Archive for: July 2013

US $ 8million Corruption Case: Alor & Kosti definitely GUILTY

BY: JOHN MAYEN JURKUCH, South Sudan, JUL/06/2013, SSN;

1. Mapping the Case

• In the aftermath of the embarrassing and dreadful event of the burning of the office block of the President in his residence, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of South Sudan in its regular meeting No. 05/2012 dated 10th February, 2012 in resolution No. 6 resolved to:

‘Express concern, in the light of the recent fire that gutted the office block at the official residence of the President of the Republic, about fire safety for public buildings and accordingly directs the Minister of Housing and Physical Planning and minister of Electricity and Dams to make a general inspection of electric wiring in all government buildings: residences and offices.

• Mr. Deng Alor, the minister of Cabinet affairs, allegedly cunningly woke-up on the morning of the 28th November, 2012, and decided to write to the Deputy Minister of Finance and Economic Planning, Dr. Marial Awou directing him to pay for ‘Fire-resistant Safes for Storing confidential and classified government documents’.

• As an allegedly experienced thief, Deng Alor saw a window of opportunity knowing that whenever you mention ‘President’ and ‘Security,’ people in Finance and Economic Planning ministry panic; illegally expanded the mandate and interpretation of the resolution to say ‘this resolution also requires that all confidential, secret and classified documents be protected from damage arising from fire’. Further, that ‘as part of implementing the resolution, I would like that your office facilitates the payment of these fire-resistant safes that will be used for storing confidential and classified government documents’.

• Furthermore, he allegedly single sourced and attached proforma Invoice from Daffy Supplies International Ltd; apparently his group theft customer, for the amount of $7,950,000 and furthermore that ‘the fund should be facilitated from the overall budget of the Republic of South Sudan’.

• The Deputy Minister of finance, Dr. Marial, on receipt of Deng’s letter allegedly wrote to the Under-secretary on the 28/11/2012 thus: ‘To take necessary action in the installation of these safes in government offices. Payment will be done when the financial situation of the country improves’. Somehow, contrary to the instructions of the Under-Secretary, one of the officials, Peter Garang, allegedly generated a Payment Claim Form on the 04/12/2012 with instructions from Under-secretary Salvatore Garang who signed the Form on the 05/05/2012; kick starting and ushering the case into the system for payment.

• Sometime in January (document not clear from repeated photocopying), Minister Kosti Manibe allegedly wrote that ‘when preparing for the next allocation of cash, this case should be given high priority……). On the 25th of Jan. 2012 the Managing Director of the Company wrote to the 1st Under-Secretary of Finance, requesting for the transfer of the $ 7,950,000 for the supply and delivery of Sensitive government equipment to the Republic of South Sudan. On the 28/01/2012 Salvatore Garang allegedly wrote to the D/G of Accounts that ‘to b/f to cash management committee for action’.

• Then on the 5/02/2013 Minister Kosti Manibe wrote again to the Under-secretary saying ‘bring for cash allocation tomorrow 6/02/2013’. The Acting Under-secretary Mr. Wani Buyu quarried the Acting D/G for Administration & Finance asking him to check the nature of the case and to let him know. The D/G writes back saying ‘this is a claim from Cabinet Affairs for Security of Important installations (bad English, but that is what it says).

• Apparently the cash management committee did not meet that day. But Minister Kostie summoned the Acting Under-Secretary Wani Buyu and allegedly directed him to make payment. Wani in turn ordered and directed Simon Kimang to proceed and indeed the money left Juba for eating in Nairobi, again!

2. Double guilty and must be Criminalized big time once and for all!

2.1 Why Deng Alor is Guilty

• The resolution did not concern the Ministry of Cabinet Affairs or the Minister to follow-up. The fact that Deng re-interpreted the resolution proves his intention to mislead the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning and to swindle government money in his usual ways to further en-rich himself and family at the expense of our country and people even during a biting austerity regime.

• The resolution made no mention of Anti-Fire Cabins, but covered ‘offices’ as a mechanism of protecting the important confidential and classified government documents Deng was referring to in his corrupt interpretation of the resolution; further proves of his bad intention.

• Deng Alor knowing there is no budget to implement the resolution as yet, pending submission of the inspection report from the two Ministers referred to in the resolution, allegedly directed the Ministry of Finance to avail the funds from ‘the overall budget of the Republic of South Sudan’. Just see the audacity of this genetic thief!

• Deng, did you share the money you have been allegedly stealing since the time of Dr. John with the people of Abyei? Last time you, your brother Dr. Luka Biong and your cousin stole $15,000,000 in the name of Abyei but ended up paying EYAT COMPANY and then shared the money out to yourselves. Did you not know Abyei then?

Idiot, you suffer your shame and stop talking about Salva fighting you politically. Everybody knows how you lie, manipulate leaders and get others into trouble. You did that with Dr. John and President Salva. Now that Salva has understood your theft, you change the story into politics? Too bad you fool!

2.2 Why Kosti is Guilty

• Yes, Kosti did not initially authorize payment and indeed Dr. Marial should have checked the resolution and the procurement procedure before recommending the installation of the anti-fire cabins; but at least he recommended that payment be made ‘when the financial situation of the Country improves’ because Deng misled him to the effect that the fire units have been delivered already!

• But Kosti being the Senior Minister should have detected this error and stopped payment. Instead he expedited and sanctioned payment even contrary to the recommendation of his Deputy.

• It is well known that Deng Alor goes around saying he brought Kosti to the Ministry of Finance and so we have the right to conclude that they have been eating together and this is just one of the many cases. Going around saying I did not sign the document is nonsense, you thief.

And stop fooling yourself that you are a victim of politics, what politics do you know, and asking Equatorians to stand with you. When you were stealing did you ask for the views of Equatorians? The millions you allegedly collected from the Dura Traders is not enough for you…… you carry your own cross and get to prison, stupid!

2.3 The Problem now is how to confirm Deng Alor and Kosti Manibe Guilty

• Mulana Gatwich Lul, the Anti-Corruption Commission chairman, is the real problem now and must be judged properly this time round. Recently he cleared the Senior Staff who have been stealing in the office of the President against all odds.

• Deng Alor is supposed to be powerful and has been manipulating the President on behalf of the group. If Deng and his corruption money-rich friends, especially the other alleged senior thieves from Shuluk Land Pagan Amum who has the guts to challenge the President for taking action against his fellow thieves, allegedly pay Lul money, do not be surprised to see Lul Gatwich declaring the two thieves not guilty.

• Pagan reportedly tells the President that Deng is a founding member of the SPLM and Kosti is a member of the SPLM leadership; the matter should have been resolved in the SPLM. What? Then there is no need to talk about fighting corruption because all the thieves in South Sudan are members of the SPLM.

• Pagan, who do you want to be arrested, the poor innocent people while the big thieves like are protected for being leaders in the SPLM? People like you Pagan should shut-up and stop lying to yourselves that you want to be the President of South Sudan; to sell the entire Country. Your alleged money in the bank is well known everywhere, Pagan! Do not try President Salva or you will be kicked in the butt…..OoooPS! The man you call toothless has borrowed teeth and he is now ready to bite you, believe me!

• You, Gatwich Lul, I have given the people of South Sudan the true narrative to prove that Deng Alor, your friend, and Kosti Manibe the foolish man who got himself into trouble for nothing, are guilty. They had intention to allegedly steal from the government for their self enrichment Scheme.

 No resolution to buy Fire resistant units
 No authorization from Cabinet
 Single sourcing; failing to follow procurement procedures
 Lying that equipments have been supplied and delivered, when up to now nothing
 Ministries have no money to operate and they go stealing millions of dollars; paid at once.
 Kosti knew that the resolution was not relevant to Cabinet Affairs, that there is no money, that procures were not followed and instead of cancelling the case and taking disciplinary measures against his people, he sanctioned payment.

Chairman LUL, these are the facts and you cannot get away with it. If you mess around we will open a court case against you for corruption, because instead of protecting South Sudan from corruption, you are encouraging corruption. We are watching you, Mr. Lul Gatwich!

John Mayen Jurkuch
(More to come soon)

‘A Failed State Status’ overshadows the country’s second Independence Anniversary!

BY: Justin Ambago Ramba, UK, JUL/04/2013, SSN;

South Sudan, the world’s youngest nation, only two years old, for that matter, but as a direct consequence of the poor leadership style by its elites who are largely drawn from the former liberation movement, mostly last minute – ‘Post Naivasha converts’, the country has been fast tracked to face life’s most unpleasant experience. The experience of having been consciously failed by corrupt politicians, then labelled a failed state, and then expected to celebrate an independence and freedom that only exist in the books and the country’s constitution, but nowhere else on the ground.

No normal human being goes around celebrating failure, and still expects not to be seen as one who rightly deserves it. But there is now a coincidence, and a precedent is about to be set, if you can call it so, as the Failed States Index 2013 Launch Event is scheduled by the Fund for Peace for Tuesday, July 9, 2013 – 9.00am-11.30am at The University Club, 1135 16th St NW, Washington, D.C. – the same day south Sudan is also set to mark its second independence anniversary.

Whether it is an arrangement or mere coincidence, it is bound to have a huge impact on how South Sudan will eventually celebrate its second Independence Day Anniversary – unfortunately as a failed state with an alert sign of impending, imminent and probably inevitable and what… etc…………..crisis. God only knows!

In this particular case however, it could still be argued whether the country went on to become a failure after it had seceded from Sudan, or was it in fact born a failed state? Like a rat giving birth only to another rat; so has the long failed Sudanese state given birth to a failed off spring – the Republic of South Sudan? Yet a failed state simply refers to a state that has failed to protect and provide services for its citizens.

To many people including the author, South Sudan’s secession from Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 was supposed to mean independence from Khartoum. However, evidence has it that the new country under the current SPLM’s leadership seems more drawn towards its previous foes.

Borders have never been demarcated, and millions of citizens remain trapped in the wrong country, most of who are forced to live a sub human life, under the weight of a political decision that they took, but were not followed by parallel action by their politicians in the new state. As I write now, many South Sudanese citizens are preparing to celebrate yet another independence anniversary in “Babylon” against their wishes, while they await transportation back to their ancestral homes in South Sudan.

Possibly out of intricate economic and security necessities, neither Sudan nor South Sudan seems ready yet to let go of each other. The umbilical cord now left only in the form of the pipelines that navigate through the swampy terrains deep in the hinterlands, then across the desert to Port Sudan on the Red Sea, continues to connect Oil fields of South Sudan to the international market.

Do you call this independence, dependence of interdependence?

It could be this continuous dependence by this new state on its former rulers in Khartoum for trade and export route that has invariably impacted on the various aspects of life to its citizens. Already a new South has emerged in the new state of Sudan following the secession of South Sudan, and is battling the central government in Khartoum.

To ignore the stability or the absence of it, along the borders of the two now separate countries, and their effects on both sides, is to pull a blanket on a huge mountain on facts which obviously led to where the two countries are now, with Sudan and South Sudan occupying the third and four positions respectively in 2013’s list of the failed states.

Talking about the Failed States Index, the United States’ think-tank, the Fund for Peace, which annually releases its list of the world’s failed states, uses a system where it grades countries according to how seriously and terribly they have failed.

The think-tank also classifies the situations in these countries as: Critical, In Danger, Borderline, and Stable and Most Stable. If you prefer to read the list in the traditional way, that we commonly use in our educational system, putting the best candidates in the top positions; you simply turn the list upside down. But because this exercise is mainly to measure failure and not the other way round, hence it is produced the way it is.

Completely befitting the realities on the ground the 2013 list of countries by order of appearance in the Failed States Index of the United States think-tank Fund for Peace, stands with Somalia, DR. Congo, Republic of Sudan, Republic of South Sudan, etc ………in that order. Together with others, these countries are very weak and are all in a critical situation, needing immediate local, regional and international attention.

Failed states have several attributes in common e.g.: Weak and/or ineffective central government that has little practical control over much of its territory; failure to provide public services; rampant corruption and widespread crimes; refugees and forceful displacement of populations; sharp economic decline.

U.S. National Security Strategy America of the 2002 concluded that the US policy makers were now threatened less by conquering states than they are by failing ones.” For a country whose foreign policy in the 20th century was dominated by the struggles against powerful states such as Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union, the U.S. assessment is striking.

The US administration isn’t alone in diagnosing the problem. U.N. former Secretary-General Kofi Annan had warned that “ignoring failed states creates problems that sometimes come back to bite us.” the French former President Jacques Chirac also spoken of “the threat that failed states carry for the world’s equilibrium.” World leaders once only worried about who was amassing power; now are worried about the absence of it.

Long before this 2013 failed states list was released, many other reports compiled by renowned International organisations have preceded it, expressing much criticism of South Sudan under President Salva Kiir’s SPLM rule.

Some SPLM apologists, driven by the ‘herd mentality’, were quick to condemn these reports, as they exposed the massive and continuous encroachment on citizens’ Human Rights by state agents, lack of free speech, curtailed or absent free press, compromised rule of law…etc.

While well-known SPLM apologists continue to refer to every report that is critical of the SPLM government’s records specifically on Rights, and calling it fabricated and unrealistic, this time around my surprise was unmatched, as the government’s mouth piece seems to have matured-up over the years, given his silence, since the coming of the 2013’s list of failed states into the public domain.

SPLM ‘Thomases’ not satisfied with the report can demonstrate self-respect and political maturity by scoring the government’s performance against the 12 factors, in a kind of self-audit to see where the government of the day stands in as far as issues including security threats, economic implosion, human rights violations and refugee flows.

Those who want to know more about the Failed State Index are advised to visit the Organisation’s website, however I have included in this article, for the purpose of quick reference all the Factors used by Fund for Peace to ascertain the status of a country.

Social factors: Mounting demographic pressures, Massive displacement of refugees, creating severe humanitarian emergencies, widespread vengeance-seeking group grievance, Chronic and sustained human flight.

Economic factors: Uneven economic development along group lines; severe economic decline.

Political factors: Criminalization and/or delegitimization of the state – Deterioration of public services. Suspension or arbitrary application of law; widespread human rights abuses; Security apparatus operating as a “state within a state”; Rise of factionalized elites; Intervention of external political agents.

South Sudanese have, come a long since the 1947 Juba Conference, with loads and loads of experiences which should have taught them many things, the most outstanding being that social evolution is always a history of accidents, and un-intended consequences. Out of frustration, we have heard people saying that had ever visualized that some nincompoops would skewer South Sudan’s dream or disembowel their great grand parents’ vision for an independent egalitarian South Sudan; they would have elected to let the country implode on its inglorious weight.

Again equally, those seeking to resurrect current leadership as the best thing not to happen to South Sudan, seem to forget their roles in the bush politics, and subsequently in the Government of South Sudan (GoSS) which they were able to convert in the broadness of the day to another GoSS of their own making, the Government of Self Service, and the fact that history punctually recorded them as the men and women who led the introduction of tribalism and mediocrity into South Sudanese politics.

Today, people glorify the politicians that rendered the South Sudanese dream of years, and decades a fractured fairy tale. Many passively consult a historical amnesia that betrays buffoonery, while others actively seek to doctor or revise history, in order to rehabilitate the self-battered images of the tribal gods of their political pantheon.

Members of the National Legislative Assembly, the Council of States and the ten States’ Assemblies, who prefer convenient compromises to hard choices born of principles, which have been the furniture of immortal and revolutionary changes, are equally guilty of failure to challenge the non-visionary policies of the executive, while consciously rubber-stamping whatever comes their way.

The outcome is that before they realized, they have been crowned the best bunch sycophants to have led the new born country into premature failure, breaking with it all the set records in the failed states indices and their histories.

No doubt these men are great and original. But unfortunately the parts of them that are great are not original, and the parts of them that are original are not great. These flaws in their individual characters, is meant to sabotage whatever dreams they claim to have because the colour of one’s dreams must issue from the colour of one’s eyes.

These people unfortunately, are the principal players, upon whose shoulders will lay the responsibility of fast tracking South Sudan into the infamous club of failed states. Like many other sub Saharan African countries, South Sudan is a nation, from an amorphously, conscripted conglomeration of tribes.

Ontologically compromised by circumstances surrounding her birth, it could only take men of great genius, charisma and invincible character, to forge a nation out of a motley band of strange bedfellows.

Subsequently today’s government has wrecked South Sudan beyond measure. Ethnicity has been enthroned. Bad leadership mutated and peaked. Military brigands and civilian thieves now hold south Sudan to a ransom; creating a cabal of elitist leeches, masquerading as patriots. South Sudan has become a playground of international mafia. They sell and buy, ranging from everything to nothing.

Today President Salva Kiir and the embattled SPLM ruling party are set to navigate the entire country on a rudderless ship. Riddled with corruption, people have come to see the status quo as the triumph of greed and superlative kleptomania. While they pretended to have been shocked by the news of the country being declared a failed state, only in that case better than Sudan, DR. Congo and Somalia, these criminals are responsible for every bit of this mess.

The important question here and now is, whether this status of being a failed state, a thing that is likely to remain with the country, or are there ways out of it and how, if any? Based on the 12 parameters of state failure, it is apparent that South Sudan has become what it is now as a consequence of many processes that entered into interplay, since the day the Arab slave traders and their white European colonialists counterparts set feet on the land following the infamous Berlin’s 1884 Scramble for Africa Conference.

Africa’s states were designed to fail; Sudan and so South Sudan are no exceptions. First they were designed by people who had only their Imperialistic interest at heart. If there was any love in them for anything African, it was for the continents natural resources and cheap labour. It took both the invaders and their native puppets to disfranchise this giant of a land.

But when it comes to undoing of this mess that has piled up since the dawn of history, it is only true visionary and selfless sons and daughters of the land, who can be looked to, to undertake the task. The fact that South Sudan now ranks the fourth among the failed states is indeed a thing to worry about. But there comes another bigger, should things continue to go in this same direction – from bad to worse.

Whereas reluctance by the political forces to take the Failed states index report seriously and embark on seeking a consensus to bring about a radical change in the status quo, from the top to the bottom, any sluggishness poses yet a threat that could drag the new country towards the top of the list, to rub shoulders more intimately with those of Somalia and the DR. Congo.

Unfortunately these are all possible Scenarios given the current leadership style. This week has made itself, a week for contemplations and not celebrations.

Author: Justin Ambago Ramba. He can be reached at:

Wide spread civil conflict may start from Malakal

BY: Yorwin Otor, SOUTH SUDAN, JUL/04/2013, SSN;

For those who are familiar with Malakal conflicts through 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2011 may now know some indicators might precipitate the next conflict that will start from Malakal and go on to engulf the whole South Sudan are currently strong. What remains is who will start this war. Some of these possible indicators that might lead to a civil conflict include the land grabbing by Dinka.

Akoka was a Payam of Baliet County before it was turned into a county by former Governor Gatluak Deng Garang. Akoka should have come out with its Payam borders. Instead now, this county is expanding its borders into Shilluk territory. Because of its lesser population, it does not have a member in the parliament.

The authorities of this area not leaving the Shilluk in peace in Fashoda and Makal Counties. They have become the source of insecurity. If they have sincere claim over Shilluk land, why can’t it be settled in a peaceful manner in a conference or dialogue?

Recently, the Commissioner of Akoka smashed the sign board of Makal County knowing the fact Makal and Akoka do not share any borders. Akoka Payam now county has borders with Melute, Longochuk and Baliet Counties respectively. Why are these borders not disputed? The commissioner was briefly suspended from duties but, re-instated by Governor Simon Kun Pouch upon his return from sick leave. The messages of congratulations for his instalment came from Nuer groups.

Recently, SPLM-DC applied for permission to celebrate their fourth anniversary for the formation of their party formation. The permission was denied by Deputy Governor in which SPLM-DC stepped down. In another event, Collo University Graduates Association asked for permission to conduct a conference for formation of the association in River Port Hall which was granted.

Rumours went around that the event was another SPLM-DC celebration and Dr. Lam Akol has sneaked into Malakal town to address the occasion. SPLA was put on alert to prevent Dr. Lam Akol entering into Malakal. Some prominent Shilluk houses have been searched at night but with failure. If DR. Lam is a fugitive who’s not allowed by SPLM with its armed wing SPLA to come to his home town Malakal, then this also applies to the entire South Sudan.

Why should people and especially SPLM members forbide Dr. Lam not being in Juba? The search for him in Malakal is an indication that his life is in danger. On the day of the conference, police was sent to disperse this conference, but the graduates stood firmed and gave the police their permit. But if the graduates were to resist and went roiting on the streets, what could have happened? The police could shot at them especially if they are Shilluk. The Nuer government is holistically targeting Shilluk even the Shilluk who die heart SPLM members.

Another episode occurred during the burial of Ustaz James Ogil at Apiew in Adhithang, a Shilluk village across River Sobat. This area was occupied by Akobo Nuer and Dinka during the 20 years civil war. SPLA disabled persons have settled in this village. The first batch of mourners that went to prepare for the burial were seriously beaten and were threatened to be shot. The burial took place the next day only after SPLA protection was provided miraculously from an unknown source.

The border conflict due to land grabbing by Dinka and bullying by the Nuer against the Shilluk has become a thorn in the flesh. No matter how much the Shilluk population is forced into cowardice by these terrifying events, one day pushing somebody against the wall might cause a reaction.

The response of Johnson Olony to the amnesty could ease the usual accusation against the Shilluk and SPLM-DC. But what remains to be seen will be the reaction of SPLA and government in Juba. Olony is currently in Juba, but, there are rumours that the President is refusing to meet with him. He will be in difficult situation if SPLA prevents him to let him come to join his forces in Lul Payam, Upper Nile State.

Akoka Dinka are eyeing Olony as a potential threat to their claim over Shilluk land on the east bank of the Nile. It is unlikely that Juba will respond to Olony positively. He is already in a lion’s den

Currently, indicators for potential danger that might probably ignite a civil war from Malakal are many. The above mentioned indicators are quite enough. It is a matter of time and it will happen. Let us keep our fingers crossed.

Yorwin Otor

The broken social boundaries in South Sudan

BY: ELHAG PAUL, South Sudan, JUL/04/2013, SSN;

The third Equatoria meeting in two years dubbed ‘Equatoria Consultative Conference’ with the theme “Fostering Equatoria Leadership in Building Cohesive Nation” held on 8th and 9th May 2013 at Nyakoruon Cultural Centre in Juba, rattled the presidency. It is reliably reported that both the president and his deputy were furious with the three governors of Equatoria for holding the conference although Bahr El Ghazal later followed suit. In the article ‘Machar warns against sliding into regional politics in the country’ (Sudan Tribune, 2nd June 2013) the vice president makes his views against Equatoria’s right to association clear confirming the report.

Surely, there is nothing wrong with regionalism but what we are seeing is a display of ignorance and unfounded fear from ill informed people and this is what is holding the country back from development.

Unlike the fanatic opponents of regionalism, Dr Machar is not ignorant, but he is an opportunist who wants to exploit every loophole available to get his paws on the presidency of Republic of South Sudan. Compare and contrast his stance against regionalism with his support for federalism in the article ‘Vice-president says federal system best for governing South Sudan’ (Sudan Tribune 4th June 3023)

In short, in all this hocus pocus of regionalism and federalism, deep inside Dr Machar lies feelings of insecurity masked by his flashing smile. He is basically afraid of SPLM Oyee losing power. He prefers to use the securely built-in tribalism in the Oyee machine to accede to the presidency.

It is understood that both president Kiir and Dr Machar ranted demanding to know why Equatorians were meeting at that particular time and what good would that bring to the country. Strange! Is it not? What is wrong with Equatorians meeting? Do they not have any right to meet? Of-course they do, but remember that this ridiculous questioning is part of a strategy used by the ruling ethnic groups to keep the whole region of Equatoria under their control within the SPLM Oyee machine.

After all, what is the point of trying to humiliate the governors when the whole event was transparent and more over the resolutions of the conference was submitted to them?

President Kiir and his deputy want to be the ones to tell Equatorians what they can do and what they can not do. This is important for them because they can only exercise unfettered power in the country (which they have done now for three decades) by keeping the Equatorians divided and in a state of confusion.

Just as Willie Lynch, the enslaver, controlled African slaves in America in 18th century, through, “fear, distrust and envy”, the duo is attempting to do the same in Equatoria. After all, Dr John Garang did it before them.

The biggest threat to the current system is the coming of Equatorians together because if the Equatorians unite, the other equally oppressed tribes in the whole country are likely to gravitate towards them and this would mean the end of the current abusive rule. So, although president Kiir and his deputy Dr Machar are at each other’s throat now, they are united in keeping Equatoria down.

Assured by their control of the various militia groups in the country and the sad history of Equatoria in the last three decades, both president Kiir and Dr Machar now want to guarantee that Equatoria remains cowed without any leaders for them to continue with their exploitation of the country.

The reported interaction between the governors and the presidency amounts to intimidation which constitutes violence on the part of the presidency in pursuance and maintenance of oppression.

Jieng oppression is crystal clear for everyone to see in the country. It does not need research to validate or digging into to convince people. It is there in your face. It saturates the entire space of South Sudan. The starkest evidence is illustrated by the problem of boundaries.

Since 1983 through the SPLM/A, the dominant ruling groups violated all the boundaries that existed between them and the other groups in South Sudan. The concept of boundary often is ignored by people. But in reality it is the most important aspect in relationship. Respect between individuals and communities are maintained by boundaries.

In a sense boundaries governs behaviours of people and through it problems are either solved, or exacerbated between individuals and communities. Therefore, without question it is a very important aspect in maintenance of peace and stability.

It is only in cases of oppressed groups that often one finds that their boundaries in terms of space, bodies, environment (land), interaction and traditional laws are violated by invaders at will.

Oppressors like president Kiir and his deputy believing in their illegitimate power find it easy to disrespect the Equatorians by carpeting their governors for exercising their right to free association. They intrude into spaces which under normal situation they should not. This intrusion is serious because it deprives the Equatorians of the ability to think freely and decide on their affairs without duress.

Whether the presidency appointed them or not, the fact that these governors now are accepted as leaders of Equatoria they must be given that respect of free association with their people. After all, the right to free association is enshrined in the interim constitution of South Sudan.

President Kiir in Yei in 1997 audaciously called Equatorians ‘cowards and women’ in public meeting. He repeated the same utterance in Yei in 2004. This abuse might not have been taken serious at the time, but it actually served to undermine self-worth and confidence of the Equatorians. It was an attack on their bodies. It injured their inner selves making them feel powerless.

The current inaction of Equatorians which is induced helplessness is down to the negative language that the Jieng use frequently to violate the boundaries of Equatorian bodies. Thus the language used to disarm an opponent is therefore the weapon that breaks the core of the self in relationship. It is also the tool that stratifies societies into classes, have and have-nots, empowered and dis-empowered and so on.

Another violation of boundaries relates to the manner in which Equatorian girls/women are treated by the Jieng. Unprotected, given the fact that their men have been divided and terrorised, in most cases, against their will, the women are violated and abused helplessly.

For instance, in 1990s Mangar, the SPLA commander in Kaya murdered a young beautiful girl named Maka by inserting a metal object into her private parts and twisting it round, because she refused to marry him. Such stories are plenty and wait to be told in details. It is unfortunate that the so called healing and reconciliation programme may not even touch such stories.

Similarly, the issue of land grabbing in Equatoria has at its core the fact that the boundaries of environment in Equatoria have been destroyed. The dominant ruling groups do not care or recognise that there are local rules and laws that govern the distribution of land in Equatoria. Knowing very well that they are the powers that be, they freely grab land wherever they feel like with impunity causing the local people immense pain.

These oppressors leave their villages and lands intact and deliberately come to destabilise settled communities in Equatoria because they control the SPLM/A Oyee machine and therefore the government of South Sudan. Take for example the case of Nimule where the Jieng are basically running riot as if they were the indigenous people.

The broken boundaries of Equatoria both tangible and intangible are things that the oppressors want to maintain at all cost if Equatoria is to remain nothing in the politics of South Sudan. If Equatoria is to ever rise again its relationship with the current dominant groups and the others need to be clearly re-defined. That definition must be underpinned by nothing but its interest only. Which means that Equatorians must first pay allegiance to Equatoria’s interest. This should be done regardless of their political beliefs and difference.

Equatoria must always come first no matter what because in adopting such a stance it will be and continue to be formidable in balancing out things for the greater good of the country. For instance, the dominant groups during the war with Arabs did not actually care whether South Sudan was liberated or not. They were relentlessly pursuing their tribal interest only.

This stance saw their prominent members frequently selling themselves out to the Arabs and then defecting back to the movement with impunity. The cause of South Sudan was more or less reduced to a business to be exploited. They shuttled between Khartoum, Nairobi and the bush like officials commuting between work and home daily. When the CPA came they became the winners of the day by default. Unlike the Equatorians who paid allegiance to the liberation of South Sudan and turned out to be the losers. This is a good lesson that Equatorians must learn.

What the current governors are doing now though their behaviour rightly is subject to harsh critique should be seen as the first steps towards recovery and rehabilitations of greater Equatoria.

Whether president Kiir will sack the governors or not should not be of any significance at this point. What is important is for Equatorians to stand up for the interest of Equatoria knowing that the whole region will be behind them and will protect them in any eventualities. If one governor is sacked who ever replaces him/her should do exactly what their predecessor had done to prove the point.

Now that both president Kiir and his deputy have rebuked Equatoria, this should be taken as a catalyst for Equatoria to fully flex its muscle by throwing down the gauntlet.

Col. Joseph Bakasoro did it when the SPLM deselected him in 2010 general elections. He ran for the governorship as an independent candidate and handsomely won. This was evidence that if a candidate is honourable and liked by his/her people he/she can easily win regardless of the odds. He, Bakasoro, or Luis Lobong or Clement Konga or Alfred Lado Gore etc should enter the fray now with that experience in mind.

Let them contest for the chairmanship of SPLM party itself with the intention to later contest for the presidency of Republic of South Sudan. If SPLM deselects them, let them then agree on one of them to stand for the presidency as an independent candidate. SPLM is already a soiled organisation and its current leaders are tainted beyond retrieval. Any none SPLM/A candidate nominating himself/herself for the presidency stands a better chance of winning.

Some people may ask as to why Equatoria should do this. The answer is simple. This is the first step in the road to full recovery from oppression and helplessness. It will signify that the people are beginning to regain their confidence and also value themselves. Thus they can take decisions for themselves and not be told by others of what they should expect and do.

The nonsense spoken about freely of Equatorians being nominated by the duo in the presidency as running mates should be seen an insult to the most capable section of the society. Why should someone else decide what is good for Equatoria? Is this not a concrete evidence of Equatoria’s subjugation? Is Equatoria not capable of making its own choice? Why can one of the others be a running mate to any of the mentioned Equatorians?

For example, Dr Riek being a running mate for Bakasoro or Lobong. Is this scenario not contemplated just because Equatoria does not have militia? Why should South Sudanese be held captive to warlords?

Mathematically using the results of the last census, an Equatorian candidate stands equal chances of winning the presidency of Republic of South Sudan. In fact such a candidate may by default even have an edge over the others for the following reasons.

SPLM Oyee poor governance has had a very negative impact on all the other 60 tribes or so of South Sudan. For certain, most of these tribes do not want anything to do with the current leaders for obvious reasons – violence, land grabbing, raping of young girls and women, abuse of power, looting, lack of foresight, massive corruption, lack of rule of law and you name it.

SPLM has totally failed to provide any kind of direction or service to the people. As it is now, they have outsourced service provision to the NGOs without incurring a dime. SPLM Oyee has neglected the organised forces which supposedly are its backbone. SPLM Oyee’s rule has tarnished the image of South Sudan internationally squandering the initial good will from the international community.

The majority of South Sudanese tacitly now accept that if South Sudan is to be saved from catastrophe it needs a leader from any of the smaller tribes.

If South Sudan manages to produce a leader from one of the smaller tribes in 2015 and that is if at all elections are held, it stands a better chance of stabilising the country which is what everyone would want. But this can only happen if the smaller tribes can put their act together for the general good of the country. The smaller tribes need to know that this is a duty to be performed by them at all cost for the stability of South Sudan.

The current ruling ethnic groups must accept that they have decimally failed in leading South Sudan. Their behaviour with state resources and abuse of security apparatus beggars believe. South Sudan today is a failed state because of their utter mismanagement.

Therefore, the people of South Sudan should not give the current rulers another term to plunder the country further. If South Sudanese want to dig out this country from the current mess, then the way forward is already suggested above.

Digging the country out involves restoring the broken social boundaries and relationships between the various ethnic groups of South Sudan. So, if South Sudan is to be saved at all, Equatoria must rise up, carry the torch of governance and shatter the myth of majority waved in their faces day in and day out endlessly. Thus, it necessitates that a president from the minority groups comes to power to play the role of a unifier and a fair and just arbiter.

[Truth hurts but it is also liberating]
Elhag Paul

A Liar and a Dictator on the Stage in Lakes State

BY: John G. Jinub, UK, JUL/02/2013, SSN;

It is a painful moment in the history of Lakes State. It is really hurting and agonizing to see an autocrat, Governor Gen. Matur Chut Dhuol (photo above), mutually with a big liar and hypocrite, Mr. Dut Makoi Kuok ruling the State with an iron fist. It pains a lot not just because their rule is an authoritarian leadership style but it’s antagonistically a harmful political history because both of them are failures in life.

Matur Chut is somebody who is green and novice in the brain. He is an illiterate person with untold and immeasurable records of clannish chauvinism. He is a person whose belief for Pan-ajuong is exceedingly important more than his belief and faith in God.

He has been a catalyst for inter-sectional feuds which ruined greater Athoi (Pan-athuoi). The humorous and valued name of our clan (Athuoi) was diminished to rubble by this giant man called Matur Chut.

During the clannish fights, he has been supplying his section of Pan-ajuong with foods and ammunitions.

What else can a hard-line patron of sectional warfare deliver to millions of locals in Lakes State? What kind of insecurity can he really subdue while he has been an architect of all the tribal wars in some parts of the state?

I wonder why president Kiir appointed this chaotic personality.

Coming back to Ustaz Dut Makoi, he is a person whose falsehoods and fabrications are incalculable. He doesn’t have the heart and mind to think – he just imagines and expresses anything on his face.

My God what a mess back home! I started mourning the immense human deaths and abuse of democratic rights of our citizens which were held hostage in Lakes State when I heard about the appointment of Gen. Matur Chut as a concierge Governor of Lakes State.

Dut Makoi has been self-styling that he is a university graduate. What was best known of him was deception and disobedience on the University Campus. In the University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan – he was undergoing studies in the faculty of Education where he was discontinued because of his unhealthy and poor academic performance. He was a dishonest student with no academic credentials.

Why does he pretend to be the best of his colleagues?

In 2005, just after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) he allegedly embezzled money and some materials like computers, generators, etc, offered to Rumbek Senior Secondary School (RSSS) by a delegation from Khartoum. This was when he served as the Headmaster of RSSS.

His term in office experienced drastic setback. The food rations for students became what were consumed in the headmaster’s house. Chairs and tables were nowhere to be seen but only in the Headmaster’s house. His lips kept on dripping with lies.

A three week trip to Yei will publicly be announced before students’ parade as a trip to Paris, London and Washington – DC. Aah! Ah! Oh God!………. Dut loves boasting with lies. He used to fill the air with lies of having travelled to various major cities of the world.

Is this a type of man that a sane person can appoint as a Minister for Information and Communications? Regrettably, the two, both Caretaker Governor and the incumbent Minister of Information and Communication are of the same token.

What has thrilled my energy and awoke my resentment is the sequence of bad things happening in Lakes State. There are immense human rights violations inflicted and the unlawful ban of alcohol, looting of civilians by armed forces, collection of taxes and levies by the Deputy Governor, physical and poignant torture and bullying.

The perceived insecurity decline will be implying much more and vigorous insecurity soon or latter. I have never heard of a democratic system that’s opposed to political discussions. The system in Rumbek now is identical to the murderous and erratic rule of the then Idi Amin Dada of Uganda who left the country pauperised.

The outlawing of alcoholic drinks in the state doesn’t have a ground simply because there have never been security and media reports which showed people or persons being killed in the bar. Widows who were getting bread on the brewing of local alcohol are now going to bed with their poor kids with empty stomachs.

Most of these kids who can be able to get things by the means of their muscular strength may turn into night robbers because life has forced them to do so. Can they be blamed? No, the government is the one to be held responsible.

Also the mass arrest of civilians in such dehumanized places like Langchok and Enga-tinga are igniting more criminality than making reformation and rehabilitation to the criminals.

But why is it possible from Matur Chut’s rule that when a person is accused, he will immediately be confirmed guilty before prosecution?

I learnt that armed troops are always directed to the houses of the accused persons to go and collect every bit of material properties in that house leaving the extended family at the edge of starvation. That’s bullshit! Who will feed these families? It is negligent and ridiculous.

The Deputy Governor, Mr. Mabor Achol Kuer becomes the controller of the Revenue Accounts. What Gen. Chut doesn’t know is that Mabor Achol is not assigned a portfolio of the State financial administration.

Then if it is how it has happened, the State Finance Minister has to be urged to resign from his position or else the Deputy Governor is additionally given the portfolio of the finance minister so that he becomes Deputy Governor, Minister of Education and Finance.

Dut Makoi, why did you shut down Good News Radio FM 89 and directed for suspension of the Program Manager Mr. Peter Mapuor Makur? I was thinking your fabrications and fraudulence will remain in the lecture theatres in the University of Gezira when you got discontinued in second year. This is unethically against our constitution and against the personal ethics of the one who has one day climbed to the top of education’s height.

Worst dictators come and go but history doesn’t forget them. I do not see a reason of intimidating those who make corrections to the government. If the government is not criticized, how will it know its failures and successes?

Just put away from your limited brain that everybody will preferably be a flatterer and nonentity to your failed and autocratic government. What you need to do is to develop your belly, fatten your account and send your families to Kenya or Uganda.

We need elections in Lakes State……. We want a person who will come through by popular vote to administer the affairs in our beloved state.

DOWN…… DOWN …… DOWN …… Matur Chut. DOWN…… DOWN….. DOWN…….. Salva Kiir. DOWN………… DOWN……… DOWN………. Riak Machar………
I do not want these three people. They’re cancerous ills of South Sudan.

John G. Jinub

What President Obama, President Kiir and Mr. Snowden have in common

BY: Fanwell L. Edward, SOUTH SUDANESE, JUL/02/2013, SSN;

As a young man, Obama cut his teeth in student politics at the Harvard law school before horning his leadership skills as a legislator in the turbulent politics of the State of Illinois. In 2008, he won the presidency of the United States of America, becoming the country’s first ever black president. President Obama now presides over the world’s most powerful democracy.

Due to the clearly marked separation among judicial, legislative and executive powers, he rules by consensus. The man is at the beginning of the end of his political career as the president of the United States. And on a personal level, he hardly goes anywhere without his wife, Michelle, by his side.

President Kiir, on the other hand, dropped out of school as a young man to join the first war of liberation. He developed a career as an intelligence officer in the Sudanese Army before joining the second phase of the Sudanese civil war in 1983. However, as the second-in-command in the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement, led autocratically by Dr. John Garang, Mr. Kiir’s chief role bogged down to the protection of Garang’s leadership in the face of internal challenges until Dr. Garang’s death in a plane crash in 2005.

An accidental leader, Kiir has no discernible leadership skills. Furthermore, and with no institutions to speak of, let alone lines to demarcate their functions, he rules an ethnically fractured country through presidential decrees. He fancies 2015 as the beginning of another five-year term in office.

On a personal level, Kiir is almost never seen in public with any of his wives who include one of the daughters of the current Governor of Central Equatoria Region.

Intelligence Contractor Edward Snowden is obviously not a president. He is not even a government employee. After dropping out of school, Mr. Snowden taught himself computer skills which earned him a job with a company that handles sensitive information for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Unlike presidents Obama and Kiir, Mr. Snowden is white, a non-politician and unconcerned about a political legacy. And on a personal level, he is not expected to go everywhere with his wife by his side. In fact, he is not even married. He lived with his nightclub dancer girlfriend in Hawaii before he fled.

Since it is more than obvious by now that the three men are radically different from one another, what would therefore cause any sane person to mention them in the same sentence other than to emphasize the obvious that they are God’s creations?

Well, you see, politics makes strange bedfellows indeed. The three gentlemen are united by a trip which each of them has undertaken in recent days. Each of the trips has come too little too late and adds little or no value to the political situation on the ground.

Moreover, each of the visits might as well turn out to be the last that each of the gentlemen would undertake to the respective destinations in the foreseeable future.

Shortly after blowing the lid off what is threatening to be a massive, surreptitious surveillance of private and official communications by the US government at home and abroad, Mr. Snowden fled to faraway Hong Kong, singing its praises as and an island of freedom of expression in the sea of repression and eavesdropping.

But only a few days later, Mr. Snowden curiously journeyed to Moscow, where he was expected to board a flight to Quito, Ecuador, where he would seek political asylum. Although he could have travelled to Ecuador directly from his home in Hawaii, it is curious that he chose to fly to Hong Kong and Moscow.

Currently holed up in the transit area at the Moscow airport, Mr. Snowden has managed to tightly squeeze himself between the devil that wants him extradited and banished forever and the deep blue sea that craves all his secrets in exchange for a safe haven in the shark-infested underworld of international espionage.

Whether he makes it to Ecuador or whether he is eventually extradited to the US or whether he is granted political asylum elsewhere, it is certain that Mr. Snowden will not undertake another meaningless trip to visit Hong Kong or anywhere else in the foreseeable future.

As for President Obama, he has embarked on a week-long trip to Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania. The three countries have been chosen because, according to the US government, because they are Africa’s sturdy democracies. This, of course, would suggest rather interestingly that a US present should only visit democratic countries.

If this were true, President Obama would have chosen to visit the democracies that the US and its allies have helped to establish by fomenting the so-called Arab Spring in northern Africa. But by staying away from Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, President Obama is tacitly acknowledging his administration’s failure to bring democracy to these countries.

Furthermore, if it were true that President Obama only visits ‘democratic countries’, then the President’s recent visit to Myanmar, where a military dictatorship has terrorized the population over the last fifty years by ruling the country with an iron, would be a clear sign of the US political hypocrisy and its double-standards when dealing with Africa.

President Obama’s visit to the three African countries is, first and foremost, about the protection of American interests including attempts to arrest the spread of political Islam in western and eastern Africa. The other objective of Obama’s trip is to pave the way for American businesses to compete with private and state-owned Chinese, Indian, Malaysian and Brazilian companies.

Unfortunately for President Obama, the US is trailing so badly in the African business sector that the President’s belated visit will add no value or competitive edge to US companies in Africa. As if that was not devastating enough, and based on the fact that the President managed to visit the continent only once in his first term in office, President Obama’s visits to Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania will most likely turn out to be his last as president of the United States.

Like Theodore Roosevelt, James Earl Carter, William Jefferson Clinton, and the Bushes before him, and given his relative youth and the African ancestry which he currently underplays, President Obama will most likely spend a lot of time in Africa after the end of his presidency.

At the time when President Obama and Mr. Snowden were undertaking their curious visits, President Kiir was quietly concluding a much belated, meaningless trip to Botswana, a country that, unlike South Sudan, has received accolades for both good governance and proper utilization of its mineral resources for the benefit to its citizens.

It could be argued vociferously the visit should have, for all practical purposes, taken place before July 2011 or shortly thereafter, when there was a subtle whisper about whether the new country should emulate oil-rich, corruption-ridden Nigeria or whether it should model itself after Botswana, where citizen welfare, good governance, the rule of law, extensive infrastructure projects and zero-tolerance for corruption reign supreme at the top of government.

Of course, the subtle debate dissipated quickly as if by a stroke of a magic wand when the dark clouds of massive corruption, flagrant human rights abuses, nepotism, political cronyism and lawlessness descended ominously on the newly independent country.

It was neither necessary for President Kiir and his ministers at that time to travel to Nigeria in order to learn the ropes of corruption nor to announce to the public that they had indeed opted to go the Nigerian way.

Now that government officials have not only stolen more than four billion US dollars including the 7.9 million dollars allegedly stolen last month by ministers Deng Alor Kuol and Kosti Manibe that should have been used to provide basic services; but have also misruled the new country with utter ruthlessness that South Sudan has now been described as a failed state by many reports.

The most recent of which comes from the Washington-based Fund for Peace, there is absolutely nothing that the man and his conniving ministers can learn from Botswana that can readily help the people of South Sudan in the foreseeable future.

The Nigerian and the Botswana models of development are so mutually exclusive paradigms that any naïve or underhanded attempt to belatedly introduce the latter into a hopelessly corrupt government only points to the president’s lack of appreciation of the fact that his government and powerful ministers have travelled too far on the Nigerian way to the extent that they are currently ‘too deformed to be reformed’ not even by a few good diamonds from Botswana.

The opportune time to have benefited from the Botswana experience is long gone. Therefore, any visit by President Kiir to the southern African country at this point in time or in the future is only a waste of the country’s meager resources as well as an extension of the expensive and extensive political tourism which the President and his cabinet have perfected in the last two years.

President Kiir, President Obama and Mr. Snowden are also united by their need for powerful embassies to ensure the success of their too-little-too-late trips. For Snowden, he needs an embassy to sleep in, at least, while Ecuadorian or any authorities process his request for political asylum.

Mr. Obama is comfortable that the goals of his belated African tour will be followed up properly because he already has well established embassies in Senegal, South Africa and the one bombed by Al Qaida in Tanzania in 1998.

Kiir, on the other hand, has no embassy in Botswana to effectively follow-up the implementation of whatever goals he might have in mind for his visit. However, as is the case with his other episodes of political tourism, no follow-up seems to be necessary as long as the President has come, toured and returned to Juba safely.

Determined to continue with the one-man road-show, it was the President, not his spouse, who in Botswana cut the ribbon for the foundation of a school whose name he probably had never heard before his visit. It was also the man in the black cowboy hat, not one his wives, who eventually received all the gifts including a portrait of the man in the black cowboy hat painted by one of the students.

In contrast, it was Michelle Obama, not her husband, who visited Dr. Martin Luther King High School in Dakar, Senegal.

If the political profiles of both Botswana and South Sudan should serve as indicators, and there is no reason why they shouldn’t, it could be said therefore with a lot of confidence that President Kiir might have already made his first and last visit to Botswana.

Furthermore, with the image of South Sudan expected to suffer further damage when the UN Security Council releases its damning report on rights abuses in the country in the coming weeks, President Kiir’s chances of visiting this fiercely independent country in the near future will dim greatly.

This is because Botswana, the lone dissenter in the African Union (AU) on the issue of the International Criminal court (ICC), neither minces words about the repugnance of human rights abuses nor suffers abusers of human rights.

If President Kiir has the slightest doubt about this fact, he had better ask the AU and the presidents of the Sudan and Kenya.

Nothing points to the deteriorating image of South Sudan in several world capitals including Washington more strongly than President Obama’s decision to avoid the country during his first African visit after South Sudan’s independence in 2011.

That he has not visited the country this time and that it is unlikely that he will visit during his presidency, is a reality that should send a strong signal to President Kiir that one cannot fool all the people all of the time about one’s political health, certainly not the ones who pay one’s medical bills.

President Kiir’s advisors may try to explain away Mr. Obama’s no-show in South Sudan by arguing that it was not possible for the US president to visit every country on the continent.

While the point is well taken, it must however be noted that it is not every day that the US president visits the neighbourhood where a two-year-old country brags noisily about being the legitimate child of the world’s superpower.

In the end, the ill-advised trips that the three gentlemen have undertaken recently accomplish nothing else other than to expose the rotten state of affairs in both the wire-tapping Obama administration and the rudderless, corruption-crippled Kiir’s administration as well as the naivety of whistle-blower Snowden and his gross underestimation of the ruthlessness of the underworld.

As for the farmers in Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania and South Sudan on whose behalf some of these too-little-too-late visits were purportedly undertaken, they have learnt a long time ago to continue to till the land without being bothered by where the planes flying overhead come from, fly to, or whom they carry in their silvery bellies.

The farmers no longer fancy manna falling from heaven. In fact, the only thing they hope will fall from the African skies at this time of the year is rain and more African rain!

Accra, Ghana

Accountability as the Golden and Cultural Phenomenon


No government can succeed in anything without strong institutional functionality models. At any level, there has to be day-to-day methods for micro-accountability. Auditors should only play supervisory roles as their duties come once in a while. For South Sudan, we need self-perpetuating methods that’d remain as cultural…daily. Psychologically, South Sudanese should understand that accountability is a daily happening.

Corruption isn’t going to end through the arrest of few individuals. What the government has to do is to establish systemic instruments that can act as deterrents for would-be corrupt employees.

What we have to understand is that auditing is a yearly event that does little in fighting corruption in Africa. In that case, what the country needs is structural establishment of across-the-board modalities that can make sure accountability becomes a golden cultural phenomenon.

The recent suspension of Finance Minister, Kosta Manibe, and Cabinet Affairs Minister, Deng Alor, is a political faux pas. While some might rush to argue that the President has finally got some nerves in fighting corruption, the arrest raises more curious questions than answers. Admittedly, the incident makes South Sudanese even more wary and confused than comforted.

What’s the fate of the 75-fellows letter? When is the president going to report back to the nation about what happened to the letter?

The suspension of these two ministers and the subsequent investigations are going to neither reduce corruption nor assure anyone that the president is serious about fighting corruption.

Fighting corruption shouldn’t be a political cherry-picking. The president has to either do a systemic overhaul or devise modalities that can be applied by every single worker in South Sudan. Accountability shouldn’t be restricted to government departments either. It should apply to everyone in both the public and private sphere of work…and at all levels.

Each and everyone should be enlightened and given strict directives in order to know that accountability is to be made a cultural phenomenon in South Sudan. Strict transitive causal relations can help: A->B->C->D. Every single person should understand that they are accountable to someone above them.

This accountability model shouldn’t be restricted to fiscal enterprises. The models should be applied to any given task that directly affects the lives of South Sudanese and their developmental future.

Regular accountability meetings at every given department should be made mandatory. A culture where people know that they can be called any time by their superiors is the culture we want. If one knows that one’s boss can call any time for one to account for the hours worked, the quality of work or any task money-related, then it would be possible for people to keep clean records of what they do.

For instance, employees should keep their records because their supervisors can call them any time to account for what they do; whether they adhere to codes of conduct and their job descriptions.

Supervisors should also keep their records because they can be summoned any time to account for what they do in front of departmental heads. Departmental heads should also keep their records clean as they might be called to account in front of directors.

And this should continue up to the ministers, to the parliament and to South Sudanese citizens. Without this systemic inculcation of the culture of accountability, arresting or suspending individuals only becomes an excuse; a political ruse meant to cover up the macabre malady of corruption.

National Audit Chamber (NAC) can either devise these modalities or the government can contract an independent consulting company to make sure that accountability isn’t restricted to government officials. NAC yearly auditing is just a pinch among all the ingredients required for workable and effective accountability.

Let what we do be transparent! Let accountability be cultural!

Kuir ë Garang is a South Sudanese poet, author and publisher living in Canada. He’s the author of the upcoming book, South Sudan Ideologically: Tribal Socio-Democracy, SPLM Ideologues, Juba Corruptocrats, Khartoum Theocrats and their Time-Frozen Leadership. For more about the author, visit

Chronic Absence of Internal Peace: Is South Sudan a failed State?

BY: Wani Tombe Lako, SUDAN, JUL/01/2013, SSN;

The notion or concept and practice of integral peace (IP), may appear to be a commonplace thing for some of us in the Republic of South Sudan (RoSS). However, the misunderstood notion/concept of, and absence of IP in the RoSS, constitute some of the societal moral, legal, constitutional, socio-cultural, psychological, and religious challenges that the peoples of the RoSS need to overcome.

By notion/concept of IP, I mean the general state of public tranquillity, whereby, there is a general freedom from civil disturbances or hostility. Given the multiplicity of tribes in the RoSS, it is also valid for me to be apprehensive about armed tribal peace, that is, a situation in which two or more tribes, while at peace, are actually armed for possible or probable hostilities.

The practice of IP is therefore all amicable public or private, group or individual, and tribal or institutional, intentions and acts or omissions, which contribute to comprehensive pacification of the human society in the RoSS. Within the remit of the RoSS, these pacification processes ought to be within the ambit of sectoral taxonomies therein.

There is also a logical need, for the acceptance of universal definitions for salient variables of the notion/concept of IP. This is important, so that, there emerges a uniform methodology for the operationalization of these variables, in order to attain the ultimate conditions favourable for the outbreak of IP in the RoSS.

What are universal definitions for salient variables of the notion/concept of IP in the RoSS? For example, the intention or conduct of assault. Both fall within criminal and tort laws in South Sudan. We are refereeing here to the threat of use of force, on another that causes, that person to have a reasonable apprehension, of imminent harmful or offensive contact.

That is the act of putting another person, in the reasonable fear, or apprehension of an immediate battery, by means of an act amounting to an attempt or threat to commit battery. I am trying here to show that, in the RoSS, with its practical myriads of tribes, complete with their languages, there is bound to be some conflicting meanings to the notion/concept of assault, and thus IP.

With specific reference to sectoral taxonomies referred to above, it can be argued that, each individual sector, within the economy or society of the RoSS, comes complete with its salient variables of IP. It is the positive and beneficent operationalisation, of these sectoral variables of IP which shall, at the end, lead to the general outbreak of IP in the RoSS.

Let us take the variables of economic or financial and political powers for example. How do we use these sectoral variables in such a fashion that, we maximize the units of IP in them, and thus minimizing or extinguishing the units of hostility in them? Let us for example correlate the variables of hostilities, of current rebellions in the RoSS, with the variables of economic or financial, and political powers, and then see the behaviour of units of IP in the RoSS.

It appears that, the variables of hostilities in the current rebellions in the RoSS, are akin to those variables of hostilities which were present in the SPLM/A, as a rebellion against the hitherto unitary Sudanese State. Therefore, this means the correlation of civil strives, various economic, financial, and political powers variables, within the remit of hitherto unitary Sudan. The synergies between these variables, maximized hostilities in the hitherto unitary Sudan, and minimized, and almost extinguished the variables of IP in the hitherto unitary Sudan.

There were no universal common and beneficent definitions of variables of IP as between the SPLM/A, and the hitherto unitary Sudan, until the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) (2005). The CPA produced some contradictory common working definitions for the variables of ramshackle and transient IP in the unitary Sudan.

These were the Government of National Unity (GoNU), in Khartoum, and the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) in Juba. This was the case up until the birth of the sovereign RoSS, as a direct result of absence of IP in the hitherto unitary Sudan, as well as comprehensive absence of common, beneficent, and functional, definitions, of the variables of IP in the hitherto unitary Sudan.

What historical, and contemporaneous beneficial lessons are there, for the peoples of the RoSS, to learn, from the then overdue outbreak of IP, in the hitherto unitary Sudan, which led to the secession of South Sudan, and the current overdue outbreak of IP in sovereign RoSS? Many a people shall always argue that, the CPA provided for the plebiscite to be conducted in South Sudan.

The CPA is only bundles of papers, containing human feelings, of hurting human beings. These hurting feelings have historical and contemporaneous origins. Human feelings are human feelings. Human hurts are human hurts. That is, human hurts do not wait to identify the race, colour, ethnicity, and religion of the source of the excruciating hurts.

Reactions to human hurts are always the same notwithstanding the sources of such human hurts. We in the RoSS have to understand this. We in the RoSS have to minimize and extinguish the tendencies towards the creation of subaltern others, in the RoSS. This is because, such tendencies represent the entrenchment of absence of IP in the RoSS, and thus, some of the explanation for the overdue outbreak of IP therein.

We in the RoSS ought to guard against, instances of societal cruelty, whereby, predatory sovereign formations, strive to thrive on accidents of history. Such historical accidents include regimes of the dominant others, based on brute raw force, frauds, tyrannies and brutalities. This might in the end render many peoples of the RoSS rightless and almost remediless.

These are the kinds of human formations, which are right now entrenching themselves in the RoSS, and which does not promote the outbreak of IP therein. The peoples of the RoSS must not be deluded by the ubiquitous insignia of self-determination. Even in times of peace, the human person can be deprived of his or her human rights, by the same political paradigms.

That is, political paradigms, which on face value, enthuse the populace with human rights parlance, but, in fact, gave birth to iniquitous political markets. In these iniquitous political markets, the human rights of the human person become nothing but political currencies, for purchasing more of societal impoverishment. We in the RoSS must watch out against the invention of many political modes of production, of human hurts and miseries, which delay the outbreak of IP, or even, extinguish such IP in the RoSS.

On the other hand, mere enunciation of historical presence of human hurts and agonies is not in itself a justifiable reason, for locking the peoples of South Sudan in human unreasonableness. That is, psychological thoughtlessness, for the regurgitation of these historical hurts and agonies, as basis for future happiness and universal IP in the RoSS.

The extant flirting with insignias of self-determination in the RoSS, must not become the existential political incubators in the RoSS, for the germination of future societal hurts and agonies, via contemporaneous deprivation of the RoSS, of its badly needed IP.

There are many disturbing negative human conducts in the RoSS. These conducts, paradoxically, became must do cultural accessories, with the domestication of politics of human rights, through the doctrine of self-determination. For example, the wholesale relocation of families of South Sudanese elites and others, who have the resources to do so, to nearby Kampala and Nairobi, for safekeeping?

This is a phenomenon which we in the RoSS must interrogate with all seriousness needed. Many, if asked for reasons, for such actions, shall narrate plethora of stories, confirming the endemic deficit of IP in the RoSS, as the fundamental cause for this exodus of well-to-do families, from the RoSS, to these East African fountains of perceived IP.

I do not blame these individual families whatsoever. My blame is on us, South Sudanese, as a polity, as a political society, and as policies. What kind of a message are we broadcasting to the outside world? That is, as regards the stability of our country. As well as our ability to manage our affairs by ourselves, so that, we are able to educate and socialise the next generation of South Sudanese, in South Sudan?

I think, the rest of the world, and our immediate neighbours, to whom we are currently sending our children and wives for education and safekeeping respectively, shall justifiably conclude that, there is a chromic deficit of IP in the RoSS. This also means that, we ourselves doubt general societal stability in our nascent country. Others could also justifiably conclude that, we lack the ability to rule ourselves.

We must thoroughly disabuse ourselves from thinking that, ruling ourselves by ourselves involves constant response to internal fire with fire. On the other hand, ruling ourselves by ourselves, does not mean the treatment of chronic intra and inter-tribal bloody carnages as ordinary cultural events, and just wait for that time when such costly episodes shall just miraculously disappear.

Ruling ourselves by ourselves does not mean that, the whole RoSS becomes a sociological and an anthropological platform whereby, tribes eye themselves with angry suspicions devoid of any semblance of human trust.

Those East African countries, to which we continuously send our children and wives, for education and safekeeping, did not find the relative IP, which we want our children and wives to savour, and bask in, lying on the ground. The peoples of these East African countries, worked hard to pacify themselves, and relatively tamed their wild and ancient tribal lust for killing one another, so that, they can have relative communal peace as human societies.

These East African countries are able to supply us in the RoSS with the limited foodstuff which we are fighting over, due to the fact that, they have secured for themselves some relative IP, which could allow them to produce enough food for their subsistence, and some to sell to us.

These East African countries are able to run the schools to which we send our children for education because, they have succeeded in outlawing all semblances of tribal bigotry, which are always counterproductive.

On the other hand, these East African countries are able to keep their schools open so that we can send our children to study there, by paying their teachers reasonable salaries and on time.

These East countries are keen on feeding their students, and on making sure that, their children do not go to schools to kill themselves there, along tribal lines. These acts and omissions appear to be very mundane for others in the RoSS, however, these mundane issues are the giant pillars of IP in any reasonable society, and an IP which is becoming extraordinarily, and dangerously illusive in the RoSS, due to our individual and group recklessness.

It is extremely unfortunate and lamentable that, the RoSS was born near terminally disabled, and deformed. This has been due to abnormal development of, and near absence of IP. In fact, IP is one of the most important organs, for RoSS’s eternal survival and effective, efficient and beneficent functioning, as a modern State.

This modern State, ought to be able to discharge all its local, national, regional, and international duties and obligations. The good news is that, this ailment as far as this vital organ is concerned, can be remedied by ourselves in the RoSS, if we have the group will to do so.

The most important first step towards the cure of this ailment is the cessation of internal hostilities in the RoSS. We as a people ought to know that, all major civil unrests, start as negligible instances of rebellions, and then, such unfortunate events snowball into full-blown civil wars. We have seen this happening in Africa a lot. Our own modern history is also a powerful testimony to this.

Therefore, we must immediately start working towards the immediate outbreak of IP in the RoSS, by all peaceful means. The reasons for this current deficit of IP in the RoSS are all known to us in the RoSS, and to all other regional, and international players and stakeholders. It was mentioned above that, the intrinsic and inherent causes of current deficit of IP in the RoSS are akin to the causes of the general deficit of IP in hitherto unitary Sudan and thus; the uprising by the peoples of South Sudan in 1955 and 1983 respectively.

It all boils down to subjective and objective, or potential and actual, human hurts, humiliations, marginalization, and discriminations. Issues of wealth and political power are common variables of the histories of deficit of IP in South Sudan. It was also mentioned above that, human hurts are human hurts, notwithstanding who is inflicting such hurts, on the supposed victims of these hurts.

These being issues on hand at the moment, it is then imperative that, we in the RoSS must give ourselves some respite from our chronic cycles of hostilities.

We have to understand that, we in the RoSS, cannot by all means, entrench deficit of IP, and the perpetration of any form of societal violence, as the methodology of claiming our political and civil rights, in the RoSS. If we confirm this as the only methodology, we have, in the RoSS, for accessing the said civil and political rights, then, we have collectively as a society, effectively signed our own death warrant.

That is, we shall never see any IP in the RoSS, and our East African, and other partners, shall become our permanent destinations for refuge and such like. Is that what we collectively fought for? Is that the meaning of self-determination that we are celebrating day-in-and-day-out in the RoSS?

We in the RoSS need to redefine the meanings of public roles. We cannot vote for independence, and then proceed to kill ourselves in the RoSS, simply because, we want to serve our people in constitutional positions, either in Juba or in any of the ten states in the RoSS. If we truly want to serve our peoples in the RoSS, we cannot serve them by making them homeless, hungry, ill, traumatized, hopeless, and futureless.

These entire dangerous situations, due to deficit of IP in the RoSS, are created by our continuous engagement in armed political hostilities, related to issues of wealth and power sharing within constitutional paradigms of the RoSS. For those of us in power at the moment, we should not also see those of us not in power as permanent enemies.

Those of us who voice our objective political concerns, from time to time, about the fashion of governance in the RoSS, are not really permanent enemies of the peoples of the RoSS, nor are we permanent enemies of those in power in the RoSS.

The real issue is that, as South Sudanese, those who are not in political power, at the moment, only want to see that, their brothers and sisters, who are in political power, do their level best in such a fashion that, there is an IP in the RoSS.

This IP in the RoSS can be tangibly felt in terms of all vital goods and services in the RoSS, including general tribal tranquillities in all states of the RoSS. Those South Sudanese not in government, at the moment, want their brothers and sisters, in government, to work hard for total and immediate outbreak of IP in the RoSS.

The author is Professor of Social and Rural Development and Lecturer in Laws. He can be reached at