. This is because some of the fierce critics and opponents of federalism were the Jieng. This must have been an objective change of direction because the Jieng must have come to the conclusion that federalism is the only solution to the mess in which South Sudan finds itself. The implication is that no single ethnic group or region should dream of an empire in this modern world of science. Imposing a system that only favours an ethnic group or region disguised as the preservation of national unity is an old game of politics that has long been thrown into the dustbin of history when federalism has been gaining currency.

It is through a consensus that people may agree to be united. The concerned Jieng community elders have timely recognized this when they are saying, “Many people of South Sudan are demanding for application of federal system as one of the solutions to govern the country peacefully”. This obviously seems to be the beginning of better times ahead for the people of South Sudan. At least there will be no war over federalism. The demand for federalism is gaining adherents among the Jieng and this can only be a positive thing. This is encouraging because equating federalism with kokora may soon be a thing of the past.

When federalism is not equated with kokora the fear of eviction from Equatoria will also disappear. Jieng support for federalism has far reaching implication. One major implication is that when the Jieng support federalism hostility towards the people of Equatoria may reduce drastically. This is in contrast to when the Jieng were opposed to federalism. Clearly the concerned Jieng community elders proposed federalism suggests that the Jieng have moved on and therefore share the same national aspirations for peace, freedom and development as their other fellow citizens in the country instead of dreaming of their hegemony in South Sudan.

Application of federalism in South Sudan

The concerned Jieng community elders are of the opinion that ethnic administration in line with the 23 former colonial districts as states is the solution to tribal rivalry over resources. However, tribal rivalry is not only over resources, but it is also over power as well. The concerned Jieng elders have acknowledged that the demand for federalism is the wish of the majority and that the federal system should be introduced now.

As mentioned above and according to the Jieng elders, South Sudan should be a federation of 23 states based on the 23 former colonial districts. This is instead of adopting the existing 10 states. One would disagree with the proposal for 23 states in South Sudan but the Jieng elders should be highly commended for their collective efforts in trying to work out a solution to the problem of governance and theirs is a national aspiration for the stability of South Sudan.

Looking at the highlighted 23 former colonial districts in the proposal, there seems to be a little bit of confusion. Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal and Upper Nile each had 7, 7 and 9 districts respectively. This of course makes a total of 23 districts which are the 23 proposed future states of South Sudan. However, unlike its 7 districts, Equatoria has only 6 proposed states and unlike its 7 districts, Bahr el Ghazal has 9 states. For Upper Nile, unlike its 9 districts it has 8 proposed states. There is something strange here.

It is not clear why the 7 districts of Bahr el Ghazal have been blown up into 9 states while the 6 states for Equatoria do not correspond to its former 7 districts proposed to be the states. Something somewhere is not right. Confusion continues as Upper Nile which had 9 districts is only allotted 8 states. This clearly does not show that the 23 states are the duplicate of the 23 former colonial districts in South Sudan. Some explanation may be needed.

There may not be any need to return to the former 3 regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile to form a federation. However, there is nothing wrong with adopting the 10 states as a federation for a start. The adoption of the former colonial districts as states should be at the latter date and at the discretion of each of the 10 states. Federation of 23 states should not be done in a rush in view of economic austerity measures. This means that higher economic growth should first be recorded before creating new states. For example, it should be Central Equatoria State to decide in future either to break up into Yei River State and another state the name to be decided on later or not.

Development of natural and mineral resources, prospecting for more oil production to increase revenue and development of hydro-electric power should be undertaken for higher economic growth before creating new states. The proposal for 23 states is a noble one. However, in practice it is not only a mammoth task but an economic nightmare. I hope the architects of such a noble proposal do not want people to depend on foreign aid to finance the additional 13 states. One way of creating a state is that a former colonial district in any of the 10 states must justify itself to be a viable state through its own resources. We do not want to see states that are nothing but liabilities.

Different federations

South Sudan may need to learn about the different federations. For example, some federations are called asymmetric because some states in the federation have more autonomy than others. However, the histories of countries vary. One federal system of a country can be different from that of another country. The Republic of India is federal, comprising individual states. The central (federal) government of India has authority over the states and even has the authority to change the boundaries of the states.

It can be seen that the Indian federal system has strong centralizing tendencies where the federal government remains intact but the physical existence of states can be modified. In contrast, the federal system in the United States of American (USA) is characterized as indestructible union of indestructible states. This means the states in America are intact and the federal government does not make any alteration in the states as is the case in India.

The often asked question is what type of a federal system South Sudan should adopt. Well, people may need to understand that there is no particular federal system unique to South Sudan that can be copied. People will have to agree on the type of a federal system that will address what is seen as the problem of governance in South Sudan. The main problem is equitable power and wealth sharing, and equitable development. To address the problem, a federation should first be defined for people to be clear of what a federation entails.

Many people will tend to agree that a federation is characterized by a union of partially self-governing states united by a central (federal) government as in India or in the USA. It is so simple, isn’t it? However, the devil is in the details. The federal model in India may be unattractive because South Sudan has been virtually under a centralized system that is abhorrent hence the loud demand for a federal system.

In contrast, the USA federal model may be of too much independence to the states when, for example, one state allows capital punishment while the other doesn’t. For South Sudan a balance has to be struck. People may need to look at the Switzerland or German federal model which may be of interest to study. However, cut and paste may not work but adaptation to the felt needs in South Sudan may not be a bad idea.


The concerned Jieng community elders have made a giant leap for federal system to be adopted in South Sudan. This is an encouraging move that should be appreciated by any fair-minded individual. Unlike those who only care for their stomachs, and kith and kins, the Jieng elders have shown that leading from the front is necessary at times for a better South Sudan.

One reservation, though, is about the proposal for 23 states in the federation. The proposal is an economic nightmare particularly in the short term. However, it may be appropriate in the long term when economic growth is picking up at a higher rate but it should also be the prerogative of each state in consultation with the central government either to break up into more states or not. For now let’s stick to 10 states federation as the most convenient for a start.

In conclusion, adoption of a federal system of government is the only way forward in building a strong united and prosperous South Sudan where no single ethnic group, no single region and no single individual will be supreme in grossly mismanaging the affairs of the nation. Federalism as the utilization of diversities to the maximum will likely accelerate development and this, hopefully, will turn South Sudan into a paradise on earth for all as living standards improve tremendously.

Launching the people’s front to oppose the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly in South Sudan!


“Last Wednesday, I made a well-attended rally in Juba in which I blasted both Kiir and Machar including IGAD.” Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule offered as he outlined his Blueprint for South Sudan. He was protesting the deliberate exclusion by Kiir, Machar and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa of the masses of South Sudan in effectively contributing towards a solution to the bloodbath instigated by Kiir and Machar’s dysfunctional and genocidal so-called Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) cum Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) in all its variations!

The grassroots rallies Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule addresses in Juba serve multiple purposes including empowering the suffering masses of South Sudan to take control of the agenda for South Sudan. As a brilliant lawyer, he is fully aware that the masses of South Sudan have more constitutional authority than Kiir, Machar or their murderous SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly!

The rallies also serve the purpose of ushering in actual democracy in South Sudan where aspirants to the highest office in the land utilize persuasion, not gangland style murderous shoot-outs that are the conserve of a criminal organization such as the SPLM cum SPLA.

Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule is a principled and zealous advocate for the rule of law. He is also a fearless and articulate voice for the suffering masses of South Sudan – the only voice that is capable of conveying the true wishes of the masses of South Sudan without being intimidated by all of Kiir, Machar and their debased so-called liberation movement.

That is why the people’s front is demanding that his attendance at the Addis Ababa Peace Talks be a requirement for the talks to continue. Failure to include the people’s Lawyer and Politician in the Addis Ababa Peace Talks and continuing to stay silent about the barbaric manner in which the deranged faction of the SPLM oligopoly in government prevented him from boarding the Addis Ababa bound Ethiopian Airlines charter flight to the bogus peace talks will be viewed by the people’s front as confirmation that IGAD is colluding with the murderous oligopoly!

Politics: UDF chief blocked from traveling to Addis talks

Cheers for Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon & Boos for Salvatore Kiir Mayardit!

Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule wants the masses of South Sudan and not Kiir, Machar or their adulterated so-called liberation movement to map the way forward for South Sudan from the bloody crossroads their oligopoly has brought the country to!

After all, in the democracy the rampageous Titans and their cohorts are swanking back and forth, it is the masses of South Sudan who hold the constitutional “Trump Card” and not the regressed oligopoly that continues to exude its intentions to force itself on the masses of South Sudan under IGAD’s incompetent watch!

I am particularly referring to Kiir “leeching” onto his murderous presidency by abusing a plebiscite and calling it a so-called “democratic presidential election”, Machar promulgating a combating front as a democratic movement while disregarding the egalitarianism urged in “Riek Machar, adopt Nuer egalitarianism as your manifesto & watch your popularity skyrocket!” and IGAD showing shoddy signs of rewarding the SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly’s violence by turning over South Sudan back to the criminal organization in any of its variations.

Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule’s vision and Blueprint for getting South Sudan out of the lawless chaos the SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly is responsible for in the country is consistent with actual democracy which the masses of South Sudan are demanding forthwith.

A government of the people, by the people, for the people, not the murderous and crooked version being vaunted by the lurid Titans and their cohorts. The people’s front concurs with Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule and submits that the masses of South Sudan are the ones that should be at the helm, not Kiir, Machar or their besmirched and impugn-able so-called liberation movement!

IGAD must listen to the masses if it wants to redeem itself from the haphazard job it has done to date. The “glorified mobsters” of South Sudan who masquerade as so-called leaders are hell bent on exterminating anyone perceived as a threat to their “criminal cartel” that is why they are unfit to govern in this day and age of democracy and civilization!

The anarchists have made South Sudan into a diabolic country where organized crime is condoned and even encouraged by a sitting government that is why their debauchery must be stopped.

The Jieng’s vile plan to ethnically cleanse Equatoria

“My problems don’t seem to end at all” Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule had begun as he alerted the people’s front to a sinister plot by Kiir and his cronies, to exterminate the cream of the crop of South Sudan’s Equatoria region, starting with Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule himself.

According to a very ripe and tested South Sudan grapevine, Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule was already on Kiir’s Equatoria “hit list” even before the barbaric manner in which Kiir’s security operatives stopped him from attending the South Sudan peace talks in Addis Ababa and IGAD refused to protest the savagery.

Politics: UDF chief blocked from traveling to Addis talks

Cheers for Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon & Boos for Salvatore Kiir Mayardit!

However, his stern rebuke of Kiir, Machar and IGAD at a well-attended rally in Juba must have infuriated Kiir and his cronies so much that they quickly hurtled him to the top of the Equatoria “hit list” above the three Governors of Equatoria, namely Governor Joseph Bangasi Bakosoro of Western Equatoria State, Governor Clement Wani Konga of Central Equatoria State and Governor Louise Lobong of Eastern Equatoria State.

According to the ripe and well tested South Sudan grapevine, the quaternary of Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule, Governor Joseph Bangasi Bakosoro of Western Equatoria State, Governor Clement Wani Konga of Central Equatoria State and Governor Louise Lobong of Eastern Equatoria State were principals of Kiir’s secret plan to exterminate Equatorians because of their open declaration of support for a federal system of government that is being demanded by the masses of South Sudan and the influence they wield over the masses!

In the case of Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule, it is also his unwavering resolve to be a voice for the suffering masses of South Sudan, his undaunted stand against the SPLM cum SPLA bullies and his extraordinary ability to articulate a democratic federal system of government of the people, by the people, for the people which will be sculpted at the grassroots level.

Justice Peter Sule on a legal and grassroots solution for South Sudan

Justice Peter Sule on a legal & grassroots solution for South Sudan

Upon learning of Kiir’s Equatoria “hit list”, advocates from the people’s front felt compelled to actualize the “African spring”, an unprecedented social movement that will utilize people and brain power not “gun power” to change the tide in Africa, beginning with South Sudan!

They petitioned the United Nations Mission in South Sudan as representatives of the United Nations Security Council, to protect Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule and avert another Kiir initiated genocide immediately. Troika countries were included in the petition as prominent friends of South Sudan.

The time-honoured United Nations Security Council through its mission in South Sudan took the necessary steps to investigate the imminent crime. The world organization continues to gather evidence for an astronomical case against the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly in South Sudan, a probe which in the people’s opinion invalidates the inclusion of the oligopoly in a caretaker government or government of national unity!

The immediate objective of the people’s front is to lend a voice to the suffering masses of South Sudan in all the 64 tribes of South Sudan who are being silenced by the armed and dangerous SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly.

A second objective is to advocate for the effective protection of innocent civilians from all the tribes of South Sudan against the callousness that brought about the current melee in South Sudan.

Law experts says S Sudan government has ‘no will, no capacity’ to investigate atrocities

Senior US official endorses law group’s recommendation

Who says that the suffering masses of South Sudan have to go along with the twisted version of democracy being forced on them by all of Kiir, Machar and their dysfunctional and genocidal so-called Sudan People’s Liberation Movement cum Sudan People’s Liberation Army?

Who says that the suffering masses of South Sudan cannot pursue a criminal case against the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly in South Sudan themselves?

Who says that they need permission from a gang of murderous bullies masquerading as freedom fighters to hold their own synchronous discussions about what they want?

Who says that the suffering masses of South Sudan need permission from a dysfunctional Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa to appeal to the United Nations Security Council directly?

The masses of South Sudan have friends in high places and power which is being actualized with this launch. They can exercise their inherent right to a secure South Sudan by joining the people’s front and rallying the United Nations Security Council and the entire world behind them because they are the political bosses of South Sudan not Kiir, Machar or their genocidal oligopoly.

As South Africa’s revered global icon Nelson Mandela used to shout, Amandla (Power)! The oppressed people of South Africa would respond “Awethu” (to us)! The people’s front now borrows that same slogan by shouting “Power to the People”!

Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule has a larger than life vision for a very secure, law abiding, highly developed and peaceful South Sudan where the agenda is controlled and directed by the masses from the ground up, not a criminal oligopoly planning to continue looting the country and short changing the masses.

In his Blueprint for South Sudan, he has articulated a federal system of government that is well put together by the masses and not the misinterpreted, misrepresented and misappropriated version that is being used as an excuse to bully, threaten and murder Equatorians.

Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule has a program for the masses of South Sudan that will protect the interests of all including the warmongering Nuer and Dinka tribes. It is a program that will be owned by the masses not a bunch of offenders flaunting a depraved form of democracy.

The program includes federalism but not the barbaric and “psychotic” interpretation that is being used by Kiir and his cronies for threatening and slaying the masses of South Sudan.

The people’s front recognizes Machar’s redeemable qualities but it wishes to register profound disappointment in his failure to require that the masses of South Sudan and not his oligopoly map the way forward for the country beginning with a caretaker government and then a government of national unity.

It is a stand that would have guaranteed him a place in history that is currently being occupied by only Nelson Mandela, South Africa’s revered son. It might even have garnered Machar enough votes to win a properly constituted democratically elected presidency the way it did Nelson Mandela!

It would be the authentic democracy articulated by Equatoria’s gallant son Ladu Gore in “Solution oriented conversations with Lieutenant General Ladu Gore” which seems to have now been abandoned by his SPLM cum SPLA in opposition boss Machar. The one that the masses of South Sudan and the entire world would have celebrated Machar for if he had embraced the flat, non-hierarchical structure urged in “Riek Machar, adopt Nuer egalitarianism as your manifesto & watch your popularity skyrocket!” because that is what democracy looks like.

Solution oriented conversations with Lt-Gen. Alfred Ladu Gore

To Dr. Machar: Adopt Nuer egalitarianism as your manifesto & watch your popularity skyrocket!

As their Big Brother and Protector, the masses of South Sudan might have forgiven Machar for his role in the bloodbath that has made their lives a living hell on earth and even plea bargained on his behalf for the International Criminal Court to consider him wresting South Sudan from Kiir’s genocidal claws as mitigating circumstances in their impeding case against the SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly for crimes against humanity.

The suffering masses might have looked the other way the way Kenyans did when they gave Uhuru Kenyatta a nod by electing him as President of Kenya despite the dark cloud waffling over him because of the case against him by the International Criminal Court.

The Prosecutor v. Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta

The suffering masses of South Sudan might have seen the light at the end of a very dark and long tunnel at last. They might have successfully wished away the dark cloud that has hovered over present day South Sudan for decades and even centuries, extending back to the archaic days of the Ottoman Empire where present day South Sudan was a hub for the vile Trans-Atlantic African Slave Trade!

As things stand now, IGAD might wheedle the genocidal SPLM oligopoly into a power sharing deal that rewards their genocide and ignores what the masses of South Sudan want or Machar could easily shoot and murder his way to the presidency of South Sudan but that will be a “power grab”, not the heroic mandate the masses of South Sudan might have given him if he had advocated for the exclusion of his oligopoly in all its variations in a caretaker government and government of national unity.

It would be far from the “knight in shining armour” grand entrance Machar would have made if he limited his initial role after the carnage his oligopoly set off in South Sudan to that of Big Brother and Protector of South Sudan’s masses from Kiir’s murderous bullies, criminal and uncouth private army!

Simply stated, barbaric so-called leaders who openly condone armed robbery even if it is a demented cultural practice have no business leading a civilized South Sudan or any country for that matter.

However, notwithstanding all of the above, Machar can still make an extraordinary “U Turn.” He can still avoid being accused of the same “dictatorial tendencies” he purports to be fighting in Kiir by effectively allying with the masses of South Sudan.

That means that the masses decide what needs to happen in South Sudan going forward and the SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly follows their lead because of the fact that in the democracy Machar is vocalizing, the masses of South Sudan have more constitutional authority than him, Kiir or their oligopoly.

Presidential guards accused of involvement in armed robberies in Juba

For all intents and purposes, South Sudan’s so-called liberation movement has substantially locked out the masses of South Sudan from the peace talks in Addis Ababa and IGAD is condoning their bullying by continuing to relegate the masses to the sidelines in the major decisions respecting a caretaker government and a government of national unity.

The SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly in South Sudan has guns to the heads of the masses of South Sudan which makes the IGAD led peace talks immoral at best. The oligopoly has locked their bosses, the masses of South Sudan out and it is forcing them to look in at gunpoint as they plot to divide their “spoils of war” and “stolen loot” with IGAD’s connivance.

The total and shameful disregard for what the masses of South Sudan want has necessitated the formation of the people’s front, a third front to the ruckus the reckless SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly has caused.

The front is being dubbed the people’s front because it is a “loose coalition” of people determined to challenge the SPLM cum SPLA monopoly and abuse in South Sudan. It is an advocacy group that will push for the masses of South Sudan to have substantial input into the country they want and not just go along with what a self centered genocidal oligopoly wants.

Other than speedy cessation of hostilities and an even speedier formation of a trustworthy non-genocidal and unquestionably impartial caretaker government, nothing is more important than dispelling the half-baked and ignorant inference that federalism in South Sudan demands stripping Jieng (Dinka) of their rights as citizens of South Sudan.

Kiir and his cronies have set South Sudan on fire and a mere debate about federalism has added fuel to flames that are rising so high it will require the entire global community to rally behind the masses of South Sudan in wresting the country from the claws of the violent and unreasonable SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly.

Kudos to Jacob K. Lupai and Elhag Paul for daring to provoke no holds barred discussions about the differences between the calls for federalism in South Sudan by Equatoria and Riek Machar (Jacob K. Lupai) and the callousness and dysfunction that has existed in the SPLM/A since its inception (Elhag Paul) because the people of South Sudan must have a full discussion about the good, the bad, the evil and the counterfeit as they relate to federalism for South Sudan and the good, the bad and the evil about a so-called liberation movement.

Difference between Equatoria & Riek Machar call for federalism in South Sudan

SPLM, a curse to South Sudan

The world community has commissioned IGAD to get the SPLM in government and SPLM in opposition or whatever the corrosive oligopoly calls itself to desist from committing genocide against the defenseless masses of South Sudan.

However that mandate is not a carte blanche to collude with the murderers by handing over the country back to them! It is not free rein to scheme with the so-called liberators of South Sudan so that the criminal gang can be re-imposed on the anguished masses of South Sudan. T

he oligopoly needs to be brought to book for crimes against humanity not rewarded by IGAD for violence and their homicidal culture.

The felonious oligopoly has a twisted understanding of the difference between freedom fighters, mercenaries and a criminal gang and its members need to decide which of the three their organization is because it cannot be all of the above simultaneously!

Actual freedom fighters do not expect to be paid or rewarded for their principled stand against injustice.

Mercenaries expect to be remunerated for their services but they understand that they cannot just help themselves to a country’s coffers or make hare-brained statements like “we are born to rule over you” and “we liberated you so we can do with you as we wish” without being “kicked in the arse”.

Criminals on the other hand understand that their dark “underworld” is constantly under surveillance and when they are caught, they are “kicked in the arse”.

If IGAD is unable to discern that the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly operates by the rules of the military and it needs to be “commanded” to stop fighting and not negotiated with, the organization should consult with John Kerry who as a former military officer understood that the oligopoly would obey his orders as a superior and successfully “ordered” Kiir and Machar to sign a cessation of hostilities agreement between the two of them on May 9, 2014.

Otherwise IGAD should relinquish its role to the eminent persons proposed in the letter dated June 19, 2014 addressed to Mr Barack Hussein Obama, President of the United States of America, the Rt. Honourable David Cameron MP, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Ms. Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Norway copied to Ms Kosazana Dalamini Zuma, President of African Union as well as the Chairman of IGAD asking for their urgent intervention in the South Sudan carnage.

Time for actual solutions for South Sudan: Replace IGAD with eminent persons at once!

Letter from Diaspora ambassadors dated June 19, 2014

As the purported IGAD led peace talks reopen after being shut down because of IGAD’s incompetence, the masses of South Sudan will be watching very closely while reserving the right to pursue legal action for negligence.

“Slapping together” a lousy so-called government of national unity that constitutes the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly in any of its variations to meet a deadline after squandering time and refusing to listen to the wishes of the masses of South Sudan is aiding and abetting a crime against humanity! IGAD will have blood on its hands if it insists on “patching up” the genocidal SPLM cum SPLA oligopoly and handing over South Sudan to the criminal ring!

Treating South Sudan and its rich resources like proceeds of war and stolen goods to be divided among the SPLM cum SPLA criminals while the wishes of the victims of the crime who are the suffering masses of South Sudan are ignored by all of Kiir, Machar and IGAD is culpable.

If IGAD didn’t ignore the masses of South Sudan, it would discern that the most immediate item on their minds is to use all legal means possible to force Kiir to step down from his failed presidency so that a more competent and civilized leader or leaders recommended by the masses of South Sudan can take control of South Sudan immediately.

With the categorical failure of IGAD to restore peace in South Sudan, the buck must now be passed onto the United Nations Security Council notwithstanding resumption of the so-called peace talks.

What the world body does to stop Kiir from continuing to murder the masses of South Sudan so that a select group of his Dinka tribe and their foreign co-conspirators can continue to wreak havoc in South Sudan and plunder the country’s rich oil and mineral resources to their covetous hearts’ content will prove once and for all if the United Nations has the wherewithal to do what it was created to do, maintaining international peace and security and protecting civilians from being murdered in cold blood.

The suffering masses of South Sudan will prevail over the bloody guns and rise to become models for the rest of Africa. As President Barack Obama proclaimed during his presidential campaign, “Yes we can!”

Coming soon: Conversations with Lawyer and Politician Peter Sule about a Blueprint for South Sudan

Margaret Akulia is co-author of the sequel Idi Amin: Hero or Villain? His son Jaffar Amin and other people speak. She brings to the South Sudan dialogue a multidisciplinary professional background including but not limited to “grassroots activism”.

Additional information at: AND

Proposed Federal system for future South Sudan: Part 6 – Bill of Rights in Federal South Sudan


Bill of Rights in Federal South Sudan: First part


Part 6 of this series focuses on part of the Bill of Rights in a proposed Federal system in South Sudan. This includes right to life, equality and freedom from discrimination, human dignity, right to have a family, language and culture, freedom of movement and residence, right to privacy, protection right and property, freedom and security of the person, slavery, servitude and forced labour, labour relations, right to clean environment, economic, social and consumer rights, right to fair administrative action and freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion.

The Bill of Rights is deemed as the fundamental framework for social, economic and cultural policies and thus forms an integral part of federal democratic South Sudan. This is because human rights and fundamental freedoms of the people must not only be recognized but also protected by enshrining these principles into the federal and state constitutions. The aim is to preserve the dignity of individuals and communities in addition to promoting social justice and the realization of the potential of all human beings.

Therefore, these rights and fundamental freedoms belong to each individual and are not granted by the federal or state governments. They do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms that may not be in the Bill of Rights but are recognized or conferred by law or traditions. However, some of these rights and fundamental freedoms may be subject to limitations when they are inconsistent with state laws enacted in accordance with the principle of separation of powers between the federal and state powers. The purpose here is to prevent anybody trying to violate state laws by evoking the federal laws to override state laws. Pursuant to this, the states shall always enact laws that strive to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms consistent with the federal laws.

Any bill of Rights enacted by the federal constitution shall apply to all laws and binds all federal organs and all persons. This means every person is entitled to enjoy the rights and fundamental freedoms as enshrined in the bill of rights. As result the courts whether at federal or states levels should apply the provisions in the bill of rights in way that should not infringe the right or fundamental freedoms on individuals or the communities in South Sudan. The courts must interpret laws in ways that most favour the enforcement of a right or fundamental freedoms. The interpretation of the bill of rights shall aim at promoting the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality, equity and freedom.

In order for the federal and state authorities guarantee these rights and fundamental freedoms in the country, these institutions shall avail resources aimed at prioritizing the rights and fundamental freedoms. This is to ensure widest possible enjoyment of the right or fundamental freedoms by all, including the vulnerable groups in the country. On the other hand, the courts or tribunal or other authority shall be deemed to not interfere with a decision by a federal or State organ concerning the allocation of available resources for protection of the rights and fundamental freedoms, solely on the basis that these resources will not meet the objectives for which they are intended.

Having outlined the principles of the proposed bill of right, it is important to look in details the rights and fundamental freedoms that shall be enshrined in the bill of right of South Sudan federal constitution. These should include the following:
1. Right to life
2. Equality and freedom from discrimination
3. Human dignity
4. Right to have a family
5. Language and culture
6. Freedom of movement and residence
7. Right to privacy
8. Protection right and property
9. Freedom and security of the person
10. Slavery, servitude and forced labour
11. Labour relations
12. Right to clean environment
13. Economic, social and consumer rights
14. Right to fair administrative action
15. Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion
16. Freedom of expression
17. Freedom of the media
18. Right to access to information
19. Freedom of association, assembly, demonstration, picketing and petition
20. Political rights
21. Right to access justice and rights of arrested persons
22. Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned
23. Right to fair hearing
24. Specific application to rights such as children, persons with disabilities, youth, minorities, marginalized and other members of society.

Right to life
Every person has the right to life and life begins at conception. This means abortion should not be allowed unless under medical consideration or when there is need for emergency treatment or when the life of the mother is in danger. No person shall be deprived of life except sanctioned by federal or state laws following conviction by competent court.

Equality and freedom from discrimination
It must be stated that every person is equal before the law. He/she has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law. Equality means having full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms. Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres. Nobody shall be discriminated directly or indirectly on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth. On the other hand, no person shall discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated above.

In order to guarantee these rights federal and state assemblies shall enact laws and other measures designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination. This should include affirmative action programs. These measures should adequately provide for any benefits to the needs of the people or communities.

Human dignity
It is crucial that the law recognizes that every person has inherent dignity. He/she has the right to have that dignity respected and protected.

Right to have a family
Every adult has the right to marry a person of the opposite sex based on free consent of the parties. This is because family is a natural and fundamental unit of society. It is the basis of social order, and therefore shall enjoy the recognition and protection of federal and state authorities. Adults that have consented to marriage shall be entitled to equal rights at the time of the marriage, during the marriage and at the dissolution of the marriage. Laws enacted to recognize marriage shall also recognize marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law. This can also include any system of personal and family law provided that such marriages or systems of law are consistent with federal or state constitutions.

Language and culture
Language and culture are fundamental elements in social development and integration because they create the diversity that typifies the unity of a country. Therefore, the bill of rights shall enshrine the fact every person has the right to use his/her language and has the right to participate in the cultural life of the person’s choice. A person belonging to a cultural or linguistic community has the right, with other members of that community to enjoy the person’s culture and use the person’s language. He/she can form, join and maintain cultural and linguistic associations and other organs of civil society. He/she likewise shall not compel another person to perform, observe or undergo any cultural practice or rite.

Freedom of movement and residence
Every person has the right to freedom of movement. Every person has the right to leave and enter, remain in and reside in any state of the Federal Republic of South Sudan. The right to freedom of movement and residence within South Sudan and within any state of South Sudan is important for the citizen to have the freedom of choice provided that this choice is not inconsistent with the laws of the state to which a person would like to move or reside. In such cases the laws of the state regulating free movement and residence take precedence over the federal law. The aim of compliance with state laws is to mitigate the rampant tendencies of land grabbing, trying to impose behaviours that are inconsistent with the norms of the hosting state and ensure that nobody is above the laws of the state that he/she has decided to move to, settle or work in.

Right to privacy
To protect the privacy of the individual, the constitution shall ensure that every person has the right to privacy. This includes the right not to have the person, home or property searched, property or possessions seized, information relating to their family or private affairs unnecessarily required or revealed and privacy of their communications infringed.

Protection of right to property
In Federal Republic of South Sudan, every person shall have the right, either individually or in association with others, to acquire and own property of any description in any part of Republic provided acquisition of such property is based on the laws of the state regulating transaction in such property. The purpose here is to ensure legal acquisition of property, transparency and to avoid any conflict with the federal laws. Nobody shall evoke any laws other than that of the state to fraudulently acquire property.
On the other hand the federal or state parliament shall not enact a law that permits the federal or state government or any person to arbitrarily deprive a person of property of any description or of any interest in, or right over. On the contrary, the state parliament shall enact a law depriving any person, property or interest in, or right in property because:
a) Such property was fraudulently acquired
b) Land or property is public property
c) Land or property requires prompt payment or compensation
d) Land or property has pending court case
The Federal government shall support, promote and protect the intellectual property rights of the people. However this shall not include property found to have been unlawfully acquired.

Freedom and security of a person
Personal security is the responsibility of the government and therefore in federal South Sudan, every person shall have the right to freedom and security. This includes the right not to be deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause, detained without trial, except during a state of emergency. No person shall be subjected to any form of violence from either public or private sources. No person shall also be subjected to torture in any manner, whether physical or psychological or subjected to corporal punishment, treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner.

Slavery, servitude and forced labour and labour relations
In federal South Sudan, nobody person shall be held in slavery or servitude. A person shall not be required to perform forced labour. However, every person shall have the right to fair labour practices. This includes:
a) Fair remuneration
b) Reasonable working conditions
c) Form, join or participate in the activities and programs of a trade union except federal army and federal security organs
d) Go on strike.
On the other hand all employers shall have their rights in accordance to the law. They will have rights to form and join an employers’ organization and to participate in the activities and programs of an employers’ organization. Meanwhile every trade union and every employer’s organization shall have the right to determine its own administration, programs and activities, organize and form and join a federation. The trade union, employers’ organization and employer shall have the right to engage in collective bargaining.

Right to clean environment
Protection of the environment is essential for the present and future generation and therefore in a federal South Sudan, every person shall have the right to a clean and healthy environment by ensuring that the environment shall be protected for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures such as:
a) Sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources
b) Work to achieve and maintain minimum tree cover
c) Protect intellectual property
d) Protect genetic resources and biodiversity
e) Prevent activities that endanger the environment
f) Utilize the environment and natural resources for benefit of all
g) Ensure that every one has the obligations relating to the environment

Economic, social and consumer rights
The economic and social status of the people usually underscores the prosperity and posterity of a nation. Therefore to ensure that the people of South Sudan enjoy the high economic and social status, federal South Sudan shall ensure that the every person shall have the following rights:
a) Highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to health care services
b) Accessible and adequate housing, and to reasonable standards of sanitation
c) Free from hunger, and to have adequate food of acceptable quality
d) Clean and safe water in adequate quantities
e) Social security
f) Education
Failure to guarantee these basic rights has characterized the current regime in Juba. This is because of rampant corruption; poor planning, failed leadership and inability to prioritize the peoples’ needs. In addition every person shall not be denied emergency medical treatment.
The right of the consumers shall also be recognized and protected. These include the right to:
a) Goods and services of reasonable quality
b) Information necessary for them to gain full benefit from goods and services
c) Protection of their health, safety, and economic interests
d) Compensation for loss or injury arising from defects in goods or services.

Right to fair administrative actions
Any administrative actions taken by authority, employer or any person responsible to others may have adverse effect on the person and so every person has a right to administrative action that is expeditious, efficient, lawful, reasonable and procedurally fair. If a right or fundamental freedoms of a person has been or is likely to be adversely affected by administrative action, the person has the right to be given written reasons for the action. Laws shall be enacted to provide for the review of administrative action by a court or if appropriate, an independent and impartial tribunal so as to promote efficient administration.

Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion
The above mentioned freedoms are considered cardinal if South Sudan is to leap away from the current state of dictatorship to achieve equality and tolerance. Many countries have plunged into chaos because of intolerance to different opinions, beliefs and religion and currently the same seeds are being planted in South Sudan. In order to nip this mushrooming cancer in the bud, in federal South Sudan every person shall have the right to:
a) Freedom of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion.
b) Manifest individually or in community with others, in public or in private, any religion or belief
c) Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion through worship, practice, teaching or observance, including observance of a day of worship.
No person shall be denied access to any institution, employment or facility, or the enjoyment of any right because of the person’s belief or religion. In addition no person shall be compelled to act or engage in any act that is contrary to the person’s belief or religion.

Freedom of expression
Under federal South Sudan, freedom of expression shall be guaranteed to all except in situations that are now allowed by federal law. Therefore every person shall enjoy the freedom to seek, receive or impart information or ideas, freedom of artistic creativity; academic freedom and freedom of scientific research. However, an article shall be inserted in the federal constitution that shall make the following a federal offense:
• Incitement of violence
• Ethnic incitement
• Vilification and incitement to cause harm
• Propaganda for war
• Discrimination
• Advocacy for hatred
It is stipulated that when exercising the right to freedom of expression, every person shall respect the rights and reputation of others. This is important for peaceful coexistence and harmony in the country.

In conclusion, the aim of the bill of rights and fundamental freedoms is to accord South Sudanese self steam, confidence and guarantee that the federal authorities are there to serve them but not to oppress, suppress, subjugate and exploit them. It is further to provide the necessary atmosphere d for them to enjoy their rights and fundamental freedoms, live in harmony with one another and participate freely in building the country. The rest of the bill of right will be described in part 7 of these series. These will include freedom media, right to access information, freedom of association, assembly, demonstration, picketing and petition, political rights, right to access justice, rights of arrested and detained persons, right of persons held in custody, right fair hearing and specific application to rights such as children, persons with disabilities, youth, minorities, marginalized and other members of the society. The role of the South Sudan human right Commission will also be dealt with in the next article

Sindani Sebit
Nairobi; Kenya.

Riek Machar & the rebels are not ready for peace

BY: Peter Mayom, USA, JUL/28/2014, SSN;

“Peace is not absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle the conflict by peaceful means,” Ronald Reagan.

With world’s attention turned to war between Israel Defense Forces and Hamas and the fight between Russian-backed separatists and Ukraine government, which subsequently led to the downing of Malaysian passenger airplane, South Sudan’s peace talk will now be put on the back burner. The focus is on brokering ceasefire in the Middle East and the shooting down of Malaysian passenger plane in Ukraine.

As the rest of the world deals with these new crises, it is time for Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to stop facilitating, encouraging, and sponsoring Riek Machar’s futile regional tours.

Two months ago he was flown to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to sign ceasefire and to commit to formation of transitional government within 60 days with President Salva Kiir. However, Riek Machar has forgotten the reason why IGAD or AU brought him to the Ethiopian capital.

Instead of devoting his time to peace negotiations, he and his top lieutenants are busy winning and dining at some of the finest restaurants or hotels in the region while his followers, Nuer peasants, are battling the elements and starving in South Sudan.

Five months in the bushes would make anyone crave for delicacies long-left in Juba after the war broke out. Living like kings, enjoying modern amenities, and shaking hands with leaders of the region alone would not help the people currently crammed in the UNMISS camps in South Sudan or refugees lacking basic needs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda.

Machar needs to recall the condition he was in two months prior to his arrival in Addis Ababa, which I think was still a luxurious one compared to the living conditions of his fighters.

He must think about the children dying right now fighting his useless war and has to be serious about bringing this conflict to an end.

Not mindful of the situation he left his rebel forces in when he flew to Addis Ababa, Machar has done everything except making peace a first priority. Right after he signed and later violated the ceasefire with President Salva Kiir, he visited Nairobi, Kenya to meet Uhuru Kenyatta.

Then he took off for South Africa to hold talks with Jacob Juma. And not long after that he went to Djibouti.

He alleges that his visits are meant to educate the leaders of those countries on the genesis of the war and how to bring about a long-lasting peace to South Sudan.

Well, let Machar be reminded that peace will not come to South Sudan while he and his group are occupied with telling foreign leaders how bad Salva Kiir’s government is and what these leaders can do to make him step down as president. He and his group need to stay put in Addis Ababa and negotiate peaceful settlement to this conflict.

The visits Machar made to the above mentioned countries have no any bearing on the peace negotiation process. While he was in Djibouti, he was given tours of Djibouti River port, fiber optic and telecommunications systems, according to Sudan tribune.

Other then getting inspired by the advancements in Djibouti and mentally escaping temporarily the enormity of the war he is fighting, how are his regional tours helping people who are facing death from hunger and diseases due to lack of access to food and medicines, respectively, because of war?

They (tours) are of no significance at all. He should be ashamed of himself talking about construction of oil pipeline and exporting oil through Djibouti while his people are dying.

The rebels’ leader has to stop the campaign, tours, and devote time to peace negotiations in Addis Ababa. He should know that African leaders are desensitized by wars and the leaders he talks to would not tell him that he is fighting a senseless war.

He must know that there are also economics and political interests in wars. For that reason, some of these leaders would want to cozy up to him in case he wins the war or becomes the country’s president.

Our country cannot afford this wait-and-see games; it needs peace. Moreover, those mediating the peace are getting paid handsome money. It is sad to say but true, the longer these negotiations go on the better for their pockets.

This is not to negate that IGAD or AU does want to see the war stop. Nevertheless, the burden rests completely on the shoulders of South Sudan’s leaders to end this war. There are no winners in it because we lost and still are losing innocent people who were not party to the genesis of this conflict.

And if Riek Machar still believes he can win this war militarily and install himself president, then he is completely delusional and should seek help before it is too late. He has failed to get rid of Salva Kiir and must give peace a chance.

South Sudan’s civilians living in deplorable conditions in UNMISS and refugees camps deserve peace and they need it now. There are times when individuals who consider themselves leaders rise above their personal interests and work for the good of the masses. This is one of those times.

It is a known fact that Riek Machar wanted to get even with Salva Kiir after he ran away from Juba. That was the reason he mobilized his tribesmen. He surely would have liked to run Kiir out of Juba the way he ran him off.

But that dream was long dashed months ago. What is attainable and at his disposal is to work on bringing peace back to the country and alleviate the suffering of his people.

Is Riek Machar really ready to negotiate peace? The answer is no. He is not there in Addis Ababa to bring peaceful settlement to the conflict.

Here are some of the reasons why I believe he is not ready for peace. Right after he was happily airlifted out of South Sudan, he has been busy creating, doing and calling for things that are most likely to prolong the conflict.

His formation of the so-called “National Committees” is an indication that Machar is not there for a quick solution to the conflict. He is preparing the rebel movement for a long haul. There is no need for these committees if he is willing to hurriedly end the war.

It is understood that “An empty mind is a devil’s workshop”. The leader of the rebels is probably afraid of the proverbial devil and it could be the reason why he is creating the committees because he does not want his elite rebels to saunter the streets of Eastern Africa capitals.

Insistence on the withdrawal of Uganda People’s defense Force (UPDF) tells us that rebels are not yet there to negotiate peace. They want to try again going to Juba after UPDF withdrawal. Signing peace and withdrawing UPDF are totally irrelevant.

The call for federalism at this moment is another reason I believe Machar and the rebels are intentionally trying to delay peace. Federalism is being used as one of the obstacles to peace negotiation process.

The once orphaned and now rebels’ leader-adopted kid called “federalism” did not cause this suffering of our people. He knows really well he is not fighting because of lack of federal system. When he was in the government for eight years, Machar did not do anything to advance the case for federalism.

Why is he calling for federalism now?
First, he wants to get support from Greater Equatoria region, which at least voiced the need for federalism before the war started. He knows the government has the propensity for knee-jerk reaction.

The calculation is that should the government start detaining, prosecuting, muzzling or killing the Equatorians calling for federalism, mass rebellion would ignite in the heart of the government.

The rebels’ leader needs to read the tea leaves. Those scenarios and the joining of his movement en masse by those calling for federalism are not going to happen.

Greater Equatoria does not want to see its cities brought down to ashes as the rebels’ movement has done to Greater Upper Nile region. It will peacefully make its case for that system.

One thing was learned from the rebels after they took control of towns in the Upper Nile region. They do not have respect for national infrastructures or properties.

If they could destroy, ransack or loot their own towns, those whose towns where not reached by the rebels can only imagine what they would have done to their towns had the war gone beyond the Upper Nile region.

Riek Machar and rebels’ intention is to see the whole of South Sudan engulfed in flame. The uprising rebels want to see in Equatoria will not be good for Equatoria and all Equatorians must shun it.

Debate about federalism should not be denounced. There is always going to be the “forbidden fruit” craving. When the government seems to restrict talks about federalism, the more people have the urge to talk about federalism.

And if there continues to be incidents like the one that happened in Maridi County, the government will continue to see the already lower political stocks plummet.

However, before debating federalism, we need to have peace in South Sudan. Whether or not to have federalism in the country is second to stopping the bloodshed taking place right now.

It is my belief that anyone who has not taken up arms and who insists that an endorsement or acceptance of federalism by the government at this time must be a prerequisite to ending the war is a rebel.

The demand for federalism by the rebels is a cheap political maneuver to drag out the war and no one should fall for it. First thing first, let the war end. Then we can talk about federalism.

There are law-makers in the Parliament who represent all sections of South Sudan. They must be part of and parcel to this debate about the system of government.

Federalism is not and will not be the solution to South Sudan’s problems. War didn’t break out in Juba because Riek Machar wanted to have federalism implemented but Kiir refused.

Let’s not deceive ourselves that ushering in federalism will produce an economic mobility in the country. The gap between the haves and the have nots will predictably stay the same no matter what the system is.

What is needed is a political will by the leaders in the country to put people first. Putting the system on paper is not going to change anything as long as the leaders want to seemingly show to the ordinary people that they are extraordinary.

The system the country has now needs to be tinkered with. Presidential powers must be shrunken. For example, the power to remove or appoint governors must be taken away from the president. All states should be allowed to carry out the powers enumerated in the Transitional Constitution.

Proponents of federalism who think that adopting it (federalism) alone will accelerate development and lead to equitable distribution of resources are hallucinating.

Federalism coupled with creation of more states, as Machar and his group propose, would not stop the select few from pocketing the oil money as they did since the signing of CPA. More states would definitely balloon the already huge government’s payroll. And it will be just another recipe for division of the country already divided tribally.

China has 1.3 billion people with only 34 provincial-level administrative units, which are working just fine. The USA, which midwifed South Sudan’s independence, has over 300 million people with 50 states and it is the envy of the world. The notion that creating more states will solve South Sudan’s problem is false.

The campaigns or so-called “charm offensives” Machar is pursuing are self-serving. He knows the atrocities committed by the rebels are going to implicate him. Therefore, he is lobbying the leaders of the region who would work behind-the-scenes to help him avoid going to the International Criminal Court.

Telling people that he is there to explain the genesis of the problem to those leaders he visits with is a pure lie. Knowing very well that he got away with the 1991 Bor Massacre, Machar would be a damn fool if he does not put up some fight diplomatically. And it is the reason why his schedule is loaded with plans to meet African leaders. I would be surprised if he does not take his campaigns to the West.

As I said before, what is needed now is a complete stop to the senseless war. To have federalism or not ought to be debated after guns are silent. The child soldiers dying as we speak do not deserve to die. They want peace and they want it fast.

Prolonging the war will make it difficult to achieve peace. Here are things that will likely happen if peaceful settlement to the conflict is not achieved in short time.

First, the rebel movement could disintegrate into several factions, which will likely turn against themselves.

Second, the mistrust among the rebels’ commanders living lavishly in hotels in Addis Ababa and those in the trenches will start to grow if the war lasts for long. As a result, the ones in the trenches might not honor the agreement even if peace agreement is reached. And that will create militias for South Sudan to deal with long after this conflict comes to an end. Sudan would be there to nurture the militias.

Third, Sudan will start creeping into the disputed areas because it knows South Sudan is a divided house. And sadly, Abyei issue will be shelved for good.

Both government and rebels’ negotiators, this coming round, have to be serious about bringing this war to a halt. How, what and who started the war are of no use at this time.

What the country is longing for is peace. No introduction of new conditions such as federalism and creation of more states are needed to be discussed in order to return the country to normalcy. END

Federal decentralization versus dictatorial centralization in South Sudan

By: Lul Gatkuoth Gatluakn, Minnesota, USA, JUL/27/2014, SN;

The debate over federalism to be adopted as the system of the governance in South Sudan and dictatorial centralization, has generated excitation in the country’s political spectrum. Many South Sudanese politicians had excessively overused jargon accusations which could cause malapropism to the word “federalism” among ordinary citizens.

When Dr. Riek came out of South Sudan in the first week of May, following the United States and the United Nations’ pressure to involve high profile leaders in the stagnant peace talks in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, Riek brought with him the idea of adopting federal system, as the basis of ruling South Sudan once peace prevailed.

As soon as Dr. Riek revealed his intention to push for federalism, some politicians including James Wani Igga, the current vice president, threw it as rubbish, and denied the fact that federalism demand is Dr. Riek making and pointing at Nyakuron cultural center as a base of federal demand origination out of Equatorian convention.

The country’s vice president openly reacted and opposed the federalism proposal. A demand he previously agreed to support in 2010 before independence.

In his reaction, Wani cautioned his fellow Equatorians against buying the concept as majority of equatorians have seen that Dr. Riek idea on federation: will rescue them from others’ domination. In his own words quoted by Sudantribune news outlet, James Wani stated “this federation here is not the creation of Riek, we all know that Riek actually stole this renewed call for federalism in this Hall here—Nyakuron—during Equatorian consultative conference like this.”

On the other hand, President Salva Kiir has also reacted swiftly that, “it was not Riek Machar who tabled the quest of federation, federal system was what Southern Sudan demanded from North Sudan during Juba conference in 1947.” He further acknowledged, “South Sudanese politicians also asked for federalism in 1955 in Torit and 1963 during a meeting in Khartoum.”

Salva Kiir was somehow right when he said South Sudanese demanded federalism in above mentioned occasions and he is wrong that federation is meant only between North and South excluding our internal administration in awaiting. Then, James Wani is wrong when he said Riek did not start the demand of federalism.

Below are the historical facts in regard of what Southern Sudanese people wanted and whether Dr. Riek previously demanded federalism or is he just borrowing it out of Equatorian convention.

But first, one must highlight our forebearers’ historical demands before dipping and plunging into this current featuring debate.

Initially, during Sudanese nationalism, which developed to oppose to British indirect rule and advocated for a centralized national government that would be responsible for both North and South in the period of 1920-1947, (similar to what Salva Kiir is demanding at the moment), after Arab nationalists perceived British policy toward Southern Sudan as a tactical agenda that dividing Sudan and preventing its unification under an Arabized and Islamized State.

Southerners at that particular period, weren’t prepared for a statehood loyalty. Their loyalties laid or accustomed to a traditional way of life, which is cultivating the soil or grazing their herds of cattle. They were overwhelmingly illiterate and not aware of any changing world around them and how it is passing through.

Due to the lack of political consciousness or experiences, a conference of 1946 was convened in Khartoum without participation of any single southern Sudanese. Thank to British officials in the South who argued that—–another conference must be called, which will include Southern Sudanese. This culminated into the historical Juba conference of June 12-13, 1947. In that conference, thirteen Southern Sudanese delegates included herein Clement Mboro, Both Diu Thong, James Tambura, Philemon Majiok among others, had reacted by demanding a federal system of governance opposing centralization system.

When British had finally decided to give up its colonization and its stand for Southern Sudan, it drastically allowed referendum consultation. This turned into open hostility after the results of the Sudanization were announced, given the fact that, the whole process was favoring northern Sudanese interest or aspiration.

In this regard, political active southerners —–call a meeting again in Juba on October 1954 to discuss the political future of the Sudan as a whole, and the political future of Southern Sudan within the Sudan.

In their deliberations, southerners agreed they must vote for independence Sudan from condominium partners, but on a condition that a federal system for the entire country is adopted, and southern Sudan must have its own autonomy. If this demand does not prevail, the region must opt for the rights of self-determination.

Apparently, northerners reviewed this call as a tactical demand by Southerners to secure full independence within the preceded independence process of the whole country. Then, they responded by rapidly increasing the number of northerners in the South as administrators, senior officers in the army and police, teachers in government schools, and as merchants.

Such an action brought fear to southern Sudanese that Arabs had declared themselves as new colonial masters and this increased the mistrust that resulted into the disturbance of August 18, 1955 in Torit, when members of the Equatorian army unit refused to be transferred to Khartoum.

In preference, the soldiers have done what the army supposed to be doing beforehand and later deserted to bushes of southern Sudan under two grievances i.e. the demands of “federalism and independence South Sudan.”

The rebellion stunned the northern Sudanese impatient for independence, and the twenty-two southern Sudanese members of the parliament at that time became unwilling to agree to a declaration of independence which would perpetuate Northern control over the country. They stuck on the demand of federal system, as a form of the government that the country could adopt in governing itself.

Southern politicians proposed this ideology as a way of protecting southern provinces from being completely subordinated to a northern dominated central government. Ideologically in their intention, they were in a mood that, if northerners refused this demand, all southern members of the parliament should vote against independence.

On the other hand, Northern politicians were ironically left for nothing other than hastily consented to consider a federal solution for the Sudan. That pledge won the hearts of southern representatives and dissuaded them to vote for an independent Sudan on December 19, 1955 which led to the declaration of independence on January 1, 1956.

Moreover, the debate over southern Sudan issue resurfaced again ignited by students, teachers, ordinary workers and other professional staffs in 1964 followed by round table conference in 1965. Southern Sudanese political groups were pushing for the same two objectives. For instance, William Deng Nhial who represented Sudan African National Union (SANU) inside the country, was campaigning for federal system in the united Sudan.

Clement Mboro, Darius Bashir and Both Diu Thong also insiders aimed for federalism, and then SANU in exile represented by Elia Lupe, Rv. Fr. Saturnino Ohure, Joseph Oduho, and Aggrey Jaden among others were advocating for a complete independence for southern Sudan.

Then, in 1972 when the historic negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) was opened on February 16, 1972 in Addis Ababa at Hilton Hotel with the blessing of his majesty Emperor Haile Selassie on the fundamental understanding that the talks were to produce a plan for regional autonomy within a united Sudan, not the separate State as originally demanded by SSLM, many southerners opposed the move despite the fact that their interest laid on separation and forming a federal democratic State.

This by far became the reason why those who were not satisfied with the deal returned to bush as early as 1975 under the command of Vincent Kuany Latjor.

By 1981-2, the High Executive Council mismanagement of self-autonomous Southern Sudan affairs reached to the point where majority of Southern Sudanese especially Equatorians were dissatisfied. Under such failure, wealth, political positions, among other grievances were not equitably sha

red. This led to the claim of decentralization or division of power equally which is where Bari speaking word “Kokora” find its root in South Sudanese political system.

This claim coincided with the northerners’ decision to abrogate or get rid of the Addis Ababa Agreement by opposing a single Southern Sudan region, the secular constitution, self-autonomy for the south, English language usage, and the security arrangements; which gave southern Sudanese an equal role just as northerners.

Based on such action, Southern Sudanese rebelled and slipped to bushes of Southern Sudan which was spearheaded by Kerubino Kuanyin Bol on May 16, 1983 in Bor and Pochalla and William Nyuon Bany on June 6, 1983 in Ayod and Waat respectively.

Following the Ayod, Bor, Pochalla and Waat uprisings, many Southern Sudanese leaders start moving to Ethiopia to establish a rebellion aiming to solve the problem of Sudan one and for all. The new movement must include former 1975 and 1983 mutineers. However, the situation were soon turned in different angle when different ideologies regarding the objective of the movement emerged.

One group wanted to fight for independence South Sudan and another one wanted to fight to liberate the whole country and replace the old Sudan with the new Sudan within the context of united Sudan under socialist system that afford democracy and human rights to all nationalist and guarantee freedom to all religious believes and cultures.

This ideology became foreign to Southern Sudanese whether in government or in the rebel held areas. Unfortunately, the strangeness of the United Sudan objective, trigger the 1991 internal division.

The split brought about by the dissatisfaction of the movement’s misguiding objective, absence of democratic principle, human rights abuses and lack of a decent strategy among the leadership.

When Dr. John Garang realized the genuineness of Southern Sudanese quest for self-determination and democratization, he called 1994 first SPLM Convention in Chukudum to resolve the grievances rised by the Nasir group and later incorporated all the demands into the movement policies.

From there, the rights to self-determination had become a solid objective and some sort of democratic debates start rooting. While those grievances were being pushed to be adopted in the movement, in many occasions, southern Sudanese slowly sought each other in terms of reuniting their forces.

Hence, on February 5-6, 2002 in Nairobi Kenya, Southerners became one again through a deal that was christened Nairobi declaration marking the end of 1991 quest for objective and internal institutional democratization.

After the reunification of all Southern Sudanese Factions besides remaining forces that formed alliances with the north, the move coincided with the international community rising to pressure Sudanese warring parties, to come to negotiating table and debate peace.

As the result, the first peace talks among Sudanese was opened at Karen Nairobi on May 2-5, 2002 under able, energetic, persevering lieutenant general Lazarus Sumbeiywo as Kenya special envoy for IGAD peace process toward Sudan. The second session took place on June 18, 2002 at Machakos Kenya. After a month of intense negotiations, the machakos conference ended on July 20, 2002 with a signing of self-determination document.

It was a landmark agreement where the Sudanese government and the SPLM/A agreed that the right to self-determination will be settled by a referendum after six years interim period. During the heady atmosphere at Machakos, the three critical issues brought on the table, predicated on extensive sharing of power, wealth, security arrangement and the establishment of asymmetrical federal system, with the government of Southern Sudan to exist as buffer between the central government and southern Sudan.

In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was finalized, as a good clean document emphasis good governance in Southern Sudan, democracy, institutional transformation and reconstruction of southern Sudan under federal structured system.

In the beginning of the interim period, both government of national unity (GONU) and government of southern Sudan (GOSS) were formed. In the government of southern Sudan, all functions of the federal system were put in place. On top of these functions has been the establishment of the institution of presidency, Southern Sudan council of ministers, southern Sudan legislative assembly, the judiciary of southern Sudan (Supreme Court and courts of appeal) and southern Sudan States’ governors, States’ council of ministers and legislative assemblies.

According to the structure, counties in ten Southern Sudan States will be led by commissioners, Payams and Bomas/Bumas administrations will be run by administrators, who will be appointed locally in their respective areas. Then, the newly adopted constitution of the southern Sudan (ICSS) provides the framework for assigning governmental powers and decision-making that included protecting of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Bill of Rights.

It also outlined fundamental objectives and guiding principles for the GOSS related to citizenship, the decentralization system of governance, the judicial system, independent institutions and commissions, local government and finally economic functioning governance.

Based on the above structure, south Sudanese began to hope that democratic system where public servants should enter political arena through adult franchise is rooting. However, that turned out not to be the case.

Kiir turned the country around and began ruling the nation by the so-called presidential decrees. He can appoint, order court persecution, and most of all fire elected public servants. That kind of practice is picked up by governors to appoint individuals who are loyal to them. Commissioners as well appoint close aids or relatives to available jobs or send them to training which will later result into their employment once they return.

Federal functioning practices where leaders can be elected by ordinary citizens is absent and the whole system became a big mess or an ultimate nightmare. Citizens particularly journalists are daily harassed, censored and even killed. Dictatorship, corruption, nepotism, tribalism and brutalization has engulfed the country. Ordinary folks are only expressing dismay given the fact that none is for them and the bread is for elite.

To reverse and correct the trend and how Salva Kiir is running the country, many political players particularly in Equatoria region, setup public gatherings in 2011-14 aiming to discuss system of governance or how South Sudan as a nation should adopt and rule itself.

Majority of Equatorians since the dawn of CPA negotiation, started to debate on how sustainable peace will be implemented throughout post-conflict Sudan. Many of them believe during the war time, they have been driven out from their homes or faced with economic and political oppression under the SPLA occupation.

Therefore, they wanted a government by and for the people where accountability and transparency transcended. However, when people start talking too much about democracy, federalism or multi-partism, Salva Kiir is always seen as very reluctant in allowing such a change.

He is only interesting in centralizations where wealth of the country concentrated on him and his chosen few that is why he had driven the country to war and adamantly stated if anything touched his position, war is eminent and it is the only solution.

His worry is dwelling only on keeping the power not on solving the suffering or the flight of the people.

As the world is tirelessly engaging on finding a solution to stop the spilling the blood of South Sudanese, they must know beyond the reasonable doubt that—-Salva Kiir is the only problem—who perpetrated and implanted the hatred among South Sudanese tribes, who almost coexist and mutually live side by side.

He has proven to be a pure dictator who does not know how to share power with different organs of the government. In that regard, he will not bring back the trust South Sudanese started building during the interim period.

The only person who will bring mutual understanding is Dr. Riek Machar who is a natural democratic oriented person. James Wani was wrong when he said “Riek borrowed the idea of federalism out of Equatorian convention,” for the reason that, when Dr. Riek signed the political Charter with Khartoum on April 10, 1996, he was aiming to resolve the conflict in the Sudan through peaceful and political means.

He has recognized that during the interim period, a constitution will be developed to form the relations between the South and north. Such relations shall be based on federalism and this type of federal structure have to be built on the values of participatory democracy, so that the people of then Southern Sudan can behave and act freely without any sort of intimidation or fear of blackmailing.

This is the idea he has carrying all along and not just borrowing it yesterday. This writer hope James Wani, Salva Kiir and all their likes, had now satisfied Dr. Riek meant democracy in all its functionalities.

The proposal of 11 more States plus Abyei…God willing, is an indication of federal model similar to American federalism. This kind of leader needs to be given a chance to pave the way so that South Sudan has to be ruled under constitutional supremacy.

It will be a country where the president, governor and/or commissioner will only appoint their cabinet members. All civil and public servants starting from president, governors, commissioners and members of the parliament in both national and State governments, in addition to Payams and Bomas administrators, must be elected and rule for a short specified time frame else one has a potentiality to convince people to bring him/her back to power.

Sycophancy, nepotism, and loyalty will stop. Members of the media outlets, will not be censored or killed. Wealth will be shared and businesses will start booming. Life in that given occasion will start going back to normalcy.

Creating a transitional government under Salva Kiir, the country will not be a democratic State. It will be a country similar to that of Russia under Stalin, Germany under Hitler, Cambodia under Pol Pot, Uganda under Idi Amin Dada or Museveni, just to mention only a few.

This is the reason why we are eager to remove him from the leadership of South Sudan. Had it not been for his increasing dictatorship tendency, the country would not have been driven to war.

One strongly believe that the unity of South Sudanese will be restored when Salva Kiir is out of way. That is when our society will enjoy a democracy which will freely allow them to speak, to publish and most importantly, the freedom to criticize the government.

Although freedom of expression is enshrined in our current constitution, yet, it’s just symbolic, we need a remarkable/workable federal system that will honor the freedom of the press. The freedom of expression can be found almost in every nation constitutions, but only few countries such as the United States that guarantees the freedom of expression as the people and the government are dedicated in making the ideal come true.

In conclusion, as we are debating trying to find ways of how our country should be governed, we ought to avoid unnecessary collaborations. There might be people among us who had and will choose sides before analyzing and correctly identify the cause of the problem.

If that would be the case, one would like to illustrate and educate such people that, accordance with the SPLM party constitution, every five years period leadership of the party has to expire and the party must convene a national convention to either reinstall its serving leaders or elect new leaders, that made Dr. Riek, Pagan and Rebecca Nyandeng a room to challenge the incumbent party chairperson.

Is that a crime which can cause the war? If it is a crime, only in South Sudan it might be seen. Had the leader called the convention and allowed democratic voting manner, Dr. Riek would not drag the country to war.

Promptly, leadership failure and lack of vision from the country’s top seat dragged us into this mess. Had the leader of our nation chose democratic principle, the blood of our citizens that is spilling daily, would have been prevented.

Ruling the country on iron fist rarely succeed in today’s world. National unity that is imposed on people through dictatorial tendency or spurious nationalism will never work. It will only promote disunity and ultimate disintegration of the country.

No one in their right mind or senses will force the medieval behaviors like centralization of power on people. National unity is a voluntary coming together of diverse people and regions based on fair equitable sharing of power and wealth, imposing it will stir the people to dissatisfaction and anger.

IGAD and its partners must bear in mind majority of South Sudanese are longing for a federal republic State that excludes Salva Kiir since he already had shown oddness to it. Once he steps aside, the country will be at peace and national healing will soon follow.

Very respectfully,
Lul Gatkuoth Gatluak
The author is a political commentator who have written several articles on both Sudan and South Sudan, he is also a member of the SPLM-In Opposition in the State of Minnesota, he could be reach via or (651) 500-7397

The Jieng’s vile plan to ethnically cleanse Equatoria


When a liar is caught in the act, their first reaction is ‘denial.’ They would protest their innocence. If the case is pressed harder they will then begin to crack. At the end lies are always exposed because lying by its very nature has no foundation to sustain itself. Unlike truth which remains constant, solid and unassailable.

President Kiir and his advocates have resorted to denying their evil plan to ethnically cleanse Equatorians because they have been caught red-handed. They are now calling their evil plan ‘assassination rumours.’

But the question is: rumours by whom? If these are rumours, why has the government not come out publicly to dispel the story and set up an Inquiry?

Again if the evil plan to ethnically cleanse Equatorians was an ‘assassination rumour’ why did General Paul Molong Awan, the chief of the army specifically disarm the Equatorian members of the armed forces? Why did General Awan deploy Jieng militia under the cover of SPLA to all the three states of Greater Equatoria? What was the rational? Can somebody tell us please?

If people can learn from the contemporary conflict in the country, the South Sudanese would do well to remember that it was the attempted disarmament of the Nuer on 15th December 2013 that set the prelude to the Nuer ethnic cleansing.

If this was the case, could the act of disarming Equatorians in the armed forces itself be clear evidence that something fishy was afoot? SPLA is repeating the same pattern of behaviour towards the Equatorians now as they did towards the Nuer prior to 15th December 2013. Why this behaviour?

Equatorians should not buy the story of ‘assassination rumours.’ The evidence points to the existence of such a vile plan. Thus, Equatorians must not lower their guard and allow themselves to be taken by surprise in the future.

The Jieng are now reported to be angry because of these ‘assassination rumours.’ In addition, the Jieng leaders are vigorously complaining that they are being provoked by Equatoria’s call for federalism. Surely, something is not right here.

How can Equatoria’s demand for federalism amount to provocation? The Jieng need to explain this most bizarre and irrational assertion.

Why should a political right of the Equatorians enshrined in the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 amount to provocation?

Part 1, Article 1 of the mentioned instrument grants all peoples including Equatorians the right to organise themselves in the way they like. Why is it a problem to the Jieng? Who are the Jieng to decide on Equatoria’s choice? Why do the Jieng feel free to bully people of other ethnicities?

It is important that all the people of South Sudan realise that we are all equal and nobody including the Jieng is better or above the others.

So, if the Jieng do not like federalism, they simply need to argue their case to win. If they win through argument that would be fair and square, but not to intimidate, bully and kill people as in Maridi in the mistaken believe that they will dissuade people from federalism.

Throwing tantrums like spoilt brats is juvenile and unacceptable.

Equatorians should not back down from their rightful demand for federalism. They are the first people to call for federalism in independent South Sudan in their conference held in Nyakouran in mid April 2011.

Equatorians consistently pioneered federalism in independent South Sudan and it would be a disaster for them not to follow it through regardless of what the Jieng do.

The importance of this is to assert the fact that all South Sudanese are equal and nobody must be allowed to intimidate others. South Sudanese fought to obtain this right from Khartoum. Therefore no South Sudanese must accept this kind of abuse.

This is a principle that people died for and it can not be conceded simply because somebody does not like it for no credible reason or anger.

Appeasing the Jieng will only feed into the stereotype that Equatorians are cowards and slaves, but it would set a precedent which psychologically will always make Equatorians insecure and undetermined.

Further, the Jieng are spreading rumours that Equatorians are preparing to attack and evict them from Equatoria. To back this wild unfounded allegation, General Paul Molong Awan has put the Jieng militia in SPLA uniform on standby supposedly to protect the Jieng.

This is the grandmother of all lies constructed by the Council of Jieng Elders. How could Equatorians attack the Jieng when they have no arms and their sons and daughters in the army are already disarmed.

The reality is that the placement of the Jieng militia on standby was supposed to carry out their vile plan of ethnic cleansing.

Killing other people is something that the Jieng leaders seem to routinely do without any thought of consequences. This is because the system (Dinkocracy) is blatantly Jieng-centred and totally irresponsive to Jieng crimes.

They think if they kill their supposed or perceived enemies their problems will go away. This is a bizarre state of mind.

Rational people always think in terms of cause and effect, this does not seem to be happening in South Sudan. Why is that?

For example, in mid December 2013, the Jieng set out to ethnically cleanse the Nuer without weighing the repercussions that would follow. As a result, the Nuer reacted with a lightening speed which scared the Jieng prompting them to hire UPDF (Uganda People Defence Force) for protection.

Until when will the UPDF be able to protect them? Do you see the irrational and pathological behaviour of President Kiir and his Council of Jieng Elders?

In relation to Equatoria, the Jieng have gotten comfortable with killing them. Dr John Garang using predatory tactics carefully and systematically eliminated prominent Equatorians to the extent that he decapitated the Equatorian body politic psychologically.

For example, early on at the inception of SPLM/SPLA, prominent Equatorians like Joseph Kabulo, Justin Keri etc were brutally murdered. Others like late Colonel Martin Kejivura were basically detained for years without charge and eventually murdered.

Those who joined the SPLM were brainwashed to accept being nobodies. The worst case scenario relates to the current Vice President James Wani Igga.

During Dr Garang’s era, Wani often on seeing Garang would grin widely and start singing Baba ja! Tindikili! Baba Ja! Tindikili inflating the ego of the ‘born to rule.’ Literally, Wani was (competing with Dr Garang’s children for recognition and attention) and this reduced him to the status of a puppet.

Under President Kiir now, Equatoria has a new bunch of grafted leaders to serve the interest of the Jieng. These so called leaders in their private hours are busy serving their masters (supposedly colleagues) with liquor.

One of them has been observed cleaning the shoes of President Kiir when liquor accidently spilled on it. The poor soul quickly jumped up and pulled his own handkerchief and started cleaning his master’s shoes akin to some scenes in slave dramas exhibiting ultimate subjugation. What a disgrace!

With the foregoing, how can the Jieng audaciously claim to be provoked or angered by the Equatorian call for federalism when they have all along been the perpetrators of atrocities and horrendous crimes against Equatorians.

If anybody would be angered it would rightly be the Equatorians as innocent victims of the system. For three decades the Jieng have been killing Equatorians with impunity. If they want to dispute this, let them come forward and the extensive list of their Equatorian victims can be published.

The latest of this Jieng killing spree are the two boys killed in Maridi a couple of weeks ago over the issue of federalism. The question that must be asked is: what gives the Jieng the right to kill others as they want without accountability?

It is therefore disturbing to find that Equatorians exercising their right of self expression in relation to their right to claim for federalism, angers the Council of Jieng Elders.

Why should the Equatorian call for it anger the Jieng? Let the Jieng tell the people of South Sudan why it is not good and not just resort to violence and abuse of power.

The Jieng must also know that the current centralised system of government they dearly love can also work against them when others are in power. Given what is going on, it is highly likely that they will lose power.

When that time comes they will regret their own foolery. With Uganda seriously re-assessing its intervention in South Sudan and with the rebellion gathering pace, the exit door is beckoning to President Kiir and the hopeless so called Council of Jieng Elders.

Whoever accedes to power will undo all that the Jieng are doing now including the dismantlement of the Dootku Beny with its leaders possibly heading to some form of courts to account for their crimes.

Paradoxically, this seems to be what the Jieng are asking for by their continued short sightedness.

Therefore, with or without federalism the Jieng are already losers in South Sudan because their behaviour repels others and coincidentally unites those others against them. The die is cast.

If there is any wisdom in the Jieng community, they should now be apologising to South Sudanese for their horrendous acts and making amends. This is not the time for them to think of committing more crimes as these amounts to grave irresponsibility on part of the Council of Jieng Elders.

Now, if the Council of Jieng Elders consisting of blood thirsty people like Salva Mathok, Albino Akol Akol, Paul Molong Awan, Aldo Ajo…. etc, are bent on implementing their vile plan of ethnic cleansing in Equatoria as evinced by the continuing disarmament of sons and daughters of Equatoria in the armed forces and the ceaseless threats from the likes of Salva Mathok, they need to know in advance that they will be doing Dr Riek Machar a favour.

Under the adage, ‘your enemy’s enemy is your friend’, the Equatorians will not need to be persuaded. They will automatically rebel and make alliance with whoever is out there and this will be the time that the Jieng will truly be brought to account for their crimes of the past three decades.

They must not think that they will get away with the murdering Equatorians if they refuse to accept a system by all for all, which would ensure justice for all as well.

In conclusion, Equatorians should not buy President Kiir’s denial of their vile plan against Equatorians because he and the Council of the Jieng Elders have not sufficiently provided convincing answers.

What they have done is to hide behind a lie and then shift more false blame that they are being provoked and angered. This is nonsense. They are the aggressors and they need to take responsibility for their obnoxious behaviour.

Further, their current actions and demands to silence Equatoria do not help anyone really nor do they assure any peaceful co-existence. Thus, Equatorians need to prepare for all eventualities in this chaotic South Sudan.

Equatorians must not collude with a system that does not help them nor does it help the Jieng or any other groups in South Sudan except the individuals in power.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]

Elhag Paul

To Bishops Lukudu & Santo: Please stop the desecration of the Catholic Church by Kiir & Igga


Whilst the nation profusely bleeds and people keep dying daily, the Holy Catholic Church in Juba seems to be in some spiritual and moral confusion by inexcusably perpetuating its insensitive policy of allowing the two habitual ‘sinners’ in the forms of president Kiir and his vice Wani Igga to continuously desecrate the Holy Catholic Church.

Every Sunday and on other holy occasions of the Catholic faith, since 2005 when they came to town, Kiir and Igga have been accorded the un-sanctified privilege to spew from the Holy pulpit what can only be classified as mendacious and un-Christian statements without any shame or compunction.

But more importantly, however, since the start of their war of genocide on December 15, 2013 when they embarked on the killing of innocent citizens which continues up to this moment, Kiir and Igga have obviously been accorded absolute impunity by our Kator Bishops to keep committing the sin of lying against the 8th Commandment, which clearly states: “THY SHALL NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS AGAINST THY NEIGHBOR.”

Every Catholic and Christian, for that matter, has been taught since childhood by our priests and bishops that this particular Commandment absolutely forbids a Catholic or any Christian from ‘telling lies’ which is an abomination against the Lord and one’s own Christian faith.

Furthermore, the Eighth commandment forbids misrepresenting the truth in our relationship with others, doing otherwise means refusal by an individual to commit oneself to moral uprightness.

The opposite, sad to say, is what the poor parishioners are exposed to every Sunday from these two leaders’ regime of duplicity, dissimulation and hypocrisy.

Unfortunately, every Holy Sunday, right from the sacred pulpits of Kator’s St. Theresa Catholic Cathedral and at St. Joseph Catholic Parish Church, either President Kiir or his vice, Igga, has been needlessly accorded the privilege to annoyingly regurgitate lies upon lies that are then widely beamed across the world via SSTV.

Personally, as a Catholic from the cradle, baptized in that Church in Juba, and amongst the first generations of Catholic children educated at Kator Catholic parish, our Italian priest in the late 50’s steadfastly ensured that we never ‘lied’ or stole even a peanut at home (then our poor parents never had any money around).

In Psalms 120:2, it’s says, “Deliver my soul, O LORD, from lying lips, and from a deceitful tongue.” Unfortunately, our two heroically popular bishops in Juba seemingly are failing to deliver and save the poor souls of those devout Church goers being lied to and deceived by Kiir and Igga every Sunday, Christmas and Easter in perpetuity.

Moreover, never in the world, not even at the Holy See at St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, has any Pope ever allowed crimes-tainted, genocide perpetrators or morally questionable Catholic and non-Christian presidents, politicians or even princes, ever step into that most Holy pulpit to commit a sin against the Eighth or any Commandments.

The problem, my most dear Bishops, is that, sincerely speaking and after hearing the speeches of those of Kiir and Igga for years, these two are the poorest motivational speakers one can ever think of.

Seriously, there is nothing ever that is inspirational or spiritual in those church speeches ever delivered by either Kiir or Igga, a sincere assessment is that all their tirades at that holy pulpit are very despairing, annoying, irritating and in most cases belligerent.

Whilst most Juba kids who attend these speeches describe Kiir as mundane, boring, confused and rumbling a lot of gibberish not completely understood, a chronically pathological liar who on many occasions promised ‘heaven on earth,’ but only to break his promises and instead brought terror and death, a true Lucifer!

On the other hand, Igga is a national disappointment whose comical and clownish theatrics especially in the church are utterly incongruous, deprecating and embarrassing but above all, boring; even children in the audience only sneeringly laugh just to please him. What a disgrace!

The point, my dear bishops, is that you and the Holy Catholic Church cannot continue being oblivious of the underlying sensitivities and emotions of your devoted church goers, who, let’s be frank here, sacrifice so much just to go to church every Sunday so as to have their down-cast spirits uplifted in the uncertain future looming and the difficulties they confront daily in the country.

Every Sunday, both Kiir and Igga un-repentantly stand before the faithful promising to do so much but deliver nothing, while the people especially your devoted church-goers are starkly faced with harassment, insecurity, hunger and anxiety whether they and their families will wake up alive the next morning.

In all fairness to both your holiness, Archbishop Paulino Lukudu Loro and Bishop Santo, and with my utmost personal respect as an unwavering Catholic faithful, I wish to reiterate my utmost commendation of the great roles you played in saving the lives and souls of Juba Southern citizens during the long war.

Undoubtedly, as individuals and men of God, your Holiness have been exemplary and well-respected personalities across the country and history most certainly will laudably vindicate the great roles and sacrifices you both made in the country’s evolution to total independence.

But, however, in the nation’s current predicament, whereby the SPLM leadership of Kiir and Igga is allowing innocent lives to be needlessly eviscerated, where everyday living has become a life-or-death struggle, South Sudanese are certainly looking at you, my holy bishops, for salvation and divine intervention.

Surely, the Catholic Church is fully cognizant of the lies, the immorality and deviousness of the Kiir-Igga regime as visibly exemplified by the stubborn refusal and callous intransigence to concede to popular national and international appeal that they step aside and allow a transitional government be formed as resolution to the political and military stalemate.

On that fateful Sunday December 15th, 2013, before Kiir-Igga conspiratorially embarked on the genocide against fellow citizens, it must be recalled that His Grace, Archbishop Paulino Lukudu himself was at president Kiir’s side during the SPLM Convention, praying for reconciliation with him at the church and at Nyakuron.

But, what happened that very shameful night? Kiir and Igga, as pathological liars, whilst publicly assuring your Holiness Archbishop Paulino Lukudu and other bishops of their willingness to peacefully and consensually resolve the internal contradictions within the mis-ruling SPLM and mis-governing GOSS and follow the rule of law, they instead unleashed their killer tribal SPLA and thousands were instantly butchered that very night.

Kiir, obviously, was totally subsumed with tribal hatred of a particular people in Juba and that can’t be tolerated from a leader pretending to be a pious Catholic for that fact, a man freely accorded a privilege he never dreamt about, that of weekly addressing the faithful at St. Theresa Catholic Cathedral, Kator.

Critically, in the aftermath of the murderous SPLA campaign, the Catholic Church at Kator became a refugee camp for the victims of Kiir-Igga’s terror and once again, Archbishop Lukudu and Bishop Santo, you exhibited your true Catholic virtues in saving and placating those poor souls now refugees once again inside their own supposedly independent country.

Psalms 31:18, reads, “Let the lying lips be put to silence.” That, my dear Bishops, is what is now required from you, as representatives of God on the land known as South Sudan nation to speedily withdraw those ‘lying lips’ and terminate the misplaced privilege accorded these two presumed power-hungry leeches the use of the holy pulpit.

This is the gist of this article from a Catholic who considers himself a life-parishioner of Kator, that your holiness MUST stop those lying lips of Kiir and Igga misusing the church for their empty and irritating rhetoric, aka, lies.

Furthermore, Your Holiness, your close association with the Kiir-Igga leadership can be rightly or wrongly presumed that you have become inadvertently involved in the realm of the dirty politics of the nation by supporting and abetting this regime, and as such, must be prepared to expect some criticism.

Of direct relevance, your Holiness can’t replicate the moral ineptitude of Pope Pius XII who despite colluding with the Hilter’s Nazis in Germany in 1939, kept his silence while the Nazi persecuted even those Jews who had converted to Christianity.

In the face of the looting, failed leadership and killings across the country and especially in Juba today where fathers and mothers are shamefully forced to doing their toilet in bottles and cans in the bedroom at night in the presence of their children during the rampant insecurity, the Catholic Church cannot remain oblivious, or at worst, complicit in this criminality.

Whilst common people are barely scratching a living, Kiir and Igga are ostentatiously riding to Kator in expensive fleets of Mercedes limousines, their wives and children living in East Africa like princes and princesses driving nothing less than a Hummer or Porche car.

Destitution is rampant, thanks to failed government of Kiir-Igga, that generations of South Sudanese children are now inevitably condemned to life of misery in perpetuity.

If Jesus Christ ever came to Juba, certainly he would do us and the South Sudan nation the honor of driving these inept, corrupt and sinful leaders from Kator and St. Joseph, just as the Lord drove those exploitative tax-men from the ‘house of His Father.’

Rightly, as reportedly circulated, one of your Catholic priests one Sunday years ago declared how some of these leaders came to Church on Sundays directly from their concubines’ beds unashamedly ‘uncleansed’ and dare to stand up to lecture to the Sunday faithful about ‘morality?….. that was deservedly a bitter statement that sent Kiir into self-imposed exile from Kator for nearly one year.

Finally, quoting again from the Holy Bible, Proverbs 12:22, “Lying lips are an abomination to the LORD: but they that deal truly are his delight.”

How can the Holy Catholic Church, your lordships, Lukudu and Santo, be a mouthpiece and platform of a regime bent on perpetuation of terror and disaster on your very parishioners?

Silently and unquestionably, the majority of those parishioners are quietly begging your Lordships, Lukudu and Santo, that your continuous propping of these two on the holy pulpits is a painful and unforgivable reminder of their aggravated agonies.

One thing is sure, my most holy bishops, is that these opportunistic and unpopular duo, Kiir and Igga have found a free avenue and are expeditiously exploiting it for their deadwood speeches.

I bet both your Holiness, that in reverse, if Kiir and Igga were the Bishops instead in your places, nobody would ever voluntarily enter their churches. Take my word!

Seriously, your Holiness, our Bishops, the question is, are these two, Kiir and Igga, really morally sanctified and exemplary, or even motivational and inspirational, to be accorded these holy pulpits to vomit their lies every Sunday, and the next, and the next….?

In conclusion, the Holy Scripture tells us in Proverbs 13:5, that “A righteous man hateth lying: but a wicked man is loathsome, and cometh to shame.”

Don’t we all hate lying and lies, especially coming from so-called leaders?

I beg for Your Forgiveness and blessing. Amen

A Failed State: Is it a true description of Lakes State?

By: Daniel Juol Nhomngek, KAMPALA, JUL/23/2014, SSN;

In this article, I will explain why I consider Lakes State to be a failed States in South Sudan. In Lakes for instance, people have completely lost trust in the government as Lakes State authorities have turned the state into a scavenges’ ground for wealth, which further turns the condition of employment akin to that of slavery and forced labour.

When greed, illiteracy and bad governance converge at a certain point, the whole country can be thrown into hell on earth. Competing interests will overrule commonsense and good judgment from authorities who instead will abuse.

Authorities that lead the nation with the desire to fulfil their personal interest will always cause downfall of the nation. Nation is created by the people and it is in the interest of the people to be served by leaders that they put in charge of that nation.

Where such leaders become liabilities to the people then they are supposed to be discarded from power and then thrown into the dustbin of history. The former president of Libya is a good example of such leaders who are thrown into dustbin of history.

Former President of Libya has now been forgotten and if people ever remember him, he is always remembered on the side of bad governance which in many cases bring with it bitter memories created by his style of leadership.

Leadership which uses ignorance of the people to its advantage is a type of leadership that must be forgotten in history. The foregoing description exactly fits Lakes State. The leadership in Lakes State is using people of Lakes State as its own slaves.

The leadership in Lakes has turned the whole State into personal assets and hold citizens in captivity, servitude, forced labour, slavery and slave trade. It should however be understood that when we talk of slave trade and slavery in this context, we are not talking about it in a conventionally way as it is understood.

Slave trade and slavery in this context should be understood in the sense that when citizens are coerced into accepting unlawful and unbearable conditions which impair the enjoyment of their human rights just for one person to reap the benefits out of the suffering, then such a situation can constitute a modern slavery and slave trade.

Looking at the definition of slavery as I have given in the above paragraph, it can easily be concluded that the government of Lakes State has subjected its citizens to slavery, servitude and slave trade because people of Lakes State no longer enjoy their economic freedom, human rights and personal liberties.

The Lakes State government has robbed its own citizens of all their rights, specifically, the right to property, life and health. It is very disappointing to see people being treated like commodities because the government’s interest in Lakes State is to ensure that people pay as much money as they can.

Hence, losing a traditional role of the government; the traditional role of the government is to protect citizens from violation of their rights while making all attempts to improve their welfare.

In Lakes State, the reverse is true. People are the ones being forced to improve the welfare of the leaders and the government. Therefore, the question becomes: who is supposed to serve who? Leaders to serve citizens or citizens to be served by the leaders?

In fact, citizens or people are supposed to be served by leaders, however, in Lakes State leadership is so much materialistic to the extent that it does not see anything good in the citizens but only seeing citizens as source of income to leadership hence making all efforts to deplete little energy that people have for their own benefits.

As a result, citizens of Lakes State are forced to work in dismal terms and conditions, which are akin to slavery. In actual sense, what the world needs to clearly understand is that Lakes State government does not have any preference for its citizens. Instead, it is making all desperate attempts to make money out of the people from nowhere, hence turning citizens into slaves within their country.

Lakes State citizens are citizens of South Sudan and must not be treated like slaves in their own country just to satisfy interest of the few cliques in the SPLM Government in Lakes State. Those few cliques in the SPLM government in Lakes State appear to use the SPLM government to achieve a certain mission and ambition.

The way leadership is ruthlessly seeking for wealth in Lakes State explains the mission I have mentioned above. The mission is to become stingy rich and in order to become rich as such; they must exploit citizens as much as they can.

Such a method of acquiring wealth through ends justifies the means is very dangerous because people suffer eternally from poverty as leaders struggle to build personal wealth and empire through practicing forced labour on citizens, hence, exploiting them to the maximum.

The government of Lakes State exploits citizens because it has lost morals. Some of its officials do not have any feeling for the poor children, orphans and war disabled. The lack of feelings for the poor and disabled is counter liberation principles and counterproductive to the SPLM vision of taking towns to people.

The way women, children, war victims, disabled and cattle keepers are suffering today in Lakes State indicates that Lakes State government has lost vision of nation building, and instead, it has become a state run on principles of self-help. This begs another question which is relevant to this discussion:

Are the people of Lakes State sacrificial lambs sacrificed for the president to please power hungry generals who do not feel ashamed even when they have failed to manage the state?

The above question reminds me the debate of whether South Sudan is a failed nation or not. the issue in this article is whether the description given on a failed state suit in the scenario of Lakes State. The ways things are in Lakes State may explain that Lakes State is a failed state.

A failed state according to Wikipedia is a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government. Furthermore, according to the Fund for Peace, which is often used to characterize a failed state with the following characteristics: loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein; erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions; inability to provide public services; inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community.

Many of the characteristics of a failed State as listed in the above paragraph such as loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein; erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions; inability to provide public services all fit in description of Lakes State.

In Lakes State, there is no rule of law, killings are order of the day, authority has lost legitimacy and respect of the people, no respect for human values, and cattle raid is rampant. Despite, the existence of all these ugly situations the major concerns of leadership is how to accumulate wealth yet the president does not take an action to save the people of Lakes State.

The reason why the President does not want to take an action in order to save people of Lakes State is that he has already formed a prejudice that people of Lakes State are not good and therefore he has sold them for the benefits of his generals.

The people of Lakes State are sold alive as slaves for the president to maintain his loyal friends in power in order to control any other rebellion in Lakes caused by the current leaders if they are removed.

Such an attitude should be of a great concern to all South Sudanese. It is a bad sign for South Sudan if all people removed from their posts in the government always rebel against the government then there is great problem in South Sudan.

The root of the suffering of the people of Lakes State is in the fear of the president to lose his generals who may rebel against the president if he removes them. Hence, leaving citizens of Lakes State in bad governance, abject poverty, lawless, unceasing killings and permanent and legalized thief carried out in daylight by some of the Lakes State authorities.

As I have already mentioned above, some of the Lakes State authorities are morally corrupted, insensitive, inconsiderate and unpatriotic. They only know how to grab resources of citizens in order to build personal mansions and wealth.

It is unthinkable! In fact, the way Lakes State authorities are seeking for wealth. It is amoral in itself. It is unthinkable and unbecoming of Lakes State authorities to legalize theft and corruption. It is sad and heart breaking to see government chosen by the people instead becoming anti-people.

How can a normal Government rob its citizens of their national wealth just to build a skyscraper and personal tombs in a place like Lakes State? In fact, in Lakes State, the governor has built a personal skyscraper and tombs in his home village, which has cost the state millions of dollars while citizens, especially the poor, widows, orphans and disabled soldiers are wallowing in miasmas of the sea of abject poverty. Is it logical? It is absolute wrong.

The whole blame goes back to the President who adamantly refuses all appeal to remove the governor and come up with the correct solution of Lakes State. Correct solution of Lakes State is neither force nor democracy but there is a need to restore rule of law and justice that has been eroded in Lakes.

The president has completely failed the people of Lakes State. Can he claim any credit from good deeds he has done to Lakes State? Of course not. Building hospitals or roads is not what people of Lakes State want. Who will use such facilities if the people in Lakes State exterminate each?

What people of Lakes need are law and order, protection of personal property, life and human dignity. These things are absent in Lakes State as things have gone from bad to worse. The blame for the occurrence of all these problems cannot be placed on citizens of Lakes State but on the President of South Sudan and the Governor of Lakes State.

What is destroying Lakes State is not that leadership in South Sudan and in particular, Lakes State is weak, but because they do not have political will to restore rule of law in Lakes State. The point is that no matter how weak the leader is, a leader cannot be weak to the extent of allowing citizens to be killed even within the towns.

The whole explanation of what is happening in Lakes State is that leadership wants to benefit at the expenses of the poor citizens of Lakes State. The government in Lakes State is both corrupt administratively and morally.

It is the type of government that loathes the rule of law since it is only through confusion created by the government itself in disregarding the rule of law where it benefits from. The lack of the respect of the rule of law by Lakes State authority is the root cause of Lakes State problems.

In order to briefly explain the point I have made above, I beg readers to digress from this topic a little. Lakes State problems are not hard to solve as many view them; they are simple and the only needs indigenous solutions because they are indigenous problems.

What makes them appear hard is the lack of political will from authorities both in Juba and Lakes State to solve them because leaders themselves have the same mind with those who create them. They have narrowed mind and the leadership without open mind is very dangerous to the nation.

As I have stated in the above paragraphs that problems of Lakes State need the solution from indigenous approach, it is important to out that the major solution to Lakes State problem is to overhaul the whole system of government, then appoint the interim government with appropriate leaders whose work is to restore the rule of law in order to get some resemblance of peace.

After that, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) should be established. The TRC is a form of transition justice which deals with restorative aspect of justice. The TRC will deal with all crimes committed in Lakes State before and after the independence of South Sudan.

The TRC will help to restore trust of Lakes State citizens in the government and brings peace among them and the respect of the rule of law and order, which are absent in Lakes State today.

As soon as the peace is restored among the people of Lakes State, the State government should institute the commission of inquiry to investigate all root causes of the problems of Lakes State before and after independence and then the State government has to act on the findings of the commission of inquiry accordingly.

After that, the cattle keepers should not be disarmed but should instead be called upon to write their own law on gun control, elopement of girls, relationship and marriages.

As soon as they have come up with the law under the guidance of advocates, the role of State Government is to adopt such a law and strictly enforce it with integrity, impartiality and honesty.

For instance, in case where such law carries a provision that sanctions a death penalty, then the role of Lakes State authorities is not to change or question it but to enforce it in accordance with its procedures as provided in it.

In addition, the payment of cows as a compensation for those killed (sometimes called apuk) should be abolished because it is one of the things that is exacerbating and aggravating crisis in Lakes. These are simple but effective solutions to Lakes State problems.

Coming back to the main topic under discussion, many people with shallow thinking have been viewing the cause of the problems in Lakes State to be guns, people, cows and tribes but none of these to my understanding is the cause of Lakes State problems.

The major cause of Lakes State problems is the failure by the government to stick to the rule of law. For instance, some of the government officials in Lakes State are in themselves worse than cattle keepers. They are cattle raiders behind law enforcement.

If one were to carry out the research in relation to what is happening Lakes State, I am sure, one of such a person’s findings would be that some of the officials in Lakes State government are complacent in Lakes State crisis.

As it has been reported several times, many of government authorities instigate tribal clashes among the people of Lakes State in order to give them a chance to negatively portray the governor and also to rob citizens of their cows in the pretext of restoring law and order.

For instance, there are many instances where some of the commissioners in Lakes State are accused of being implicit in cattle raids. Some of the Commissioners are accused as such because they do not intervene when they hear that youth have gone to raid cattle in other states or counties but as soon as the youth have come back with cows, they demand their share from youth indirectly.

They demand their share indirectly in a way that when cows are raided by youth such commissioners go on tracking down cows that were raided not because they want to return them to the true owners but with the aim of getting their shares.

Such action of conducting a raid within a raid indicates that greed has invaded Lakes State Government, which turned the government into robotic, insensitive and corrupt machinery that does not even have a heart for the citizens of Lakes State.

In other words, the government of Lakes State is being run on robbery and stealing. Insensitivity in Lakes State government has thrown the whole States into slave trade centre where human rights no longer exist.

For instance, the violation of the right to employment is order of the day in Lakes State. In the year 2013, right to employment of the employees and citizens of Lakes State was violated when the governor gave illegal orders that resulted into the suspension of more than four hundred employees with no clear reason.

However, as I discovered later, the reason for suspension of such a big number of the employees was a calculated move intended to give governor a room to get money to build his own tombs and a house in his village.

The money of the employees that were suspended by Governor was used by governor in building personal skyscraper and tombs of himself and his mother in Rumbek East. An action is a deplorable given the current conditions in Lakes State.

Apart from suspension of the employees as stated above, many individuals have been dismissed from works by the governor without any valid reasons. For instance, Military Governor Matur has disregarded the rule of law completely. He is above the law since he can dismiss any person from work at his whim as he has been doing; he dismisses a person from work without any written document detailing the reasons for such a person’s dismissal.

It is a peculiar form of dismissal. I have never come across oral dismissal of government employees in a country which claims to be governed by law. It beats the understanding of a reasonable person to see such things happening yet the President is just there watching helplessly.
The oral dismissal does not exist anywhere in all civilized nations except Lakes State which is being run on primordial principles. People without care, are they people at all? This is the true description of people of Lakes State.
The government of Lakes State is the type of the government that civilized nations with civilized people cannot accept to rule them. In fact, the President is lucky enough to have people of Lakes State who are Dinka, if they were any other tribes in South Sudan, they would have claimed and fought for their independence or for a greater autonomy.

There is no any different between problems faced by South Sudanese in Lakes State today and those that were faced by South Sudanese under Khartoum regimes from 1956-2005.

Drawing such similarity only brings tears and regrettable thoughts to one’s mind not because of having got our independence but because of having the type of the self-centred government in Lakes State today.

It is regrettable to see the government who hypocritically claimed to have fought for the liberation of the people turning around to oppress and exploit its citizens. What is happening in Lakes State today is worse than what colonial masters were doing to Africans.

At least, colonial masters had an agendum of transforming Africans whom they considered barbaric and backward. However, what is happening is Lakes State is unprecedented. It is senseless and a greed driven event. It is in actual sense like what was happening in New World or Americas during the Transatlantic Trade.

During Transatlantic Trade people were used as machines in the production of raw materials for the Whiteman. In the same way, the Lakes State government is using people of Lakes State as producing machines for benefit of the government officials starting from the governor and this is why State government is quick to suspend anybody who it deems to be contrary to its interest.

The interest of Lakes State government is not to please and serve people of Lakes State but to please the president by trying by all means to silence any dissenting voice or character in order to show to the president that he is being loved by the people of Lakes State.
For instance, the recent incidence that occurred after President Kiir visited Lakes State, and which prompted me to write this Article is of interest and needs to be known by the world.

When the President visited Lakes State in this Month (July, 2014), the Governor issued orders that all the employees of the government should go out to welcome the President who was going to land in Rumbek Airport from Juba.

However, when some of the employees in public service who were about forty out of ninety eight employees for one reason or another did not make it to the Airport to welcome the president, their salaries were cut.

The reason given for cutting their salaries was not convincing. The reason for cutting their pay as given was that they did not go out to welcome the President and by implication were considered to be against the president and the government of South Sudan. Is that a logical reason?

Nonsensical! Any country that respects the rule of law would never temper with the rights of its citizens. The human to employment is human rights and is only realized when the terms and conditions of employment are respected.

The right of employment can only be violated through lawful means described by law. There is no any rule governing the welcoming of the President. In civilized country, people have freedom to choose either to welcome the president or not.

The coming of the president should be a burden to the people as it is the case in Lakes State. In Lakes State, for instance, whenever, the president comes for a visit to Lakes State all businesses are closed and all people are forced to go out and welcome the president. I have never, in this world seen or heard of any nation going out to welcome the president.

The way governor of Lakes State treats people whenever the president comes tell exactly the understanding of the leadership by the governor of Lakes State. To the governor of Lakes, presidency is something outside people’s reach and must be worshiped like God.

It further shows that the government of Lakes State is no longer government people but the government of the president and a governor. Nonsensical! Forcing people to go out to welcome the president was done in bad faith and show the failure of the Lakes State government.

It was done in bad faith because the underlying intention was to show to the President that the people of Lakes State love him, which is repugnant. It is hypocritical, deceptive, immoral and wrong. It is contrary to the rights of South Sudanese citizens guaranteed under the 2011 Transitional Constitution.

It amounts to forced labour, slavery and slave trade, which are also prohibited by the Transitional Constitution. Article 13 (1) and (2) of the 2011 Transitional Constitution provides that slavery and slave trade in all form are prohibited and that no person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

In addition, the Transitional Constitution provides that no person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.
Forcing citizens to welcome the president tantamount to forced labour because it is not stipulated anywhere in the law of South Sudan that it is the duty of all citizens to welcome the president.

The action was only intended to please the president and tell him that people of Lakes State love him. In addition, it was only intended for the benefit of the Governor in a way that the president would be dubbed into believing that the role of the governor in Lakes State is great and it has helped to improve the image of the SPLM; hence, as a result the president keeps the governor in Lakes State indefinitely.

What the President of South Sudan and the governor of Lakes State should understand is that people of Lakes State no longer love the SPLM government although they do not have any intention to rebel against it.

Therefore, it is the waste of time by the governor of Lakes State to forge love of the people of Lakes State for the President of South Sudan. Loving the president by citizens is the act of patriotism, which is only undertaken by the people willingly and they are not forced into doing it because forcing them to love the President or the country can change the meaning of patriotism and instead becomes slavery. Such action is an attempt by a failed leadership.

Therefore, the action of the state authorities to order pay cut for forty eight public service employees is illegal and the authorities have violated the South Sudanese law. There is no law anywhere in this world, and in particular in South Sudan, that makes the failure to welcome the President illegal.

I think the logic behind the pay cut was not that they employees in public service had refused to welcome the President but it was just a pretext used by the State Authorities to get enough money to build their personal projects which have been left unfinished due to shortage of money.

The authorities’ desire to exploit citizens in Lakes State has been persistently coming to the fore. For example, in 2013, the authorities in Lakes State increased taxes in which even taxi drivers were forced to pay twenty five pounds on every taxi, which by implication increased transport costs on poor citizens of Lakes State.

In addition, the greed by Lakes State authorities has made them disregard the rule of law that governs Lakes State tax system. For instance, Lakes State governor and his deputy used to go to the Market to collect taxes themselves due to suspicion that tax collectors were cheating them.

Such greed is bad and immoral of any authority. In summary, the description of failed state as explained in this article fits the conditions of Lakes State and therefore Lakes State can be described as a failed state run by a failed government.

The Author is a Lawyer and a concern Lakes State citizen and he can be reached through the following contacts: +256783579256;

Federalism is unsuitable in South Sudan

By: John Bith Aliap, Australia, JUL/22/2014, SSN;

The Rep. of South Sudan is filled to the brim with different tribal groups. Each and every group want its tribal interest met by the government. This has often caused conflicts and violence.

In recent weeks or months, both rebels led by the sacked vice president Riek Machar and the Equatorians’ politicians have equally called for federalism, although it remains largely unknown to the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Taposa, Anyuak, Didinga, Bari, Moru, Acholi, Murle, Lotuko, Madi, Mundari, Jur Beli, Bongo, Kuku, Kakwa ….. villagers.

Is it not unwise for these politicians to copy and paste the system which is so foreign to their locals?

What are we doing with federalism now in a country where decades of war and upheaval have had an inevitable impact on education?

As I write this article, almost three-quarters of South Sudanese are unable to read or write. Can these people understand federalism? The answer is definitely no! They can’t understand federalism.

Talks of federalism are only conducted in Juba and not in the villages. Why would these politicians want federalism introduced? Do they need it only to advance their selfish individual interests?

Riek Machar – who has been salivating for presidency is now using federalism to woo the innocent Equatorians into his ugly war of interest while the Equatorians’ politicians are using federalism as a mean to evict the non-Equatorians out of Equatoria.

If this happens, where’s the nation? Will the nation not fall apart?

Unity of South Sudanese regardless of their cultural heritage is far more important than federalism. Fans of federalism have been crying loud that they need federalism to keep the Kiir-led central government at bay only to meet their Waterloo.

But who said that the federal system is the solution to South Sudanese’ problems? There’s no medicine that can solve all medical problems.

What trained doctors do is to intellectually identify a particular disease in a particular patient and then determine how to treat or cure it.

There is all evidence that South Sudan’s main disease is tribalism. We must change that first before we call for federalism.

Federalism is a structural arrangement. It doesn’t contain any substance! It is not a guarantee against all ills which are now facing the country.

If I was to fight for anything, I would not fight for just a structure!

There are democratic countries that are not governed under federalism. There are dictatorships that are governed under federal arrangements. There are poor countries that are under federal arrangements. There are rich countries that are not under federalism.

Fighting for federalism is like fighting for a bottle. Bottles can be full of water or urine! It depends on what is poured into it.

If one wants to support federalism, he/she should not say it will solve all ills in South Sudan. Those who think about federalism as an angel need to look for a different reason!

Federalism sounds ideologically attractive, but is it really practical?

If a federal system can provide clean water for people throughout the federated locations, construct tarmac roads, provide medical services to the citizens, create moral leaders, provide food to all the needy, ensure educational system that advances technology and sciences, boost agriculture, raise the standard of living, construct toilets along major roads, have a system that settles wars between one federal State and another, change tribal philosophies of life and adherence to limited horizons of reality, a mechanism of harmonizing all the federal States and eliminate oppression of minority groups, I would have no problem with it, but there is no manifesto expounding its functionality.

Have Riek Machar and the Equatorians’ politicians adequately educated and prepared all the citizens in South Sudan for federalism?

I think the majority of South Sudanese would want the above values first before we embark on political ideologies. Let these ideologies be democratic or federal.

I wait for a great politician who places priority on peoples’ needs rather than individual interests.

If federalism can produce leaders imbued with such qualities, I’ll rejoice because the ordinary South Sudanese will have been elevated to a status human dignity.

I still have a problem with how to control a federal leader who may concentrate all the power to himself/herself if he/she is armed to the teeth?

But what does the literature say about federalism? Does it say that federalism can solve ethnic conflicts as South Sudanese’ politicians would want us to believe?

In his ground breaking work on federalism, Rufus Davis argues in his book, “The Principle of Federalism”, published in 1978 by the University of California that there was no causal relationship between federalism and anything else.

The truth of the matter is that experience has been the teacher that federal system can always fail, it doesn’t promote economic growth, it doesn’t promote a greater civil liberty, it’s too expensive to maintain, it’s not highly adaptive.

In my view however, if Davis is right, then federalism could be associated with a rise in the frequency and intensity of ethnic problems.

The preponderance of scholarly works on federalism in Africa and elsewhere support Davis’ view that federalism is not consistently related to the settlement of ethnic conflicts.

Yet, South Sudanese’ politicians continue to view it as a solution to their ethnic differences. Why would these politicians advocate for a system which doesn’t seem to consistently solve ethnic conflicts?

The simplest way to determine the impact of federalism on ethnic conflict resolution is to examine what happened to such problems in federal systems in other parts of Africa.

Federalism can undoubtedly cause intensification of ethnic conflicts. The followings are the commonly identified cases of failed federalism in Africa and I would like to begin with our old united Sudan which gave birth to the present Rep. of South Sudan.

In an infamous 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement, a kind of federalism was introduced between the two Sudans – north & south. Although it may have diminished the North-South ethnic conflicts for a short period of time, it did in fact produce another ethnic conflict between the two camps, and this time with far-reaching consequences – forcing the young nation – the Rep. of South Sudan to break away.

Let’s also look at federalism in Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s federalism normally refers to the arrangements during two periods: the decade of formal federation between Eritrea and Ethiopia (1952-1962) and the period since the adoption of the Charter in 1991.

The formal federation did not solve the Eritrean problem and the form federalism took had promoted the resistance of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), the most prominent organization which claims to be representing the Oromo people.

Leaders of this organization often characterize Ethiopia’s federalism as camouflage for the rule of Tigreans. Although many Ethiopians at that time thought about federalism as a conflict management mechanism, it has not brought ethnic conflicts to an end in Ethiopia to this day.

Don’t give up yet about the demise of federalism. In Nigeria, the introduction of federalism has brought more deaths across the country than peace. The notion of “federal character” in Nigeria’s constitution as a mean of overcoming aspects of ethnic problems appears to have done more to exacerbate ethnic conflicts than solving.

Federalism in Nigeria has served only to provide a structure for the exacerbation of ethnic and regional conflicts. The creation of new states in 1966 in Nigeria based on federal arrangement had resulted to the killing of Igbo people in the North and the Biafran secession which caused untold human suffering.

And if you’re a fan of world’s history, you would agree with me that federalism opened a flood gate in the two socialist countries – the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. It prepared ideal conditions for conflicts that later on led to their disintegration into smaller countries.

The introduction of federalism in these countries promoted a common language, assisted in the creation of sub-nationalist intelligentsia, established and financed sub-national political elites and moreover, it supplied resources which these sub-national political elites could use for their legitimacy.

It put into place virtually all the building blocks that were necessary for the rise of ethnic-based movements.

Are you not yet convinced about the evils of federalism? This brief summary of the above cases is sufficient enough to show you a very consistent relationship between federalism and intensification of ethnic conflicts, confirming Davis’ view that federalism increases ethnic conflicts.

In conclusion, federalism is unsuitable in South Sudan. We have seen in numerous occasions that federalism is associated with intensification of ethnic conflicts.

The meaning attached to the word “federalism” in South Sudan is so different. It could be used by different groups to refer to many different things including “Kokora”.

If we look at the “elephant” instead of its tail or ears or trunk or leg, our understanding of what we observe may be increased.

In other words, if the people of South Sudan look at federalism as a uniting factor rather than a dividing one as it’s currently understood, then more sense can be made of the roles it plays in S. Sudanese’ politics.

John Bith Aliap holds two bachelor degrees in Social Work and Social Planning. He can be reached at