Archive for: May 2014

Democracy and Order of Peace in South Sudan

BY: Deng Lueth Yuang, CALGARY, CANADA, MAY/15/2014, SSN;

Everything we do, whether deliberate or accidental intentions, reveals that time is the essence. That is to say, time will tell if in the first place we were wrong or correct in choosing those actions.

And to refer to the famous three words from former US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (2009-2013) and former ambassador to Kenya (1999-2003), Mr. Johnnie Carson – choices have consequences.

Without doubt, we have seen, and still witnessing consequences of our two leaders’ actions in South Sudan currently. President Salva Kiir Mayardit (Army General), and former vice president-rebel-turned leader Riek Machar Teny (PhD Holder) have taken us to the days of demise of the Kingdoms of Sodom and Gomorrah (Bible – Genesis chapter 13-19) in the days of Abraham when God punished them as a retribution for their sinful society.

We are heading for unimaginable colossal destruction of young nation’s future potentials – the young generations born in the two decades civil war, and those born during these trying moments of Dinka-Nuer schism and power struggle conflict.

Not only are we now losing these precious people but also what we had built and accumulated since the war ended in 2004 through inception of Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA 2005) has just vanished beneath the surface with a blink of an eye, especially in the states of Jonglei, Upper Nile and Unity commonly referred to as Great Upper Nile Region by politicians who want to use them as political vehicle for carrying their strongholds in one truck and driving them to secure prestigious political positions in the Government of South Sudan.

I presume the Nuers and Dinkas of this vast region are agonizing over their haphazard and unfathomable behavioral conduct to wage war on their own turf rather than somewhere else or not doing it at all.

It is going to take decades plus something to rehabilitate and forget what has occurred there.

Remember the “1991 Bor Massacre”, in which Bor citizens lost about 2-3,000 lives of their loved ones especially the elderly, sick, disables, young ones, and property, took about 15 years or so to heal the wounds and start to live with trust with the culprits.

This war which has taken various dimensions of life from losing lives to property destruction will take ages for memories to pass away.

Here we are: Are we really searching for Democracy in South Sudan or what we are made to believe is tribo-political camouflage situation in the country? That is the big question!

As the title of this piece of writing suggests, it is seemingly controversial and that is what it is at least to inform and enlighten the population that has been mentally occupied with tribal outfits to fight physical or mental wars on both sides of the split.

This is because the two words constitute each other. There is no democracy or free will society of the people without order of peace in their hearts.

And without order of peace like what South Sudan is currently undergoing through, it becomes a challenge to exercise democracy at will.

But let me open up this argument a bit further so as to give you, the reader, an appetite to sharpen your critique-ness.

I am one of those who was caught down by the atrocities of the alleged coup d’etat in December last year in Juba, S.Sudan. After seeing it all, my natural instinct started to tell me that South Sudan leaders do not have their own people at heart – they kill in order to hold onto power without providing service to them.

Mind you, the leaders of the Opposition are all former cabinet ministers, advisers, and technocrats employed in some capacity to work with the president. Does it mean they were out of touch or knowledge when they were together serving the same administration?

Perhaps they were intimidated to serve the people; to develop South Sudan; to rid S. Sudan of corruption and human rights abuses; to lift the lives of young people strolling or hustling and bustling around government ministries and NGOs complexes in Juba and state headquarters to get jobs using their hard-earned certificates, and to build the infrastructure needed to spur the economic growth, social system and political dialogue?!

I am certainly not the only person on this planet to call the quest for South Sudan Democracy a farce – Quest for ‘Demo-crazy’ in South Sudan.

We as South Sudanese, are fanatically becoming crazy with our leaders, being fooled around to accept they are orchestrating ‘good’ for us and imagining they are as clean as heaven, and to accepting to spread lies to our brethren in the villages who don’t understand how politics work in the world of Western Civilization.

By the way, they say ‘politics is a dirty game’ and ‘birds of the same feathers flock together’. This story is for another day.

Anyway, I am not a political scientist or purist to go into details, but that is how I have learned from my intellectual experiences through the academic paths I have walked in this world.

South Sudan has young brilliant brains that don’t rely on ethnic and/or tribal affiliations to advance their causes and dreams, but on know-how and performance-dependent affiliations to empower the state of affairs in South Sudan.

Always in life, they say, ‘History repeats itself.’ Most of our old leaders, I am talking about those who fought liberation wars from the 1960s-2000s in the Greater Sudan, have history on their side to judge them.

If you are one of those who tracked these leaders’ performance, you will immediately realize that all are not clean as we presume to be. Their hands are tainted with the ‘bloods of the innocents’.

No one, never a single person will have to deny that fact. But in the world of Junub al Sudan, everything is possible by playing tribal/ethnic card as literary icon late Chinua Achebe once put it: ‘The history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter until the hunted, the lions, have their own story tellers.’

We will never be satisfied with reality until we the citizens with watchful eyes tell the truth.

However, good news has just come out of Addis Ababa last Friday on May 10, 2013 when our two leaders, one claimed to have been forced, signed framework for a Peace Deal in South Sudan which stands on four pillars: Transitional government, cessation of hostilities, humanitarian access, new constitution and presidential elections.

It is good news since ‘any news is good news.’ This document is good at face value. It seems to serve the aspirations of all South Sudanese. But do we know the contents. No!

There is nothing like that. I know the first two are very complex. It will somehow take 6 to 12 months to formulate their contents.

Look at what has just happened when the rebels and the government soldiers accused each other of provocation around Unity State.

For me, I could have tasked the two leaders to sign and swear to the ‘Order of Peace’ as a precondition to iron out most of their fundamental differences on the ground.

By virtue of its significance, an Order of Peace is a peace-loving nation that thrives on law and order, prosperity and understanding that human being is a sacred animal.

We deserve to live our lives in decency and trust with one another, and in the way we wish. We need unity, justice, peace and development to prevail on our land. We don’t deserve to die for useless war pitting one tribe against the other, and the war that will return status quo on to the table.

We need total freedom, just liberation from the tribal mindset to global thinking based on standard ideals and equal opportunities for all. This will enable each and every one of us to do what s/he can do best with less demand.

An Order of Peace requires us to work towards our country’s future; with our leaders in amicable ways in order to make big difference in our lives.

It needs us to work within the system in order to effect changes; not to fight wars. Who is not tired of war in South Sudan? No one, unless you are coming from another Planet, and you are one of those who has never experienced the consequences of war.

What we are now yearning for is an order of peace which will make our Constitution with its institutions strong and functional – to be free from: mediocrity, corruption from any sphere of the country, inference from any arm of the government, and to recognize human rights charter.

We need merit to prevail anywhere in South Sudan so as to bring the change the Republic of South Sudan needs.

I envision, if both Kiir Administration and the Disgruntled Groups (Riek and released alleged coup plotters) could have avoided direct confrontation (international mass media campaigns, politically demeaning statements, 14th Dec.2013 mass demonstration threats and forced disarmament of presidential guards), and hence settled for political expediency and negotiation within the SPLM systems, all of them could have gained support from international community and South Sudanese of all walks of life.

But presently, both the Regime and Opposition look very desolate. It is emphatic the ongoing peace conference in Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa will return them to the positions they were either holding previously or now craving for, and therefore nothing much will change.

The new elections are a distant thing to contend with. For instance, the president has just announced this week that the elections are to be moved to 2018 in order to allow time for transitional government to reconcile the nation!

Oh my God! What if it does not turn out to be the formidable settlement we were all looking for? I think this will take us back to square one and keep on demanding for more time.

Majority of our young nation citizens are longing for genuine greater rights although the country’s elite keep resorting to extortion, and human rights violations to assert their power and influence.

They have ensured that the unfair systems that serve their interests stay in place, even at the expense of rising insecurity and violence in Upper Nile Region, polarization and faltering democracy.

In brief, we all saw these scenarios coming but no one said we were right; but now they are saying “NO”.

As a repercussion, it is time for the young generation with brighter future to “diagnose” South Sudan current crisis, and save her from being a failed state like Somalia, DR Congo and the ilk in the region. God save the people of South Sudan!

Deng Lueth Yuang contributed to this piece. He currently lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. He has a Master’s degree in Banking and Finance, specializing in Public Financial Sector Policy, and a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from the University of Calgary. He is also the Founder and CEO of Centre for Economic & Financial Affairs (CEFA). He can be reached at for commentaries and complaints.

To Dr. Machar: Adopt Nuer egalitarianism as your manifesto & watch your popularity skyrocket!


To Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon, please espouse Nuer egalitarianism as your official manifesto for the new South Sudan and watch your popularity skyrocket locally and globally! Continue to be a champion for actual Democracy and you will automatically become the People’s hero.

That means allying with the people of South Sudan who must largely comprise of political parties, civil society and faith-based leaders in “the negotiation of a transitional government of national unity, in order to ensure broad ownership of the agreed outcomes” and gaining their consensus on the way forward for South Sudan in relation to “the permanent constitution, and any other items that concern the political future of the country and reconciliation of South Sudanese communities”, as outlined in the agreement you signed in Addis Ababa on May 9, 2014.

Your appeal for calm after Salvatore Kiir Mayardit dishonored your 2010 “gentlemen agreement” and your refusal to dignify his self-aggrandizing, reckless and uncalled for cock-a-doodle-doo “I am the president of South Sudan, and I must always remain in that position as the president. The leader of that country,” with a response during the somber occasion of signing the agreement to halt the carnage in South Sudan in Addis Ababa on May 9, 2014 distinguished you as the more superior statesman!

Machar calls for calm, commends army for restraint:


What Does the IGAD Peace Agreement Means to South Sudan?:

Transcript: Kiir and Machar speeches at South Sudan ceasefire signing:

Even though you would have offered a lucid response to Salvatore Kiir Mayardit’s attempt to “ruffle your feathers” in spite of the fact that you have effectively “clipped his wings” by forcing him as an incumbent president to negotiate with you.

Also, your self-discipline to stay silent speaks volumes about your ability to resist the temptation to be jerked into a foolish power struggle at the expense of the people of South Sudan!

You did extremely well by refusing to dignify Salvatore Kiir Mayardit’s deflated and sacrilegious “cock crowing” about being the president of the country he has desecrated with a response because as a higher-class statesman, you understood and discerned that it was a glum occasion resulting from death and destruction.

Consequently, the haughtiness Salvatore Kiir Mayardit exhibited would be out of place. That was why you earned a warm welcome in Ethiopia instead.

Dr. Machar Was Not Threatened In Addis Ababa, He Was Warmly Welcomed!

You remain tight-lipped about what transpired in Ethiopia behind “closed doors” in relation to allegedly being “blackmailed” by Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn into signing the agreement to halt the bloodbath in South Sudan as a wise statesman ought to because you understood that any “persuasion” by the Prime Minister was intended for the good of the people of South Sudan.

However, Salvatore Kiir Mayardit flippantly “broadcast” it on “hilltops” and continued to lay bare the lack of discipline that caused South Sudan to plummet into a lawless country in the first place!

You did well not to “blubber” and allege duress as Salvatore Kiir Mayardit has done because Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn’s “persuasion” was not duress but a duty to ensure that the suffering masses of South Sudan can stop being executed in cold blood!

We signed peace deal under duress, Kiir claims

The Proverb “Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall (Proverbs 16:18)” is playing itself outright before the eyes of the world and Salvatore Kiir Mayardit only has himself to blame for the looming humiliating tumble that will result from his ill advised “cock crowing” in Ethiopia and “loose talk” before an entire world that is watching the two of you very closely.

Take your caliber to an unparalleled level by trumpeting an interim government of the people, by the people, for the people which bears close resemblance to your Nuer egalitarianism after all and your popularity will skyrocket locally and globally!

Salvatore Kiir Mayardit started off the agreement to halt the massacre in South Sudan in bad faith but you don’t have to follow in his footsteps.

His are the murmurings of an undiscerning wannabe “king” who wants to impose a warped “kingdom” called South Sudan onto “subjects” who actually despise him now because of the way he morphed into a tyrant instead of remaining a “freedom fighter”!

It is obvious that Salvatore Kiir Mayardit and his cronies are completely ignorant about the fact that his so-called “democratic election” was actually a plebiscite and not a Presidential Election!

A simple explanation by an incorruptible and intelligent lawyer with the aptitude to understand that the people of South Sudan can actually “dethrone” Salvatore Kiir Mayardit from his self-styled “kingship” legally would have wiped off the smirk preceding the cock-a-doodle-doo “I am the president of South Sudan, and I must always remain in that position as the president. The leader of that country” from his face!

However, why bother continuing to sound like a “broken record” to try and explain this high-level legal detail to “deaf” ears anyway when the People now have an immediate opportunity to turn a new leaf and forge forward with an actual Democracy?

Why bother prolonging the suffering of South Sudanese by “dragging” Salvatore Kiir Mayardit through the dysfunctional judiciary and “kangaroo courts” he has instituted in South Sudan to try to “unseat him” legally when the people can now move forward without the brutality he and his cronies have meted on them for almost a decade?

Suffice it to say that despite assuming power without the correct process and mandate from the people of South Sudan, Salvatore Kiir Mayardit has grossly let down the People and abrogated his implicit duty to foster the country and prevent every South Sudanese from being harmed.

Consequently he and his supporters need to stop the absurdity of enunciating that he should serve his full presidential term because there was no such term!

The people of South Sudan have had enough mortification to last a life time. It is time for them to heal from their unfathomable wounds and recover from being a laughing-stock after enduring the humiliating high jinks of a so-called President who is clueless about the importance and workings of the United Nations system.

South Sudan President Salva Kiir told UN of acting like a parallel government JAN 20, 2014

The only reason Salvatore Kiir Mayardit continued as President of South Sudan is the tyranny that has precipitated the mass murder of South Sudanese from your Nuer tribe and his Dinka tribe but there is now an opportunity for new beginnings which you as a superior statesman should safeguard by allying with the political parties, civil society and faith-based leaders and obtaining their consensus about what the transitional government of national unity ought to be.

Salvatore Kiir Mayardit has proved that he is incapable of redeeming himself, which puts the onus on you, Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon, as a more sophisticated statesman in the harmful game of “Russian Roulette” that has severely injured the people of South Sudan and ravaged the country beyond recognition to work with the people of South Sudan in championing their aspirations for an interim government.

Such a government needs to be sanctioned by the People without intimidation.

The interim government is temporary, interventional and preparatory in nature but critical for the survival of the South Sudan you yourself risked your life for.

It will be a critical bridge between the bloodbath in which you and your cronies participated and a Democratic South Sudan that is the envy of all African countries.

It will usher in much needed healing and pave the way for resolving the six key challenges that you highlighted during the meeting you had with members of the South Sudan politburo on March 5, 2013, which included but were not limited to the rampant corruption, tribalism, economic problems, insecurity, poor international relations and the loss of vision and direction by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement that led to Salvatore Kiir Mayardit’s decision to eject you from the vice presidency of South Sudan after you attempted to offer him “constructive criticism”.

The bloodletting that has brought South Sudan to this point of utter despair has devastated individuals, communities and the country at large but the extreme injury cannot be reversed.

However, the people can try to heal only if peace is reinstated.

You can bring about that peace by continuing your call to action and the “fundamental change” that is also supported by your brother from Equatoria, Lieutenant General Ladu Gore while supporting the People’s aspirations to constitute an interim government.

Make your fight for Democracy about restitution for the devastated people of South Sudan, not you or Salvatore Kiir Mayardit and watch how high the global community exalts you.

You have already ushered in South Sudan’s much needed “truth and reconciliation” by taking full responsibility for your role in the Bor massacre of 1991 and I am confident that you will make another unprecedented “U Turn” by taking full responsibility for your role in the current bloodbath while morphing into the People’s fervent protector and defender!

Find a way to reach out to members of the White Army and the other Nuer people who are still out to avenge the senseless murder of Nuer people. Impress upon them that two wrongs don’t make a right and revenge will never bring back their loved ones but the restitution the interim government could also be tasked with might aid in the healing.

Riek Machar in tears as he admits to 1991 Bor massacres:

Ally with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan.

Protect the people of South Sudan from Salvatore Kiir Mayardit and his cronies because unlike Salvatore Kiir Mayardit, you are capable of being remorseful for your actions and making a total “U Turn”.

Above all, listen to the wise counsel of the people of South Sudan in their aspirations for an interim government.

Be open to instruction, “constructive criticism” and correction starting with the instruction and appeal by your sisters at the South Sudan Women Cry for Peace.

South Sudan Women Cry for Peace’s Position Paper on the Way Forward for South Sudan:


Justice Peter Sule on a legal & grassroots solution for South Sudan:

Solution oriented conversations with Lt-Gen. Alfred Ladu Gore:

Margaret Akulia is co-author of the sequel Idi Amin: Hero or Villain? His son Jaffar Amin and other people speak.

She brings to the South Sudan dialogue a multidisciplinary professional background including but not limited to “grassroots activism”.

Additional information at

Hardness in the formation of Transitional Government of Unity in South Sudan

By: Daniel Amum, South Sudan, MAY/13/2014, SSN;

It is easy to sign a Peace Accord on the paper but it is too difficult to implement that accord in principle. On 23 January the parties at war had signed Cessation of Hostilities, unfortunately they had violated it in the following days. On 9 May 2014, President Kiir and his sacked vice, Dr Riek signed Ceasefire Agreement but hostilities are still being experience in different locations in the South.

Probably the impossibility of implementation of the task will be upon International Community that helped in bringing the two warring leaders to the table to give birth to the baby called Ceasefire Agreement.

Will they listen to public opinion of people of South Sudan, and their suggesting of exclusion of two main protagonists in the Transitional Government?

This does not necessarily imply antagonism against them but is meant to diffuse the tension between Dinka and Nuer.

Informally, the death tolls of the loved ones that perished or slaughtered under their leadership within five months outraged the citizens of South Sudan and that picture still vivid and fresh in their memories and may need more time to disappear.

Public opinion censured the President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar for remorseless killing must not be part of Transitional Government of Unity.

In reality Nuer community see Kiir as butcher who slaughtered them in cold blood, so his remaining in presidency implies giving him more chance to finish unfinished job of elimination of Nuer.

Indeed, if the International Community failed to advice him to step down from leadership, then they should not dream about peace and stability in the South Sudan.

Also Riek Machar must not be part of Transitional Government of Unity, because Dinka see him as killer who killed them in 1991 and now.

In case the International Community insisted that two leaders should be part of new government without bold and concrete stand in this regard, then the International Community is the part of crimes committed in the South Sudan and those massacred people died in vain.

Therefore, they should not expect peaceful solution in the nascent state of the South Sudan.

Tangible solution to the problem in the South Sudan is that both Kiir and Riek should be given asylum in countries of their interests. These will cool down tribal tension between brother’s communities, and their absence will speed up the healing of the wounds they created.

Again, both party members, ring leaders involved in this baseless war should be excluded in coming up Transitional Government of Unity in case Kiir and Riek continue in chauvinism position, for sure the South Sudan will remain in gloomy.

Indeed, the truth of matter is that they must chuck up their chauvinism for the sake of just peace for our new nation.

Moreover, the mercenaries and well known corrupters, who were participants in the government of the South Sudan in previous years, must not be incorporated in the coming Government, but all parties should be included with new patriotic faces that are believed by many as authentic nationalist’s ego-centric.

The hardness in the formation of the Transitional Government of Unity is in the hands of the hardliners within the system, who will not allow the President Kiir to take sacrificial steps for welfare of nation and to ensure stability. Those parasites were people who prolong the hostility to achieve their selfish ambitions.

The hardliners will argue that the President was elected and should be allowed to complete his term in office.

Yes, he was elected but was he elected to murder his own people? Does it mean being elected gives him legitimate right to eliminate his citizens?

In civilized world the leader resigned incidentally when he saw atrocities committed under his leadership such as what occurred in Juba, and he never need people to force him to quit.

Look up this moment the President Kiir still implausible about the calamities which he ignited in Juba and wished to continue in leadership in the bleeding nation. This may be frivolous mentality.

The hardness in the formation of Transitional Government of Unity decisively laid in warrant parties, for will they really agree on modality of government and criteria to be used for selection members of their parties to participate in new government.

Some may not accept the sharing of national cake with other political parties but they want to maintain status quo.

The hardness in the formation of Transitional Government of Unity may be SPLM leadership will not accept other parties to lead the Transitional Government arguing that they are master party that liberated south from Khartoum regime.

The argument may be true, but after mess up created by SPLM in South Sudan are you not ashamed.

Nevertheless, the opposition parties may not want SPLM party to participate in new Government, for they regard it as causative agent of miserable condition in South Sudan, but do they think their aspiration will bring colorful peace in South Sudan?

The civil society has their own reservation about the formation of the Transitional Government of Unity resulting from being marginalized by SPLM leading government since inception.

The faith based community has their skepticism in related to the formation of the Transitional Government of Unity, for they were sidelined by the system, and occasional is just asked to offer prayers and their opinion is not sought in matters of concern in national issues which affected their own being.

As result of the soldiers being tribal affiliation entity instead of national army, the order given by the commander-in-chief of army will not have effect on ordinary soldiers, for they will only hearken to tribal leader commander. This will make cessation of hostility uneasy to cease quickly.

Recently Dr Riek Machar told Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemarian Desalegn and envoys on Friday 9 May that he “had no reason to bring South Sudan to war’’ this seems to be convincing and objective argument because he was forced by circumstance to wage the war against Kiir.

But now he is in position of war and many innocent lives had perished, what is his personal solution to that situation created by war? Surely just saying that President Kiir must resign for he had lost legitimate in the sight of the subjects will it solved the problem for good?

In case Kiir resigns now, what will be the next step to restore the image of bleeding nation?

Yes, Kiir had butchered his subjects in Juba and his soldiers are doing the same thing in different places in South. Definitely when people saw the President Kiir, they do remember the massacre which took place in Juba.

Therefore, if the President insists that he is still President, then the wounds he inflicted on the people will remain open and disunity will continue, and there will be no question of peace, reconciliation and tranquility in South Sudan. The best solution for him is to quit for sake of national healing.

Ironically, Dr Riek Machar, you are not trustworthy to lead the nation because your hand also is full of blood of innocent people in Bor, Bentiu and Malakal. When people see you it reminds them about destruction of properties, wild rapes and merciless killing done by your supporters, even though you were forced to fight the deadly war by intrigue imposition allegation of unsound coup by the system in Juba.

Indeed, you have lost credibility and legitimate to the leadership in the South Sudan as consequences of behavior of your loose White Army and defectors soldiers from undisciplined SPLA soldiers.

Frankly speaking it will be impossible for Riek Machar to bring White army under control because they are fighting for the cause of their people murdered in Juba and have nothing to do with political agenda Riek is struggling to achieve.

To reach to the comprehensive solution in the South, all stakeholders must be brought on board to discuss the formation of Transitional Government of Unity, in that forum all people should agreed what kind of government they wish to lead them in coming days, and I think that may bring back the spirit of brotherhood, compassionate love, forgiveness, peace and reconciliation, and then we will ensure development and progress in the South Sudan like other nations.

Who are the Ultimate Losers in South Sudan’s Conflict?


Since south Sudan gained self-ruled from the successive regimes in Khartoum, the ordinary citizens of south Sudan never enjoyed the dividends of peace for having their own government. From the interim period to the elected government in 2010, the expectations of south Sudanese of having an independent country have been mismanaged, crisis after crisis have characterized the living standard of the people of south Sudan.

From George Athor defection in Jonglei state to Olieny rebellion in upper Nile state, Yau Yau slaughtering of innocent civilians in Pibor to corruption scandals and endless rebellion in Unity state.

The people of south Sudan have no doubt been subjected to enormous hardships and challenges since the CPA was signed in Nairobi in 2005.

In 2013 leading toward 2014, hopes were beginning to show as amnesties given by the president to several rebel groups somehow bore fruits. Economic dreams were in the pipeline of realization with the investment conference having just ended and several international investors pledged to invest their money in south Sudan.

It was indeed a promising future for the people of south Sudan but even as these goodies were apparent, people of south Sudan were also oblivious of the fact that, there was a dangerous fight in the SPLM party over the control of the party leadership, the only convincing reason why many people took this lightly was because they had thought, whatever was happening in SPLM was a party politics and therefore, didn’t call for everyone’s attention especially when one is not a member of the SPLM party.

However, even with this belief, it was also imperative that SPLM was not just any political party but a ruling party that is in charge of the larger affairs of the country and this means, its successes and failures have equal impacts on the country’s future.

It is this wrangle within the party that exploded into political crisis and culminates in armed struggle in December 2013, a conflict that has killed over ten thousand people and displaced a million and more civilians.

The war has also led to destruction of properties and razed to ashes the little infrastructure that the nascent country had put in place in the last eight years. Three states in south Sudan out of ten have been completely destroyed as they changed hands several times between the rebels and government forces.

Out of these skirmishes, the tribes of south Sudan have been used against each other in pursuit of personal ambitions, although not all the 64 tribes fall into the trap laid by politicians, the Dinka and Nuers who considered themselves as customary enemies got the opportunity to expand their hatred of one another.

A lot of women, children, elderly and the youth have been massacred on both sides and the two tribes are caught in unending tribal feuds.

Before the political crisis widened, the country was already undergoing economic crisis where the government employees go for three or four months without their wages. The delays in payment do not have a suitable explanation from either ministry of finance, public service or the central bank.

All other public institutions have been starving financially and because there is no tear gas or water canon in south Sudan to break the demonstration once attempted, the government employees and civil servants have become so frighten to stage any protest and demand for their salaries or risk being shot at with life bullets.

It is because of these circumstances that the citizens of south Sudan and particularly the civil servants in the government of south Sudan could go for several months and remain patient because even if they make noise, no one would listen to them and it may even be dangerous for them to engage in such unwanted and most probably unlawful endeavors as per my country’s model.

My brother who works in the United States of America once told me that, in the US, some employees earn their salaries in two weeks and some after a month and he says, “when one fails to get their dues in their accounts at the mid-night of the fourteenth day”, they will sue their employer and such employers are ordered to pay the employee plus the cost.

I am not saying south Sudan should be like US but I want to say, if one can sue because of delay in some hours after their salaries fall due, why can’t our government sympathize with the citizens who persevered for three to four months without their wages.

I am not bringing this point out of conflict of interest but I am trying to drive home a point on what caused the economic crisis and why the citizens of south Sudan have not been getting the services.

The reason why the country finds itself in the economic crisis before the real conflict and armed conflict broke out is attributed to several factors but for meticulousness, the economic crisis in south Sudan were caused first by drastic shut down of oil in 2012, by the widespread corruption in the government and chief among all, the ineptitude by those in charge of the economy of the country like the Ministry of Finance, Central Bank, Public service and labour.

It is because of corruption that, the much expected services by the people of south Sudan after independence didn’t come until the war broke out.

Throughout the eight years since the peace came to the country, the leaders tend to be too busy enriching themselves while the need to construct roads infrastructure, provide healthcare facilities, build schools among other things became a secondary agenda that they thought would be implemented after they have established themselves.

The country became engulfed with a lot of corruption scandals, including the infamous ones like the Dura scandal, fire safe saga, the looming crisis management committee saga among others all masterminded by senior government ministers and their accomplishes.

Universal reports on corruption have always put south Sudan on top of the list as one of the countries that is experiencing the worse forms of corruption and comprises very corrupt government officials in the world.

Attempts by the government to form an anti-corruption watchdog with the intention to curtail this vice remained just in paper as the commission became toothless with no prosecution powers as well as failing to register cases against senior government officials who are hard to be executed.

It then turned out that, the senior government officials are the judges and juries in their own cases and this is the reason why all the necessary attempts to fight corruption in south Sudan have not gotten anywhere far.

South Sudanese and several other analysts in the world have tried to write, talk and condemn the corruption in south Sudan but quiet easily, all these people have been branded as anti-government faultfinders and the concerns they raised are translated to criticisms.

From here until the crisis broke out in December, south Sudanese had accepted the destiny of living without good roads, having no healthcare facilities, no good school among other social amenities.

The southerners had accepted too to accommodate corruption as part of their life and one of the strong schemes that the government was determined to strengthen.

South Sudanese did all this not because they were not missing something but it is because they still had one last precious thing that protected their identity and this thing was “PEACE”.

It is because of peace that south Sudanese had forgotten about what the government is supposed to do for them and sacrificed through their hard work to establish their own families, feed them, take them to private schools and treat them when they gets sick. South Sudanese were until December 2013; very comfortable following up their own lives without being too concern about what the government does or does not do for them.

When on December 15, 2013 the shooting took place in the military barracks in Juba, all the south Sudanese thoughts were that, it was a situation that was going to be controlled by the government and the misunderstanding could be brought to normal when and if the people involved were peace lovers.

This didn’t happen and what remained was widespread violence and mass killing of innocent civilians from Juba to Jonglei and Bentiu. Innocent civilians died and those who survived ran to the UN camps where they are living under very disturbing and inhumane conditions.

The genesis and cost of this conflict is so stigmatizing and one cannot afford to tell it in long and traumatizing phrases.

I am not interested to talk about what has happened and what is still happening because, I, the citizens of south Sudan and the world has seen enough for anyone to even continue to repeat informing people on the price that has been paid by the innocent people of south Sudan.

Thousands of Lives have been lost, an uncounted number of properties have been destroyed, a lot of people have been left homeless, millions have fled and worse of all, the seeds of unity that were beginning to germinate among the south Sudanese have been uprooted and completely scattered.

These signs of progress and prosperity have been replaced with tears in the eyes of a woman who have lost her husband and children in Bentiu massacred, a homeless Nuer who has been chased away from his home in Miaya Saba in Juba, an anguished old woman who has been raped in Bor teaching hospital, hungry children who are camping in UN compounds across the country unknowing where their parents are and most of all, compensated with the amount of hatred and mistrust between Dinka and Nuer ethnic groups that no person, government or even miracles will manage to fence.

But what happened at the end of all this, our politicians fly to Ethiopia, talk on televisions and radios and thumb their chests “our people, our people”, our people that they are all doing nothing to save from further destruction, our people that they don’t know where they sleep in the rainy UN Camps, our people that they don’t know what they feed on, our people that they tend to reaffirm their positions on leadership than looking first at what should end their suffering, our people that they divided into tribes first before they consider them south Sudanese, our people our people. What our people do our leaders and politicians talk about here?

It brings tears to someone eyes as some falls in mine to hear our president confidently and humorously saying that he has been forced to sign peace.

“Peace” of all the things, how can he be forced to sign peace, something that comes with a lot of things including the lives of our people, including the return of our people to their homes away from the dehumanizing life at the UN camps, peace is something that can give birth to love and unity, how can someone be forced to sign peace?

Peace is something that should come from your heart, peace is more than power, materials and even more expensive than animosity. Why should the president sign peace under duress instead of willingly and voluntarily signing it to save the plight of the suffering citizens of south Sudan?

How about Dr. Riek, and his interview on BBC HardTalk program, was he a leader, did he give answers as to why he took up arms and killed innocent civilians including the untrained white army, did he give reasons why his forces captured Bentiu and massacred over three hundred innocent civilians from other ethnicities?

Or is it justifiable as he said that, because, some innocent citizens were massacred in Juba and Jonglei, so the innocent ones in Bentiu had to pay the price too?

Does this mean two wrongs can now make a right, did he represent a national leader who took up arms to correct injustices committed against the citizens of south Sudan or was he a bitter man who speaks on behalf of a tribe and would revenge at the slightest given opportunity?

Was he like Kiir, forced to sign the peace or he did it because of the suffering that the people of south Sudan are going through?

Which was it, how did he answer those questions, how would you answer those questions if you had listened to him, how would you rate them (Kiir and Riek) and their intentions with regard to peace and suffering of the people of South Sudan?

I don’t have straight forward answers to all the above questions but what I certainly do have and in fact in abundance is disappointment on these two leaders.

They do not in my opinion care about the suffering that we are going through today as citizens of south Sudan. They are both very comfortable in their respective hideouts, places that are out of reach of danger and threat of death, places that are heavily guarded, places that they don’t hear, smell or touch rain water, places that they are eating their best dishes, places that they get reports about which town has been captured and what happened and how many people have been killed after being successfully adored by their loyalists.

It is palpable that, from their negotiators to themselves, Kiir and Riek have never felt any pinch of what has been happening in south Sudan for the last five months, their relatives are far away in foreign and safest countries in the world, none of their relatives has paid a price for the political instability that is on-going in the country.

The two men and their negotiators although in charge of their forces have never gone to the fields and seen for themselves the atrocities these unprofessional armies of theirs are committing.

It is so painful that the leaders who are entrusted with keeping peace and order think that they can solve things through a barrel of a gun.

Each one of them thinks that they can’t be defeated by the other as if they were wrestling which if this was the case, the citizens of south Sudan including myself would have been the happiest spectators to see who would be grappled down first.

As they say, peace comes with a price, I will subscribe to the theory and I will ask all the citizens of south Sudan to do so because it is my conviction that the people who will pay this price are the citizens of south Sudan why, because, the war started as some politicians including Riek Machar were removed from the government because the public was complaining about a bloated cabinet and a large government.

In no time, the sacked cabinet members generated and established some sugar-coated democratic principles which led to rebellion.

Now, the signed framework and road-map for peace negotiation that the two men claimed they were forced to sign include a provision on formation of a transitional government which will include the rebel and government, former political detainees which are all former ministers and governors among others.

It is here that you would find that, since the transitional government will be shared, Riek, Kiir, former detainees will all be back in the government and it will be the same as the government from 2005 up to 2012.

So, the citizens who had thought their concerns were heeded to in reducing the size of the government are now back to square one, instead, the citizens have paid by losing their lives, properties, peace and other things just because they had advocated for the trimming of the government in 2012.

Yes, we have accepted to pay this price and the thousands who died and the million displaced have already paid for this peace and this is the reason why we plead with our leaders to come to their senses and move the country forward after they share their transitional government.

The citizens of south Sudan may not afford to go through another painful eight or so years with you but for the sake of peace, we will persevere, we will not of course stage a revolution to get rid of all of you because, you have all the government apparatus in your disposal and we know too well that you will not hesitate to use life bullets on us when we try to protest if things are not going well.

So, we beg that, let the peace return to South Sudan whether you are forced to sign it or not. It is here that I feel the people who have paid the ultimate price in the on-going conflict are the ordinary citizens of South Sudan.

Finally, I just want to plead with the commentators on the internet and other social networks to slow down on their hate speeches and ethnically oriented ideologies, some of these people think they are doing enough in supporting their respective tribes but instead they are heightening ethnic hatred and creating more damage.

There can be no south Sudan without Nuer or a south Sudan without Dinka, the same goes for all the other 62 tribes.

We must accept that, a lot of mistrust has been created but the fact that we are all south Sudanese must continue to bind us together no matter what.

I don’t care what others may read into this advice but Dinka or Nuer, my first identity is South Sudanese. I am not happy at all with the way people are trying to inflame the already fragile relationship between the two tribes.

The politicians can go ahead and share their political positions for all I care.

Juma Mabor Marial is a disappointed citizen of South Sudan
Reachable at:

Federalism Based on Ethnic Solidarity: A workable solution to S. Sudanese Political Problem

QUOTE: “True heroism is remarkably sober, very undramatic. It is not the urge to surpass all others at whatever cost, but the urge to serve others at whatever cost.” – Arthur Ashe

BY: Mark Y. Lual(MSC), United Democratic Alliance (UDA), MAY/13/2014, SSN;

The nationalism in expense of one’s ethnic identity that has been spearheaded the pro Arab polices of old Sudan have been inherited by the SPLM/A to weaken the South Sudanese’ commitment to nationalism as common aspiration and raised questions about who would think to be honored more than the other where democracy has become a dominant feature of the modern epoch by upgrading equality, Solidarity and freedom for all.

As the world moved into this modern era, the South Sudan, exhausted by 3 civil wars, should seek a new basis of national unity in diversity, beginning tentatively with a set of treaties establishing economic linkages through “ethnic solidarity” so that they could better express their uniqueness in the federal arrangement.

By the end of the supposed interim/transitional period/years those ethnic based states will be developed into South Sudan federal states, a new-style of political invention in Africa that proved successful in the neighboring Ethiopia and Nigeria.

The South Sudan nation has been essentially in a confused state since independence by imposing Republicanism system of government on them while many of its informed citizens are dreaming of the Parliamentarianism and Federalism forms of government to govern them with for it leads to decentralization of powers and services.

It is by far the most advanced and comprehensive example of the new phenomenon of federal linkages but is by no means the only one. In many ways it paves the way for the citizenry dignity that results in the mobilization toward meaningful development.

Indeed, we may expect the South under its various peace deals to become the model for post independence federation. Many studies of the South, especially under its previous name, the Southern Sudan, explore and document mops of the South Sudan munities’ traditional settings as federalist in their culture.

From the first, the vision for South Sudan nation was a secular federal state. The conventional expectation of those who sought it originally was federation, a United States of Africa.

When SPLM efforts at democracy federation failed with the immediate friendship with the Ethiopian communist Dergue, the Democrats federalists and the separatists were fought against by the communists and the unionists, who were by then favored by the Dergue.

Through the establishment by treaties (1987 & 2002) of unifying authorities for specific but disguised purposes which were fleeting achieved intermittently, but short lived.

It is they who laid the foundation, wittingly or unwittingly, for the disunity, while strenuously denying that they had any tribalism intentions, for strategic reasons. Thus, the development of a new-style ethnic federalism has been overlooked by many.

Until very recently, the SOUTH SUDAN have realized this latest SPLM initiated war has victimized the SOUTH SUDAN solidarity thus creating a sense of ethnic identity than geographical as one is targeted based on their ethnic identity.

It hardly need be said that the failure of the United States of Africa movement and its replacement by the nationalism in expense of your ethnic identity as has been preached the ruling party, will lead to the lost unity within diversity.

Every South Sudan was seen as serving particular ethnic groups. This was particularly true of those South Sudan ethnic groups that joined the SPLM in masses at its earlier stages.

As long as the communist movement, turned in to ruling elite- SPLM, still believes in the communist hierarchy, those who joined them late were/are denied access to its powerful organs like Liberation Council and Political Bureau.

At the same time they are still harboring that old hostility, particularly democrats and the separatists, had to be linked somehow in a golden net that would keep them from being recognized as people – dehumanizing them- calling them names that would cause an irrational person think when they kill these, they are doing good job to the elite.

They also realized denying them economic progress and the national top jobs especially their army officers-named to be unconfirmed.

The principal features that will stand out and marked the coming ethnic federal state of South Sudan as a new-style polity: One of the requirements for a people to share a state is a common heritage because we believe in philosophy that solidarity cannot be created but can be fostered; for example to solve the Acholi-Madi problem is to put the Madi together with the Moro groups and join up the Acholi with the Luo speaking of the Equatoria.

The second was the transfer of powers to the states on geographical basis, whereby unrelated communities caused many untold suffering to masses.

This proved unsuccessful in many parts of the country whereby a people of the same state cannot share a hospital and other public institutions could, at least in part, work directly with the citizens from other ethnic groups in the state, although in some states it had to work through tolerance; Jonglei(Bor) state proved it wrong to put an incompatible ethnic group in a state.

It was this mixture of reliance upon the ruling ethnic group in order to act and the authority to reach out directly to the people on a limited basis, with each particular combination and resulted in identity crisis in many parts of the country that cause determined armed struggles among the member states, that gives this new ethnic federalism proposal a firm acceptance.

Moreover, the new federation quietly insisted upon democratic parliamentarianism as the required regime for federal states, a step that became particularly visibly workable in the cases of to afore mentioned states of Africa, which passed from dictatorship to democracy as a condition of their entrance into the democratic nations.

Following the unaccountable corruption by the SPLM that put the nation on the top list of the Failed States Index, when it seemed that the nation itself would fail, it took on new vigor in the 2012 and there began the talk about autocratic resistance for federalism-democracy which caused the current civil war.

This the democratic voices in the SPLM advocated for the party democratization. After the war erupted and affected the whole nation-not only the SPLM members, how come do the SPLM elites would advocate only for SPLM unification? This is the question of our people.

Both SPLM and the nation as a whole have subsequently run into problems whose cause is resistance to democratic aspiration of the people of South Sudan by the SPLM elites.

This single party whose name is now on paper as a democratic, but has not been immediately democratic in practice.

While the Addis Ababa peace is seen as to cease both national and the SPLM crisis in the end by all political parties on the both sides of the warring groups, the anti-democratic voices that are put across now is that –the problem an SPLM problem therefore it would involve only the SPLM and their allies.

By now it is clear that all political groups of South Sudan, realizing the necessity to be represented so, are committed to the South Sudan peace, but they are not willing to give up their political identities only to be engulfed on the either side as SPLM.

Member of United Democratic Alliance (UDA), South Sudan

If we ought to live, we must let go of tribal warlords

BY: Philips Al-Ghai, South Sudan, MAY/13/2014, SSN;

“For heaven’s sake, we should start realizing that the parasites sucking the life out of S. Sudan are not those tribes we frequently keep pointing fingers at… They stroll right in the corridors of the parliament buildings in Juba, discussing when to put the next iron yoke on the necks of the poor to ensure they remain subdued! Yes, they want us to blame ourselves for our problems when they are exactly the problem. If we need to change the painful history of S. Sudan and rescue the interests of the common S. Sudanese then we must choose to stand together against these bloody flukes, lest we all perish in the aftermath of tribal politics and the rest becomes history.”

Those were the dying lines of my first opinion ‘Tribes are our Diversity; Greedy Politicians are our Common Adversity,” published by South Sudan News Agency website on May 9, 2013. Barely eight months elapsed before they [politicians] set the nation aflame. Soldiers turned against their comrades. Neighbors were out for each other’s blood. And tribal identity instantaneously became a curse amongst common S. Sudanese. How sad their dirty actions never lie!

Looking back on five months of raging bloodbath, rape, and displacement of innocent S. Sudanese, one can’t help but shake his head in dismay.

The most abhorrent part though, perhaps the most worrying and a potential threat to any lingering thought of a better future, is the reaction of S. Sudanese youths. Most of them, instead of standing against the idiocy that was long unfolding before our eyes, took a rather sycophantic stance; identifying themselves as pro-Riek or pro-Kiir.

In every corner of social media you see them too upbeat about the war; cheering the capture and re-capture of towns, spreading tribal propagandas, and [shamelessly] trying to justify, by hooks or crooks, the atrocities of their tribal murderers. How pathetic!

Without a shadow of doubt, most of these youths have either lost a parent, a sibling or a relative in the historic Sudan wars and ought to know a thing or two about the effects of any war.

Moreover, most of them have been to peaceful countries and ought to know payoffs of tolerance. One would, therefore, expect everyone to denounce this war unequivocally.

If these experiences are not enough then the nature of the conflict per se should suffice our perceptual consciousness.

Except on tribal grounds, neither president Kiir nor Dr. Riek is a victim of the ongoing skirmishes. One might firmly argue Dr. Riek’s innocence considering the ghost ‘coup’ narrative, but his subsequent actions make him no different from Kiir.

Of course either is just as iniquitous as Lucifer and as murderous as Hitler. So, rallying behind them does not only betray the near a hundred percent votes we casted during the referendum, but also sacrifices the lives of innocent people we ought to stand for.

Sadly, it appears we’ve nurtured a culture of undiscerning allegiance to tribal political figures, and former Lakes State governor Hon. Chol Tong Mayay was at hand with these wise words, for S. Sudanese youths, on that historic SPLM conference on December 6, 2013:

“Let not a leader lose his position and go back to mobilize his tribesmen. I’m sure you out there you don’t share his fat salaries; the salaries we get. The situation you are in…. we [in reference to his comrades] who are sitting here all, you know that all our families, all our children are eating ice cream, are playing with toys. And you down there…. he/she who has no person in the government, you don’t know what is called ice cream, your child doesn’t know what is called ice cream, your child doesn’t know toys, and I do say always that we’re foreigners ruling you. Because we don’t know the state of hospitals; because our women do deliver in very good hospitals… When we get headache, we go to Nairobi and Uganda… and this is the state of affairs we are in.”

Hon. Mayay, a member of the group often smeared as ‘disgruntled’ simply for speaking out the putrescence within the SPLM, was not oblivious to issues of relevance that conjure up critical thinking. Even for flatly dead brains.

Although he still identifies himself with the failed SPLM, he rightfully observed that their performance since the signing of Comprehensive Peace Agreement deserves nothing, but qualifies them as bunches of foreigners ruling us.

That’s exactly what we have witnessed in the last eight years or so. It is no brainer. This is further substantiated by the negligence shown by both Kiir and Riek in the face of the ongoing ethnic butchering under their noses.

As the nation bleed, Kiir unwittingly found it fitting to lament about his image: “If you just kill people in my name, then my image will be gone,” he moaned as reported by Gurtong website, January 2014, 2014.

Dr. Riek, on the other hand, went silent altogether and had no official order discouraging ethnic cleansing by his troops in rebel-controlled areas.

Neither had a word of solace to the distraught nation whatsoever, let alone visiting those affected.

Had we heeded Hon. Mayay’s advice no S. Sudanese soldier would have pointed his gun barrel at a civilian or a comrade, no Nuer or Dinka would have spilled the blood of his countryman, and no youth would have accepted to carry out atrocities on behalf of Riek and Kiir.

Still, if we take Hon. Mayay’s words with a grain of salt, Riek and Kiir would be asked to account for the innocent blood in their hands.

As things stand, it is apparent that there is no military solution to the conflict. The rebels will never shoot their way to Juba, and the government will never flush the rebels out of S. Sudan. Either is possible only in imaginations and you need not burden yourself hoping unless you are that guy…

President Kiir and Dr. Riek will predictably shake hands and dine on the same table some day. Maybe soon. Yet they are wasting, in senseless battles, the very men [SPLA] –rebels or government soldiers –we need to keep the claim of our borders with Sudan, Uganda and Kenya relevant in future.

Painfully, the orphans of their cooked conflict are bound to flock the garbage bins and waste dumping sites for food and shelter. Widows struggling to make ends meet will be forced to sell themselves to afford treatment for their ailing kids.

Young men robbed of livelihood and recruited into tribal militias [without pay] will morph into a new generation of indiscriminate killer gangs.

Summarily, before our own eyes, they have nipped S. Sudan in the bud. They have ripped the heart off our great nation.

Is this what we proudly support Riek and Kiir for?

Lest we start seeing S. Sudan beyond tribal warlords, we are all bound to sink to the nether regardless of whether one is a staunch tribal pro-rebel or a tribal pro-government.

Philips Al-Ghai is a proud S. Sudanese and can be reached at or on Twitter @ Al_Ghai211.

Between Bahr-el-Ghazal & Bor, Truth will never vanish

(A response to Butrus Ajak’s call, Bor Community has to recourse from Kiir’s government)

BY: Muoranyar Maker, RSS, May/11/2014, SSN;

As one discussant addressed in Ajak’s audience, I felt the need to put across another thought to correct and straighten some few mishaps. Maybe it works this way. I’m thinking the discussions are critical given unfortunate security level our country currently is at standpoint.

All South Sudanese are confronted with unpleasant realities one way or another. Our country is at the crossroads, presented with significant challenges it had no capacity and experience to handle swiftly. No doubt many of us give it an attention it deserves. Thumb up to Butrus Ajak for extending the debate.

I believe the cruciality of such debate does not permit us to coin alarming calls under feeble premises and hope to share it seamlessly in similar fashion. It’s my dismay that we miss genuine trigger reminiscence to the level of this call and counter arguments made so far.

Many positive views we seen expressed from various intellectual levels, some erratically charged with sectional overtone. Others emotional and unexpectedly somewhat negative!

However going to the point and avoid wasting your time, I would want to emphasize this in no more clear terms, the comments (Bor Community are cowards..) allegedly attributed to this author against Greater Bor are simply cheap, misplaced and never been true.

There is no such thing as the whole community being coward or brave in existentialism. And I in this particular instant may have not been adequately sensitive but was keen enough to avoid such generalised classification.

We have seen the initiator fall short in his opportune time to quote on the exact categorical presence of the word “coward” to drive his tacit call for Buor unity and away from Kiir’s government. This call anyway did not materialise, may be it was not a good one to make in the first place!

I had on numerous occasions, privilege to have met and share productive space with my fellow Bor wonderful colleagues and friends. Some of them remain brothers for life. Capable folks such as Daniel Kuer Bol, Kuer Daw, Ding Bul, Mabior Aguang, Atem Dau, my good friend & a hero late Mac Achuek Mac (RIP) and the list go on!

No way do I suffer anything to question these gentlemen’s courage in whatever rough circumstances they may be asked or direct to face with intention to achieve results. This cannot be confused with my relentless soul search for answers and disappointment.

It’s a frustration of course directed at elders and leaders along with their supporters within the community in question over handling of the situation. This is clearly reflected in my previous comments.

My difficulties coming to terms with Bor situation:
I honestly had difficulties and perturbed to see peaceful elderly, innocent women and children repeatedly subjected to mass atrocities without seemingly considerable resistant. I am having sincere difficulties trying to comprehend why Bor Community constantly and effortlessly becomes a soft target whenever things fall apart systematically with our leadership.

What had gone wrong only to be fixed now? Is Bor Community united to identify and face their common enemy? Are there people who would have done otherwise and achieve different outcome? Had this community learnt enough from its 91’ story? To what extent are Salva Kiir and his government part of these problems? Is that much animated system loyalty negatively affecting them or not?

All these are legitimate wonders for any concerned individual to ponder around with! But some people see it differently. Butrus Ajak, desperately dressed in radical attire of sectionalism deep to the core, had different interpretation and preaching to go around with!

In his views, these sensitive issues should be left to Buor only to brainstorm about or someone risks intentional misinterpretation. But even more so, truth will never varnish.

Mr Ajak neither believes in emergency of collective discourse surrounding these conflicts, nor agrees with realities of combine efforts always in place to address appalling and running out conditions in his homeland.

He is just comfortable talking like his uncle Makuei Lueth who refers to almost anyone with differing views a rebel! Kuol Manyang as well seems to be his biggest worry and top priority in every circumstance in and out.

He is yet to be brought to human senses that Kuol’s crude application of force is never anywhere translatable to mean any bravery. In fact nobody was brave enough other than Commander Dr John Garang De Mabior.

Kuol’s records of mass execution of Bhar el Ghazal’s home-returned soldiers are cowardice and undeserving to warrant him significant titles. Whether it’s another killing unleashed in the midst of largely vulnerable Equatorian communities, still are nothing but investigatable criminal actions.

Butrus Ajak in these discussions invented what he calls Bhar el Ghazal versus Bor talks, and clearly went ahead to uncloak everything as reflected below in some of his comments.
“Ask yourselves why Kuol Manyang (From Bor) was made a defence minister at the time nation was at crossroad?

Number two, why a smallest man by name Lt. Gabriel Jok Riak was rushed for and reinstated as head of Division One after he was wrongly retired during eating period”?

Then Mr Butrus Ajak had to braggingly conclude this with the following mindboggling remark,
“There are unique moral values about us your likes (Bhar el Ghazal people) will have many years to develop”.

There is no doubt here Ajak believe in particular cross section of Dinka community as the only capable ones to discharge manful duties whenever things never go well. Something I absolutely have no qualms taking on-board, if that could make him feel good and enjoy at least some sleeps.

But isn’t it necessary if these gentlemen (Generals Kuol & Jok Riak) were to start clearing those threatening mess at their own backyards first? People say charity begins at home! This author would love those credentials unveil to protect people in Bor before anywhere else and avoid disturbing carnage we have seen.

In 1991, it happened so quick that an SPLA rescue mission could NOT save ¾ of the whole population (Figures from Butrus Ajak). In Dec. 2013 repeated mayhem, 5000 lives were lost (Again figures from Mr. Ajak). And a whole population displaced! All these happened when the rapid rescue force including foreign allies was on its way from Juba.

Of course there are huge Nuer populations and force in Jonglei state than Bor people alone can afford to handle. There is absolutely no such rationale suggesting Bor community without extra hand can successfully engage them.

However, that doesn’t diminish the idea that Bor community has to square up a force necessary to hold ground till reinforcements. From 2009 population estimates, Murle was never bigger than Bor. Bor population was predominantly younger than most communities.

Many people expect if Murle can last under similar circumstances from Lou Nuer aggression and maintain its existence without expecting huge reinforcement anywhere, then why not Bor?

If tiny brothers such as Ngok Lual Yaak or Ngok Panaaru can make it to hold on and evade undergoing mass devastation by employing possible means within their reach, then, why can’t Bor just do it as well?

There is nothing extra Salva Kiir or his government can do. He deserves credit if anything regarding situation in Bor. With Gen. Kuol put in charge of ammunitions store, it would have been up to the community in question to learn from previous experiences and set up strong vigilante group to protect the community.

All readings were quite obvious and everyone knows the country could anytime descend into chaos without further warnings. There is nothing wrong with homeboys taking charge of security vacuum whenever their government fail to do so.

Aweil Community do this to protect themselves against marauding Janjaweeds and Murhams. They risk extinction if they wait for government’s response.

When the notorious LRA found sanctuary in Western Equatoria and the SPLA seem to be dodgy in their retaliations. Gov. Bakasoro had no time to waste but to encourage and set up Arrow Boys to help contain LRA threats in the area. It didn’t take long before LRA learnt it hard and decided to quit presence in the area and move deep into jungles of C.A.R and DRC.

When Riek defected in 1991, and Lakes states experienced coming under threat from neighbouring Riek’s home area (Unity state), again there was no clear choice and mumbling from community elders but to form and encourage a go ahead of Gelwong militia to quall that threat.

Ironically, people like Ajak kept singing showers of praise to our ears about Kuol Manyang and his group. Even when they fail clearly to plan in advance and do something any leader should do in the interest of his people.

The idea that Gen. Kuol only be known popular for a tragedy response is not feasible. He should like other leaders champion credentials of preventive measures. Not all the time after the disaster!

Why Gen. Kuol, Jok Riak and others where rushed in under those circumstances:
This war was plan ahead of time. Many people are aware of this fact. Ramping up for another round with Nuer was something many people never hesitate to show interest. Others think it’s just another hell and a very dangerous path to contemplate.

Salva Kiir, politically confronted by a formidable opposition force whose seniority was Riek Machar, a Nuer with staggering 1991 weakness across Jieng communities was the basis that rushed in those of Generals Kuol Manyang & Jok Riak. It was to fight Riek.

Hooligans like Gov Malong Awan just offered themselves to volunteer. It was this planning stage in progress that Gov Malong had to recruit over 20,000 homeboys trained and made them ready for a bravo cause. Kuol Manyang, critically in the heart of these arrangements was not only aware of what will happen but principal part of this military organisation and campaign.

Any lame excuses from supporters that suggest Bor Community was innocently set up and deliberately left alone as “sacrificial lamb” is unfortunately misleading. Those with appropriate chronological knowledge of events prior to Dec. 15 development cannot fall into these wishful tenets.

Equally as well, there is nothing like Bor community was caught up impromptu!!
While leaders like Kuol Manyang and Makuei Lueth knew their hands were on bombs on one hand, they fell on the other hand as usual to fully alert and mobilise their people ahead of such looming catastrophe.

If this war deserves any given name at all depending on majority of stakes in it, then it is Pres Kiir, Bor community (Garang family not included) & Aweil versus Riek Machar’s rebels! There was nothing anywhere like Bhar el Ghazal war as Butrus Ajak perceives. It is just minority cross sections of Bhar el Ghazal community that responds. Bor community too equally does in part!

When this war was pushed, Pres. Kiir, those of Gen. Kuol and close associates believed Bhar el Ghazal will join course and heavily participate to end it militarily and immediately.

Just about the same way, they concurrently fought Arabs and Machar’s forces in 1991. That was the arrogant thought behind it altogether. Little did they know before anything like it happens, people gott’a has to reason it out first?

Bhar el Ghazal people have values and principles contrary to what others perceive they lack. They quickly understood political side of this war and rejects government’s call to enlist in their masses and fight.

This is so despite numerous scary calls from its governors to try and make people join the army and prepare for the war with Nuer. This did not materialise. Pres Kiir at last felt isolation. He realised Bhar el Ghazal region was not ready as he and colleagues thought to be the case when this war was invoked.

Kiir’s humble views for peace are well shape today than ever before. Majority dismiss credentials of a war that Garang’s family ridicules. Does anyone bother to know why UPDF are in the country right now fighting this war? It is because Bhar el Ghazal disown it.

To finish it, I would once again urge us to base these discussions on true perspectives. With our country in an abject free fall, there could be no better times to tell truth if we fail to do it now!

Muoranyar Maker

South Sudan peace should be negotiated in Bentiu, not in Addis.

BY: Leng-Chi Riak, Juba South Sudan, MAY/11/2014, SSN;

Some of us South Sudanese view this war in different perspectives sometime but it is better to write and speak about the true cause that led to this conflict engulfing our country. It is the “Oil In South Sudan” as put forward by Mengistu C. D. K. Dengaguek, “Economic Cold War: South Sudan Crisis and the Influence of Invisible Hands.”

If everyone have access to Internet across Africa, they should read it. We Africans need to know about “Western interest” UN and the so-call “International Community”. They all mean the same and it is modern western colonization in Africa.

To be a leader/president in Africa, you must do what the west says; you receive aid under the umbrella of “Foreign Aid” to the country. The president receive them, pocket them into his own pocket and let his country suffer and the president live a prestigious live where he own properties in the west.

If the president does what is good for his country, he is removed by coup or assassinated. Look at the case of Mali, the president wrote the constitution with term limit and was ready to leave and not run for re-election. The election was due in four months and was removed by coup.

Look at Kenya, during president Moi, Kenyan were suffering and Moi was wealthy and “Muzungu” was on the top as if they were citizens. When Kibaki took over, he changed the country and was doing better for the interest of Kenyan people and was about to be removed during 2007 election.

Now Kenyans are much more civilized enough and know the western interest. Death of Dr. Garang was very unfortunate. He was the only person who knew how to deal with the West.
So the International community and the UN belong to the West (US, UK, France Norway and rest of western Europe) and rest of the world including Russia and China are not included.

Real lasting peace in South Sudan
For real lasting peace to come to South Sudan, it should be negotiated in Bentiu, the Capital of “Nuer tribe.” Nuer is the ONLY tribe in South Sudan that will continue to cause major instability even if this conflict ends.

That is why I propose this peace be negotiated in their capital. The violence MUST stop and the government should consider relieving all Nuer officials currently in the government both in uniform and in civil service to go and sit as a community with those who have rebelled and talk as Nuer community. They need to ask themselves:

1. Are we in general as south Sudanese going to force our selves as tribes into the presidency of the country or by election?

2. If they vote by force, then they should ask themselves if they force themselves to the presidency today and both Dinka and the rest of South Sudanese tribes exit the government and refuse to participate in that “Nuer taken by force” government, will that government function without other tribes in South Sudan? They can establish that government in one of their hometown, not elsewhere.

3. Nuer community need to sit down and talk both their intellectuals, those in arm forces (both rebelled and those still with SPLA), those tribal leaders that are in charge of the white army and those commanding any militia in Nuer. They all need to sit and talk because Riek personal ambitions’ will kill Nuer. (Oil in South Sudan) as stated by Dengaguek.

4. They need to address the issue of their generals who always rebel without any legitimate reason (Gadet, Tanginya, Gatkouth) etc. Will these people stop rebelling in the future because Riek is not the only warlord in South Sudan but these generals are problematic as well? What position will Gadet get if Riek became the president when he rebelled?
The highest position that was above him was that of “chief of staff” and was held by Nuer (Gen. Hoth). Gadet is not educated. Why did Gadet mounted for Bor when he rebelled on the 17th and not head to Juba to safe the life of Nuer they claim to have been massacred in Juba while he took the whole division with him.

They need to address these issues themselves any many others that always cause instability in the South Sudan for a long lasting peace to come.

The Disgruntled G11:
Since 2005, the government has been doing nothing for the country and Riek has been part of it from the beginning. The government was corrupt and did not even built one public institution (roads, schools) etc. Riek and his G11 has been part of the government for the last eight years. When they were removed, they became disgruntled about loosing their jobs and brought the country into this conflict. For those who call them “political detainees” (west label them to be), South Sudanese and I call them “former disgruntled government employees.”

It is great that Makuei Lueth was not the architect of the current constitution but the disgruntled Luk Jok. Luke Jok should think about the future of his own constituents and the future of those white army. Why don’t he think about schooling those young white army so they abandon that uncivilized life?

Lado Gore lost governorship to his own brother Wani and was thrown on the ground. President Kiir came for his rescue, pick him up, dust him off and put food in his mouth by appointing him to an advisor position and later to a ministerial position. When Kiir ask him nicely to go and cultivate his own food, he cried like a baby and claim to be an original SPLM member.

Why can’t he appreciate what Kiir did for him?
Two well-known thieves in the history of the movement who have never produce foot soldiers but were promoted to high position (Pagan and Deng Alor) claim to be the negotiators during the movement.

They were always sent to convey the objectives and goals of the movement and they receive funds from foreign government to support the SPLM/A during the struggle. They pocket those funds and they think Garang didn’t know. Garang was very smart and was watching everyone during the movement.

Why did Garang gave the first finance ministerial position to Kuol Manyang in 2003 when the peace was closing in and not to Pagan or Deng Alor? Because Garang knew you were top thieves in the history of the struggle. Thieves!

To backup what Maguachwom said about who produce countless foot soldiers. Where were the foot soldiers from Shilluk that brought Pagan and Oyay Deng Ajak up? Shilluk foot soldiers were gone to Khartoum with Lam Akol. Who brought Oyay up? Dinka foot soldiers.

Same thing, Oyay lost election from his own constituents to SPLM-DC. President Kiir picked him up, dust him off and put food in his mouth by appointing him to a ministerial position. He start crying like a baby when removed.

Why can’t this G11 appreciate what Kiir did for them? They have all embezzled government funds for the last eight years and Kiir did not sent you to jail. Why can’t they appreciate him?

Why can’t Deng Alor appreciate Kiir and South Sudan? Deng Alor is from Abyei and Abyei is not part of South Sudan. If Kiir deports Deng Alor to Abyei, what would he say? He is not a citizen of South Sudan.

I don’t want to speak against Abyei but when Abyei Ngok intellectual like Deng Alor get involved with Riek and brought the country to this chaos, which upset me and other South Sudanese. I can tell Deng Alor that he and Abyei Ngok Dinka are not South Sudanese because Abyei is not part of South Sudan.

Salva Mathok used to ask when he hears people praising Pieng Deng during the movement. Where are the foot soldiers from Abyei Ngok Dinka? He will ask Pieng to get foot soldiers from Abyei Ngok.

The four thugs thought they were Nelson Mandela of South Sudan when they were released but they are thugs to South Sudanese. Only their family members and foreigners cheered for them when they were released. Why can’t we be loyal to our country instead of exploiting our Nation to western countries?

If we South Sudan vote today that there was a coup attempt, more than fifty percent will vote that there was a coup attempt on the 15 Dec. Why can’t we believe that instead of accepting what the US and western countries said?

Violence happened here in Juba in our presence and we tend to accept what the US and western countries said but they were not here. Is this Loyalty to ones’ Nation? We need to be loyal to our country regardless of what happen.

This War is about that Oil Contract with China.
For those who still don’t know, this war is about that oil contract with China. Please read that article by Mengistu C. D. K. Dengaguek, “Economic Cold War: South Sudan Crisis and the Influence of “Invisible Hands.” Riek is the only person promising the west (US) that he will give South Sudan oil contract to them.

Everything is about that oil in our country. Look at Abyei referendum. The international community (US) does not want to pursue it and pressure the Khartoum government to let Abyei be part of South Sudan because if they do, and Abyei became part of South Sudan, oil in Abyei will go to China.

The US want to secure South Sudan oil contract first and then get Abyei issue on the table. We will all see the issue of Abyei will be easy if that oil contract goes to the US. Why are we dying because of our own oil? That is a million dollar question.

Hate message on the web such as Sudan tribune based in France, radios. Killing in hospitals churches and mosque in Bor, Bentiu and Malakal. Do they make any difference with that of Rwanda. But it is the rebels doing those killing because the government is still standing and consider everyone as citizen of South Sudan, not enemies and had a duty to protect them.

What if President Kiir was killed on Dec. 15? The Dinka would have marched to Nuer and kill them and would have been the same as Rwanda. Let us be thankful that we still have the government in South Sudan.

Ethiopia is wrong to mediate this peace and host the African Union.
Ethiopia is playing western interest in this peace and I would not support them to host this peace. There is no reason for them to delay the peace, which had been happening. They are also taking the rebel side and are bringing different issues on the table.

They accuse the government of corruption, which was not the agenda in the conflict. Ethiopia is not fair to the government side and they receive those advices from the west. Kenya should host this peace and Tanzania is the best country to host the African union because there is no tribalism in Tanzania and Africans can learn from them.

Julius Nyerere made it clear to Tanzanian that tribalism is a threat to freedom of the country. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana said we Africans can handle our own affairs. We do not need anyone to tell us what to do. South Sudan can be peaceful country only if UN leaves the country. South Sudan can handle their own affairs. UN is holding the government of South Sudan hostage because the government cannot enforce its law because the UN bark for human rights.

For this bloodbath to stop and to bring long lasting peace to South Sudan, the following should help;
1. Nuer as a community needs to sit and talk as above because people should not die because of Riek personal ambitions. They need to address those issues above themselves.
2. The government needs to change the constitution. South constitution cannot be more than five pages. Those acts in the constitution need to be separated. South Sudan codes of criminal law need to be removed from the Constitution. Constitution needs to have term Limit (two term, five years each). President cannot be give powers to fire elected officials. Federal system under the states and each state cannot enact any statute that violates the national statute or the national constitution. Check and balance between the executive branch and the legislature need to be in the constitution. Independency of the judiciary of South Sudan needs to be in the constitution and Judges need to be empowered to act independently.
3. South Sudan National Assembly needs to be reduced and be determined on state population. State with high population need to be given more representation in the national assembly.
4. South Sudan needs to abandon the system of “GREATERISM.” All these greaters (Greater Equatoria, Greater Bor, Greater Bhar el Gazal, Greater upper Nile) need to be abolished and establish federalism under states.
5. Both Kiir and Riek can share the interim administration and be given at least two years to clear this mess and they MUST AGREE not to run again in the next election. They MUST both let different candidates run and then transfer the power to who ever that win peacefully to pave the way for the future of South Sudan. If they can run in the next election, the country will be in the same conflict that we have because Kiir is going to win and Riek will rebel again and claim the election was rigged and take his Nuer illiterates with him.
6. Riek Machar need to know that he is no longer electable by the people of South Sudan even if he ran against Lam Akol as the only two candidates. Lam Akol can win that election. If Riek want to safe himself and South Sudan from another conflict like the current one, he needs not to run anymore.
7. SPLM in Juba should let their candidates for the presidency run during primaries and who ever that wins in the primaries should hold the SPLM presidency ticket. Riek need to know that he does not have control over the people and whom the people can vote for if he is the SPLM candidate. He has lost people’s trust. SPLM need to put the right candidate to run for president so they can win the election.
8. SPLM chairmanship should be a position held by the person that can ONLY supervise SPLM members and SPLM meetings, and cannot be assumed to lead that person to the presidency. Even SPLM state governors can be allowed to run if they can win in primaries. This is the reform that SPLM need.
9. UN, Human Rights Watch, South Sudan Human Rights Organization, Advocacy Group, NGOs and all foreign entities need to leave South Sudan especially western officials bringing foreign aid. They need to take their aid and go. We South Sudanese don’t need them anymore. They are all behind this conflict. They are not working for the interest of South Sudan but for their own western interest.

Leng-Chi Riak, Juba

What the Interim govt. should look like, do & bring permanent solution

BY: Daniel Juol Nhomngek, MAKERERE UNIV. KAMPALA, MAY/11/2014, SSN;

In this article, I will try as much as possible to point out what South Sudanese interim government should look like, what it should do and what it should avoid doing in order to bring permanent solution to South Sudanese problems.

To explain the suggestions that I am going to give, I will explain what the interim government is, the crisis of South Sudan, the desire by South Sudanese politicians to build personal wealth and empire which results into hatred suspicion and eventual conflicts which the leaders are trying now to solve through the formation of the interim government.

Without any delay, the interim or provisional government has been defined to mean an emergency government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a very large government.

The reasons why governments collapse are many, ranging from states mismanagement to lack of political will to transform people. The governments collapse due to the disrespect of human rights, rule of law and democratic principles. In particular, the violation of these principles as stated in the foregoing sentence has been the premises for the collapse of many countries in history.

For instance, starting with the 1789 French Revolution due to autocracy and disrespect of human rights, which led to the spread of revolutionary fever and ideas across Europe in 1830s, many other countries who disrespected human rights such as Soviet Union in 1989, the Republic of Somalia in 1990s, the Arabs’ Spring in Syria, Libya and Tunisia in 2011, also faced the same revolutions.

What can be learned from the history of revolution due to the violation of the rule of law and human rights? It is true to say the rule of law, democracy and human rights are pillars and cardinal principles of any strong nation.

Therefore, any nation that desires to be strong must not only be built on political values but also on human values.

These are all summed up in one word: respect of constitutionalism; respect of Constitutionalism means that the constitutional spirit must be the guiding principles in governance which the interim government must do whether it likes it or not.

The interim government must learn that the lack of respect of Constitutionalism, disrespect of the rule of law, abuse of human rights is the causes of the current war. This was because the authorities put themselves above the law where they became like God who gives human rights and decides when to take them away.

The consequences of the lack of respect for Constitutionalism planted the seeds of suspicion in every South Sudanese heart. Country, although born in united spirit, the mismanagement rifted the whole nation apart.

Slowly by slowly things began to fall apart as citizens became more aligned and alienated to their tribe mates in the government to give them whatever they wanted at the expenses of non-tribes members who are also citizens of South Sudan.

There was and has been blatant discrimination in the government by the government officials against the members of the non-tribes South Sudan.

The sycophancy and crony came in as a result of the survival mechanism by those who do not have South Sudanese morals while those who keep their pride became poorer and poorer as the officials became richer and richer.

It is still unbelievable to see on Television South Sudanese suffering from diseases like guinea worms that were eradicated centuries ago yet leaders are stingy rich and do not know what to do with money.

For instance, the repair of a country can amount to even thirty thousand pounds while others are dying and begging in front of ministries and nobody pay attention to them. It is real injustice! How can someone long just for one pound while another use thirty thousand for repairing the car? What unjust world? When one thinks of all these tears escapes down one chips. The interim government should change all these.

What is the overall result of all these injustices? The overall result was that many people were discontented as “social time bomb” was being designated by misgovernment. Hence, on December 15, 2013, the bomb went off killing thousands of people and thousands more displaced.

The “social time bomb” however, did not end there; it continued to kill people in large scale since it was not ordinary bomb but nuclear warhead with deadly radiation.

The killings unleashed by this type of bomb were a threat to humanity in South Sudan hence it puts the conscience into the international and regional bodies’ hearts which sprang them into action and which finally forces the government of South Sudan to compromise as it is planning to form the new government. The new government to be formed is the interim government.

Why is the formation of the interim government important at this stage? The stage things are today in South Sudan needs a critical approach and sacrifices at the same time. There is a need for sacrifices because the country is bigger than any tribe or leaders.

The only way to change the whole situation for the better in South Sudan is to change the way government and the country has been run since independence in 2011.

The country was run like a kingdom from Juba to states and counties levels, which was incompatible with South Sudanese democratic thinking and attitude and the war was inevitable although it was not planned. It was not planned because there is still disagreement over how war started.

After five months of killings as the two forces were fighting over confusion of who started the conflict and how the government and the country should be restructured, at last there is a light at the end of the tunnel. The light is there is a good news that interim government is going to be formed. It is a welcome development.

However, the questions are: what type of government is it going to be, is it going to be a government of national unity or the new government with new leaders?

If it is going to be the government of national unity then the zero work would have been done because it is going to be like putting a new wine in the old bottle. In other words, interim government is going to be a new government runs by the same old adversaries.

The old style of the governance is going to continue and suspicion will persist as the country will be melting into larger scale of hatred and misgivings. In short, the interim government which is under negotiation must be new government completely run by the new and neutral body that will be able to give full protection to all citizens whether Nuer or Dinka.

If it is going to be a new government, then, I hope the problems facing the country with time will be addressed. In other parts of the world the interim government has been one of the solutions for any country facing the problems of political in nature like ones facing South Sudan today.

In other words, the formation of the interim government is important in solving political problems because it is perceived to be neutral, short life span and it also receives more attention not only from the local authorities and citizens but also from the international community.

For the reason in aforementioned above paragraph, there is probability that the interim government can change bad situations for the better; it can bring peace, it can restore the rule of law, it can restore democracy, it can bring reconciliation and, finally, it can bring justice to the victims of the conflict. In fact, these are what South Sudanese expect the interim government that is going to be formed to bring.

In general, South Sudanese expect the interim government that is going to be form to embark on massive social transformation through strengthening judiciary, public awareness on the important of national unity and also to restore the rule of law.

To reemphasize the point made in the foregoing paragraph, it has to be pointed out that the purpose of forming provisional governments is to prepare for the return of rule of rule, which is what all South Sudanese expect to be brought by the interim government.

This, by implication, means that the interim government must prove to the people once it is formed that it is going to be the people’s government. The people’s government in this sense means the government established on democratic principles which further means the government of the people, for the people and by the people.

The kind of the government as explained in the above paragraph is defined by transparency, accountability and respect for human rights.

Otherwise, if the interim government is not going to observe these principles then there will never be peace, which implies that we shall still go back to square one in the near future.

Though I have not included in the need for the flexibility in the above paragraph, the interim government must be flexible in order to address people’s needs effectively. The causes of the current conflict among others are the rigidity of the SPLM government.

Although the SPLM government fought a bitter war with the sole purpose to liberate South Sudanese, it became the victim of the same vice that it was fighting against from 1983 to 2005.

The SPLM government took as secondary needs the establishment of the strong judiciary, the rule of law and accountability mechanism within the government. As a result, citizens of South Sudan since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement have been held hostage by some of the government officials through corruption and other mismanagement of the government.

The public officials were allowed to corrupt system as they wish. The evidence in support of this point is the issue of four billion dollars that disappeared with no trace up to now.

Sadly, up to now there is no any hope of setting up a body to instigate and if possible works for the recovery of this huge amount of money. It appears that South Sudanese officials loath accountability.

This may be explained by two reasons:-
One the government officials want to enrich themselves and compensate the time that they lost while fighting Arabs. Is it a convincing reason? God knows.

The other possible reason and closely related to the first reason is that the rule of law had been kept at abeyance as leaders whether in rebellion or in the government forgot that they were accountable to the people in their counties and States.

This comes back to the same point that some of the leaders want to compensate themselves for what they had lost during the war hence neglecting all possible avenues including enforcing of law, which citizens might use to get redress if they are robbed of their resources.

For clarification of the two reasons I have just made above, the leaders in other words concentrated on building personal wealth and empire, which resulted into suspicion, misgiving and conflict, which ended up in real fighting.

The fighting was caused by struggling over limited resources. This is because the resources of South Sudan are only accessible through ladder made out from the leadership.

The struggle over limited resources in disguise of the struggle for democratic change was apparent because it was no longer political intrigue. One can reach such a conclusion after critically assessing the nature of and the circumstances under which the war broke out.

When one looks at the way conflict started, he or she can conclude that the conflict was not about democracy but desire to get the SPLM leadership. If I can ask these general questions:
What is so important about being a chairperson of the SPLM?

What if one leaves such a party and forms his or her own party, can it not deliver the same results? What makes party a good party, are the people or the party itself?

If one were to sit down to answer the above questions, one can get the answer as to why the conflict was not for the democratic change in the country.

Hence, it will be premature to conclude that Riek and others were fighting for democratic change or Kiir and others were fighting against the overthrow of the democratically elected government.

In my opinion there is nothing like fighting for the democracy in the current South Sudanese war. If the opposition who later turned rebels were fighting for the democratic change, what they should have done was just to break away from the mainstream SPLM and form their own new political party instead of taking up arms.

They should have formed a new political party and give it a new name like “South Sudan Democratic Party (SSDP)” or any other name like “South Sudan Liberation party (SSLP).”

However, there is a problem with the leaders of South Sudan who broke away from the SPLM. Riek like Lam Akol believes that the only party that can take one to power is the SPLM, which explains why they named their parties as SPLM-DC and SPLM In Opposition respectively.

This can give a clue of the intention of all politicians who were formerly in the SPLM and are now struggling for change in South Sudan. Their intention is not to struggle to bring a real change to South Sudan but to bring back the same old policies in disguise of democratic change.

What I am trying to explain here is that in South Sudan there is no need for every person disappointed with the SPLM government to bring change through using the same name of the SPLM with some additional meaning attached to it. This is what the interim government must do and teach to the people.

It must teach the people that there is a need for a complete U-turn from the hangover of the war nostalgia to the new era where human rights, rule of law and democratic principles are respected.

This is why there is a desire to form the provisional government to bring new changes and detach politicians from the state.

As a culture of our politicians, they take possession of offices as if personal assets. This may be explained by the fact that there is no rule of law, which we hope the interim government is going to emphasis as the first priority.

The rule of law should be made as the first priority by the interim government because there is a need for restoring order, security, justice and constitutionalism in the country.

In relation to the foregoing point in the above paragraph, the interim government must ensure that the victims of the current conflict must get justice as soon as it is established.

In providing justice, there is a need for the establishment of the transitional justice mechanism to address the strong needs for justice in South Sudan.

The transitional justice mechanism must be established with the truth and reconciliation commission to address the victims’ needs for justice and also to bring reconciliation among the people like what was done in Rwanda. I believe that if the interim government has a political will it can implement the above mentioned point.

Many have expressed hope, a hope that I also share with them that the formation of the interim government in South Sudan is the only way forward.

I hope for it to be the only way forward for South Sudan because South Sudan has many unaddressed problems and it must the role of the interim government that is going to be set up to open up all hidden hatred in order to unearth the root causes of the problems of South Sudan.

In addition, the important role that the interim government can play once set up is to build peace and stability .This role has made the interim government a darling in history.

In other words, why the interim government important is that it establishes the economic, political and social structures that have broken down during the crisis, which I hope the formation of the interim government in South Sudan can solve.

However, it is important to point out that there must be a political will from two leaders who have just signed the cease fire to solve the problems of South Sudan once and for all.
Furthermore, in order to form interim government that can solve the problems of South Sudan the two leaders must have the following in minds:

The formation of the interim government should take place on a footing that President Kiir and Riek are not part of it. This is because if the two are going to be accommodated in it, the power struggle is not going to cease.

Therefore, the only way out of the current impasse is to exclude two leaders and get completely neutral government that is going to work for the unity of the country.

If Riek is going to be allowed to take part in the interim government then the other possible problem that will come is that Riek may not accept his rebels to be disarmed or absorbed into the national arm and such refusal will be a setback to the peace building.

It will be a setback because the refusal by Riek for the disarmament of his rebels will further create another problem of insecurity for the country and the citizens because the government will not have effective control over the persons with arms.

As a result, there will be proliferation of arms into civil population, which will be insecurity to the citizens to citizens in general.

The advantage of the interim government without Riek and Kiir is the trust will be restored. Once it is formed, the first thing I expect the interim government to do is to sit down to write the New Constitution of South Sudan that contains provisions on federalism not decentralism and besides consecutive two terms limit.

Finally, the interim government must also conduct general elections in states and counties as a way of empowering citizens to choose leaders in their own states and counties. Carrying out elections at states and counties’ levels is important because it will prepare the way for the social transformation. This is because the citizens can get leaders that are accountable to them.

In addition, elections at state levels will not cause any problems because the people of states will conduct such elections peacefully. The elections that can be difficult to conduct at this time will be presidential candidates because of the volatility of the situation.

Therefore, the only way to ensure the above suggestions to be effectively implemented is that Riek and Kiir should not part of the Transitional Government though they may be part of the solution.

As I noted on my previous article on the solution to the present problems in South Sudan, I in addition propose that if transitional government is set up, the body to lead that government should be a committee of the ten people selected from ten states.

The role of that committee should be to restore trust of the public in the government, to reconcile the people of South Sudan especially Nuer and Dinka by enacting of the new constitution which will be a supreme law of the land.

The Committee should also prepare the country for the general elections that will take place one year after the formation of the committee.

In summary, the war in South Sudan has claimed many lives and there is a need to look for proper solutions that will completely bring to an end all carnages and destructions that have been going in the country since December 15, 2014.

The interim government must learn from the mistakes of the present government and ensure that all those weaknesses with the current government are avoided.

NB//: The Authority is Fourth Year Law Student School of Law Makerere University and he can be reached through the following contacts: ; +256783579256

We signed peace deal under duress, Kiir claims


South Sudan President Salva Kiir has claimed that he and former vice president turned rebel leader Dr Riek Machar signed a peace deal Friday in Addis Ababa to avoid threats of arrest by Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn.

The truce, which has so far been violated, was intended to end five months of deadly violence in which both sides have been accused of widespread human rights abuse.

Mr Kiir said after a lengthy meeting with Mr Machar, that Prime Minister Dessalegn came to him to say the problem had become so tough.

“This matter has involved threats. He (PM) told Riek that you are not going if you don’t sign this,” Mr Kiir said, referring to a proposed peace deal.

“He told me the same in the morning. He told me that ‘if you don’t sign this, I will arrest you here’,” Mr Kiir told a crowd at Juba International airport upon his arrival in the country on Sunday.

“I said ‘if you arrest me in this good place, I am sure I will get good food. So there will be no need to return to Juba. You will feed me for free here,” he said.

He said the PM gave Mr Machar copies of the proposed peace deal, which he signed.

He said he asked for time to present them to his negotiation team before signing.

Mr Machar’s spokesman had earlier denied any face to face talks between the two principals as earlier demanded by the United States secretary of state John Kerry.

South Sudan descended into chaos after a failed December 15 coup which President Kiir claimed was organised by Mr Machar.

Mr Machar denied the claims but quickly mobilised a rebellion.

The war has claimed thousands of lives and more than 1.2 million people forced to flee their homes.

The Kiir-Machar peace deal was the latest attempt to bring an end to the bloodshed.

The deal included humanitarian access corridors and the formation of a transitional government to run the country on an agreed upon program until the elections.

But two days after the signing, army spokesman accused rebels of violating the truce. The rebels denied that they first attacked the government positions, but insisted that the army had attacked them in several fronts. could not independently verify the claims.


JUBA, Daily Nation, NAIROBI, MAY/11/2014, SSN;

South Sudan’s government and rebels accused each other Sunday of breaking a ceasefire just hours after it came into effect, dealing an early blow to hopes for an end to the five-month civil war.

A statement from the rebels accused government soldiers loyal to President Salva Kiir of launching ground attacks and artillery barrages against their positions in two oil-rich northern states, while the government insisted the rebels attacked first.

“The violations of the Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan shows that Kiir is either insincere or not in control of his forces,” rebel military spokesman Lul Ruai Koang said.

Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar met in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa on Friday and agreed to halt fighting within 24 hours — or by late Saturday evening.

The two sides had agreed to a ceasefire in January, but that deal quickly fell apart and unleashed a new round of fierce fighting.

Clashes were also reported around the northern oil hub of Bentiu — the Unity state capital which has changed hands several times in recent weeks and has been described as being particularly tense.

Independent aid sources in the town confirmed they could hear fighting, but added it was impossible to say which side started fighting first.

The rebels said government troops also attacked in neighbouring Upper Nile State, and that they reserved “the right to fight in self-defence”.

But South Sudan’s defence minister, Kuol Manyang, told AFP that it was the rebels who attacked first in Bentiu and that the opposition suffered heavy casualties.

“They attacked first thing this morning. They attacked our position and 27 of them were killed. They have a policy of attacking then going to the media,” he said.

Kiir’s spokesman, Ateny Wek, also asserted that government commanders were under clear orders not to fight, unless in self-defence.

“The orders have been given to the army to start observing arrangements for the cessation of hostilities,” he said, adding: “The right to self defence had not been waived by the agreement.”


Observers, however, have said both side will face challenges in implementing a truce, with the rebels made up of a loose coalition of army defectors, ethnic rebels and allegedly mercenaries from Sudan. On the government side, the command structure under Kiir is also seen as being weak.

The peace deal signed on Friday came after massive international pressure on both sides to stop a war marked by widespread human rights abuses, a major humanitarian crisis and fears the world’s youngest nation was on the brink of a genocide and Africa’s worst famine since the 1980s.

The war has claimed thousands — and possibly tens of thousands — of lives, with more than 1.2 million people forced to flee their homes.

The conflict, which started as a personal rivalry between Kiir and Machar, has seen the army and communities divide along ethnic lines, pitting members of Kiir’s Dinka tribe against Machar’s Nuer.

UN rights chief Navi Pillay, a former head of the UN genocide court for Rwanda, said she recognised “many of the precursors of genocide” listed in a UN report on atrocities that was released during the week.

These included broadcasts urging rape and “attacks on civilians in hospitals, churches and mosques, even attacks on people sheltering in UN compounds — all on the basis of the victims’ ethnicity”.

Testimonies in a report this week by Amnesty International describe civilians, including children, executed by the side of the road “like sheep” and other victims “grotesquely mutilated” with their lips sliced off.

The war erupted on December 15 with Kiir accusing Machar of attempting a coup. Machar then fled to the bush to launch a rebellion, insisting that the president had attempted to carry out a bloody purge of his rivals.

Addis Ababa 9 May 2014, SSN;

I.G.A.D Agreement to Resolve the Crisis in South Sudan

We the undersigned:

1- Recognize that there is no military solution to the crisis in South Sudan, and that a sustainable peace can be achieved only through inclusive political dialogue;

2- Understand the need to take bold decisions, in the interest of national reconciliation, that can guide the country to a new political dispensation and a permanent constitutional order;

3- Agree to immediately cease all hostile activities with twenty for(24) hours of the signing of this agreement, thus re-dedicating ourselves to the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 23 January 2014; and further agree to facilitate the full deployment of IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism(MVM).

4- Commit to disengage and separate forces and refrain from any provocative action or combat movement until a permanent cease fire is agreed and signed;

5- Agree to issue orders to all their respective commands and units, on signing of the agreement, instructing full and immediate cessation of hostilities, cooperation with the IGAD MVM, and facilitation of humanitarian access; and the receipt of orders at command level shall be verified by the IGAD MVM in a week after signing this agreement;

6- Agree to open humanitarian corridors, in accordance with the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 23 January 2014, and the 5 May 2014 “Recommitment on Humanitarian Matters in the CoH Agreement”; and to cooperate, unconditionally, with the UN and humanitarian agencies to ensure that humanitarian aid reaches affected populations in all areas of South Sudan.

7- Resolve to engage in substantive discussions, via the IGAD-led peace process, on the Agenda as constituted by the mediation process;

8- Agree that a transitional government of national unity will offer the best chance for the people of South Sudan to take the country forward; and that such a government shall oversee government functions during a transitional period, implement critical reforms as negotiated through the peace process, oversee a permanent constitutional process, and guide the country to new elections; and thus direct our respective representatives to the IGAD- led peace process to negotiate the terms of a transitional government of national unity;

9- Agree to ensure the inclusion of all South Sudanese stakeholders in the peace process, and the negotiation of a transitional government of national unity, in order to ensure broad ownership of the agreed outcomes; stakeholders include: the two direct negotiators (the GRSS and the SPLM/A in Opposition), and others such as the SPLM leaders (former detainees), political parties, civil society, and faith-based leaders.

10- Agree that these other stakeholders shall participate in negotiations on transitional governance, the permanent constitution, and any other items that concern the political future of the country and reconciliation of South Sudanese communities.

11- Agree to fully cooperate with the AU Commission of inquiry and facilitate implementation of its forthcoming recommendations;

12- Agree to meet again, within one month, under IGAD auspices, to facilitate continued progress on the aforementioned issues and resolution of the crisis;

Signed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 9 May 2014.

……………………………………. …………….……………
Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit Dr. Riek Machar Teny
President, the Republic of Chairman,SPLM/A
South Sudan (In Opposition) And former
Vice President, the GRSS


Hailemariam Dessalegn
Prime Minister of the FDRE and
Chairman of IGAD Assembly

Witnessed by the
IGAD Special Envoys

………………………H.E. Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, Chairperson of the Mediation Process

…………………..H.E. General Lazaro K. Sumbeiywo

……………………H.E. General Mohamed Ahmed El-Dabi

Emmanuel Igunza
BBC News, Addis Ababa
The next few days will be critical for both President Kiir and Mr Machar as the ceasefire comes into effect. They will show just how much the two men are in control of their respective commanders and troops on the ground.

Observers have argued that both men have lost control and more crucially, the support of some of those who bitterly fought under their names when the conflict broke out last December. They are also still highly suspicious of each other, as evidenced by their speeches after they signed the deal. Both maintain their versions on whether there was an attempted coup in South Sudan, the genesis of this crisis.

The negotiations to reach this peace deal have been long and tedious with both sides holding firm to their demands.

Expect no difference as they begin discussions on formation of a transitional government ahead of fresh elections. The international community has been clear that this is no longer about Kiir and Machar. It is about the millions of people who have been left homeless, and about justice for those killed in the conflict.

Setting up an interim government in an atmosphere of deep fear and anger will be a major challenge for the world’s newest state.
“I had no reason to bring South Sudan to war,” Machar told Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn and envoys.

Kiir and Machar have been locked in a long-running power struggle that intensified after the president sacked Machar as his deputy in July.

Interim government
Negotiators from the two sides will now hammer out the terms of an interim government that will guide the country of 10 million people to elections in 2015, the agreement said.

Those discussions may be hard fought. Machar told Reuters in January that Kiir had lost the people’s trust and should resign – a demand some in his camp were still making earlier on Friday.

But Kiir’s ministers say the president would not quit.

One Western diplomat said there was a push for the peace process to include former political prisoners, the church and local civil society groups.

“You can’t leave it to warring guys because then it’s basically about who gets what part of the cake,” said the Juba-based Western diplomat. “These (talks) are a fundamental review of where the country is going and on what basis.” –Reuters